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A Brief Essence of All Schools of Philosophy

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A Brief Essence

of All Schools of Philosophy

 

written by Choney Lama, Drakpa Shedrup (1675–1748)

 

translated by Ben Kramer

with Geshe Michael Roach

Copyright © 2018 individually by Ben Kramer & Geshe Michael Roach.

 All rights reserved.

 

 

Sections may be reproduced with permission.  Please contact:

benjaminennokramer@gmail.com

 

 

 

 

Volume 86 of the Classics of Middle Asia Series

 

Diamond Cutter Press

6490 Arizona Route 179A

Sedona, Arizona 86351

USA

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

 

A Brief Essence of All Schools of Philosophy……………………………………. 5

 

An offering of praise………………………………………………………………………………… 5

 

 

Part One

The Difference between Buddhist and Non-Buddhist Schools……….. 8

 

What makes a school Buddhist or not……………………………………………………….. 9

 

 

Part Two

The Differences between Each of the Schools…………………………….. 15

 

How the non-Buddhist schools came about…………………………………………….. 16

 

What the names of the non-Buddhist schools mean………………………………… 16

 

What each school believes……………………………………………………………………….. 17

 

Beliefs of the Nihilist schools…………………………………………………………………… 17

 

Refuting the beliefs of the Nihilists………………………………………………………….. 22

 

Beliefs of the Numerists…………………………………………………………………………… 30

 

 

Appendices…………………………………………………………………………. 38

 

Appendix A

On the Four Seals…………………………………………………………………………………….. 39

 

Appendix B

Gelong Sherab Wangpo on the

Numerist (Sankhya) School…………………………………………………………………….. 62

 

Appendix C

Je Tsongkapa on the

Numerist (Sankhya) School…………………………………………………………………….. 66

 

Appendix D

Master Chandrakirti

on the Numerist (Sankhya) School………………………………………………………….. 76

 

Bibliography of works originally written in Sanskrit………………………………. 87

 

Bibliography of works originally written in Tibetan……………………………….. 91

 

Bibliography of works originally written in English……………………………….. 96

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Brief Essence of All Schools of Philosophy

 

 

 

[1]

[folio 1a]

 

*,,GRUB MTHA’ THAMS CAD GYI SNYING PO BSDUS PA

ZHES BYA BA BZHUGS SO,,

 

Herein lies A Brief Essence of All Schools of Philosophy

 

 

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[2]

[f. 1b] ‘JAM DPAL GZHON NUR GYUR PA LA PHYAG ‘TSAL LO,,

 

I bow down to Manjushri, become young.

 

 

 

An Offering of Praise

 

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[3]

,TSOGS GNYIS RGYA MTSOR BRTZON PA’I MANDHA RAS,

,LEGS PAR BSRUBS LAS DON GNYIS ‘GRUB PA’I NOR,

,MNGON DU GYUR NAS ‘GRO LA PHAN BDE YI,

,’DOD DGU MCHOG STZOL STON PA GANG DER ‘DUD,

 

Your effort, like Mount Mandhara,[1]

Churned deeply the ocean of the two collections,[2]

And thus caused the treasure of the two goals to emerge.[3]

I bow to you, the Teacher,

Who grants every highest wish of benefit and joy, for all beings.

 

 

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[4]

,JI SNYED DRANG NGES CHOS TSUL YANGS PA’I MKHAR,

,RNAM DPYOD ‘OD STONG ‘BAR BA ZHUGS TZAM GYIS,

,THUB BSTAN ‘DAB STONG CI YANG BZHAD MDZAD PA,

,KUN MKHYEN BTZONG KHA PA DE PHYAG GI YUL,

 

In a vast sky of teachings, both literal and figurative,

As many as there may be,

The thousand light rays of your intellect shine—

And just their slightest touch opens wide

The thousand-petaled flower of all that the Buddha taught.

Tsongkapa, Knower of All, you are the one to whom I bow.

 

 

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[5]

,MGON DE’I LEGS BSHAD BDUD RTZI’I BCUD MYANGS PAS,

,RAB ‘BYAMS GZHUNG LUGS MTHA’ DAG THUGS CHUD NAS,

,JI BZHIN GSAL BAR STON MDZAD BLA MA MCHOG

,SRAS KYI THU BO GNYIS KYANG ‘DUD BYA’I GNAS,

 

Eloquent protector,

The two lords among all your princes[4]

Tasted the essence of your nectar teachings;

Completely comprehended the myriad of essential works;

And then taught them clearly and correctly.

 

O highest of lamas, you too

Are the places where I bow.

 

 

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[6]

,BRTZON PA ‘PHUL GYIS RIG GNAS DU MA LA,

,LEGS SBYANGS RANG GZHAN GRUB MTHA’I MTHAR SON ZHING,

,’CHAD RTZOD RTZOM LA NGAG GI DBANG PHYUG DANG,

,DBYER MED DGE BA’I BSHES GNYEN RTAG TU RGYAL,

 

My spiritual guides, you’ve mastered

The many sciences, through your extraordinary efforts—

And thus come to the end of all the schools

Of philosophy, both our own and others’.

 

In your explanation, argument, and composition,

You are none other than the Lord of The Spoken Word;

May you be forever victorious.

 

 

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[7]

,GSUNG RAB RGYA MTSO’I GOS CAN KHYON GANG LA,

,MKHYEN RAB GOM PA GCIG GIS GZHAL BA’I TSE,

,MI SHES STOBS LDAN SA ‘OG ‘CHING BYED PA,

,PAD DKAR MIG LDAN MKHAS RNAMS BSNGAGS PAR ‘OS,

 

Lotus-Eyed One,[5]

You’ve crossed the entire breadth of sacred teachings,

Vast as a whole world clothed in ocean,

In but a single stride of your knowledge;

You’ve buried and bound powerful misunderstanding,

And earned well the praises of all the sages.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part One

 

The Difference between

Buddhist and Non-Buddhist Schools

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What makes a school Buddhist or not

 

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[8]

DE LTAR MCHOD PAR BRJOD NAS GANG BSHAD PAR BYA BA NI, BLO GROS DON DU GNYER BA ‘GA’ LA PHAN PA’I CHED DU RANG GZHAN GYI GRUB MTHA’I SNYING PO’I DON BSDUS NAS ‘CHAD PAR BYED LA, DE YANG LUNG ‘DREN SOGS MANG NA BLO DMAN DAG GIS RTOGS MI NUS PAS NA, DE’I PHYIR LUNG CUNG ZAD RES BRGYAN TE BSHAD PAR BYA’O,,

 

Now that our offering of praise is complete, what topic are we going to explain?

 

This will be a summary of the very essence of the schools of philosophy reached by both ourselves and others.  I do hope it may be of some use to a few hard-working and intelligent students.

 

That said, if I quote too many scriptures and such, then students who are less intelligent won’t be able to understand; so I’ll just dress up my explanation with a few quotations here and there.

 

 

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[9]

‘DI LA GNYIS, BYI {%PHYI} NANG GI KHYAD PAR NGOS BZUNG BA DANG, GRUB MTHA’I KHYAD PAR SO SOR BSHAD PA’O,,

 

There will be two parts to this presentation.  I’ll explain exactly what makes one either Buddhist or non-Buddhist, and then I’ll expand on the differences between each philosophical school, one by one.

 

 

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[10]

DANG PO NI, GRUB MTHA’I THA SNYAD ‘DI GANG GIS BYAS PA YIN ZHE NA,

 

You may ask:

 

Who came up with this term, siddhanta, for schools of philosophy?

 

 

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[11]

‘DI LA RANG SDE’I GRUB MTHA’I THA SNYAD GI STON PA NYID KYIS GSUNGS PA YIN TE,

 

The answer is that our Teacher himself referred to our own schools in this way.

 

 

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[12]

,LANG KAR GANG GSHEGS PA’I MDO LAS,

,NGA YI CHOS TSUL RNAM GNYIS TE,

,BSTAN PA DANG NI GRUB MTHA’ ‘O,,

ZHES GSUNGS PAS SO,,

 

In The Journey to Lanka he says:

 

I teach in two different ways,

Either by instruction or by schools.[6]

 

 

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[13]

GRUB MTHA’I SGRA DON NI, RNAM RTOG GIS SGRO BTAGS PA’I CHA GZHAN BZLOG NAS RANG GI BLO NGOR ‘THAD PAR GRUB PAS NA, GRUB MTHA’ ‘O,,

 

Here’s the literal meaning of the Sanskrit word for “school” (siddhanta): When you get rid of all of the conceptual exaggerations that your imagination lays on things, then that more accurate understanding you have reached (siddha) in the end (anta) is a school of philosophy.

 

 

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[14]

GRUB MTHA’ LA GNYIS SU NGES PAS, DE LA ZHUGS PA LA YANG PHYI NANG GI GANG ZAG GNYIS SU NGES SO,,

 

Now philosophical schools are fixed at two types; and the types of people who are engaged in these schools are also fixed at two.  They are the Buddhists and the non-Buddhists.

 

 

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[15]

PHYI NANG GI KHYAD PAR SPYIR SKYABS ‘GROS ‘BYED PA SOGS ‘BYED BYED MI ‘DRA BA’I ‘JOG TSUL YOD KYANG, ‘DIR STON PA DANG BSTAN PA DANG LTA BA GSUM GYI SGO NAS ‘BYED PA LTAR BYA’O,,

 

Generally speaking we can distinguish Buddhists from non-Buddhists by whether or not they follow the practice of going for refuge.  In making that division there are different approaches, but here we follow one with three different criteria: Who is their teacher; what is their teaching; and how do they view the world?

 

 

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[16]

DE YANG SKYON KUN ZAD CING YON TAN MTHA’ DAG RDZOGS PA’I STON PA DANG, DES BSTAN PA DAM PA’I CHOS DANG, GANG ZAG GI BDAG MED PHRA RAGS CI RIGS RTOGS PA’I LTA BA KHAS LEN PA NI, NANG PA SANGS RGYAS PA DANG, ‘DI GSUM GYI ZLOG ZLA GSUM ‘DOD PA NI PHYI ROL BA’O,,

 

To be a Buddhist a person must accept as their teacher someone who has finished off every one of their failings; a teacher in whom every spiritual quality is complete.  And they should accept the perfect teaching imparted by this person.  Finally, they accept the view which comes from having realized that people lack any self-nature, in either a gross or a subtle sense.  Those who accept the opposite of these three then are considered non-Buddhists.

 

 

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[17]

STON PA KHAS LEN PA NI, LHA LAS PHUL BYUNG GI BSTOD PA LAS,

 

,BDAG NI SANGS RGYAS PHYOGS MI ‘DZIN,

,SER SKYA LA YANG MI SDANG ZHING ,

,GANG ZHIG RIGS PAR LDAN PA’I TSIG

,DE NYID STON PAR YONGS SU ‘DZIN,

,ZHES PA DANG,

 

 

On the topic of accepting someone as a teacher, The Praise of the One Who is More Sublime than the Gods says:

 

I don’t just stick to what Buddha says,

And I have no grudge against Kapila.

If someone’s words make sense,

Then I accept that one as a teacher.[7]

 

 

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[18]

RJE BLA MAS SNGAGS RIM CHEN MO’I STOD CHA NAS GSUNGS PA BZHIN DANG, RGYAL TSAB THAMS CAD MKHYEN PAS RNAM ‘GREL GYI tIKKA’I SMAD CHA NAS GSUNGS PA LTAR,

 

The same sentiment is taught in the first half of Je Tsongkapa’s Great Book on The Steps of the Secret Word, and in the latter part of the commentary to the Commentary on Valid Perception written by the all-knowing Gyaltsab Je.[8]

 

 

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[19]

BLO GROS DMAN PA RNAMS KYIS RANG GI STON PA’I RJES SU ‘JUG PA DANG DES BSTAN PA’I CHOS BSGRUB BYA YIN PAR BZUNG NAS SKYABS SU ‘GRO BA NI, MOS MNO TZAM DANG YID DPYOD TZAM GYIS SGO NAS YIN GYI, BLO CHE BA RNAMS KYIS THOG MA NYID NAS PHYOGS LHUNG DANG ‘DOD ZHEN GYIS RANG GI STON [f. 2b] PA’O SNYAM PA DANG DES GSUNGS PA’O SNYAM DU MI ‘DZIN PAR PHYI NANG GI STON PA GNYIS LAS GANG GI BSHAD PA DE RIGS PA YIN,

 

People of lesser intelligence just follow their own teacher and practice whatever that teacher teaches, and in this way take their refuge in them.  It’s all done out of blind faith and guesswork.  Those of greater intellect don’t think in terms of sticking to their teacher and their teacher’s words from nothing more than prejudice or favoritism.  Whether they encounter a Buddhist or a non-Buddhist teacher, they wait to see if an explanation makes sense.

 

 

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[20]

GANG GIS BSHAD PA DE MI RIGS PA YIN SNYAM NAS LEGS PAR DPYAD PA NA, DE NAS, RANG GI STON PA’I BSHAD PA NI LEGS PAR BSHAD PA YIN LA, CIG SHOS KYI NI DE LAS BZLOG PA’O SNYAM DU NGES NAS RANG GI STON PA DANG DE’I BSTAN PA’I RJES SU ‘JUG DGOS PA YIN NO,,

 

By weighing explanations carefully to see if they seem reasonable or not, they become confident that their own teacher’s explanations are good ones, and that others’ explanations are the opposite.  This is how we should come to follow our own teacher, and what that teacher teaches.

 

 

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[21]

DES NA BSTAN PA LA YANG SANGS RGYAS KYI LUNG RTOGS KYI BSTAN PA NI, GDUL BYA RNAMS KYI GNAS SKABS DANG MTHAR THUG GI PHAN BDE SGRUB PA’I THABS DANG, GZHAN GIS BSTAN PA NI DE LAS LDOG PAR NGES PAR ‘GYUR RO,,

 

This leads them to a certainty that the teachings of the Buddhas—in the form of both scripture and realizations—are a method that brings benefit and joy to disciples on both an immediate and an ultimate level.  And they gain equal certainty that what is taught by others is the opposite.

 

 

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[22]

RANG SDE’I LTA BA NI ‘DUS BYAS MI RTAG PAR LTA BA SOGS BKA’ BRTAGS {%BTAGS} KYI PHYAG RGYA BZHI ‘AM GANG RUNG DANG, LTA BA KHYAD PAR CAN NI BDAG MED PHRA MO RTOGS PA’I LTA BA’O,,

 

A view of our own school would be any one which involves all, or some number of, the “Four Seals which Certify a Teaching as The Word”;[9] these are viewpoints such as the one which says that all things brought about by causes must come to an end.  We also hold a special view, which is that of realizing a subtle lack of a self-nature.

 

 

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[23]

RANG SDE GNAS MA BU PAS BRJOD DU MED PA’I BDAG KHAS LEN KYANG, RTAG GCIG DANG DBANG CAN GYIS STONG PA’I BDAG MED ‘DOD PAS, PHYAG RGYA BZHI KHAS MI LEN PA YANG MIN NO,,

 

The School of Vatsiputra, a Buddhist group, does accept the idea of a self which is indescribable; but since they deny the idea of a self which is unchanging, singular, and independent, it’s not as though they wouldn’t accept the Four Seals.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part Two

 

The Differences between Each of the Schools

 

 

 

 

 

 

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[24]

GNYIS PA KHYAD PAR SO SOR BSHAD PA LA, PHYI NANG GI GRUB MTHA’ GNYIS LAS, DANG PO LA GSUM, BYUNG RIM, MING DON, SO SOR BSHAD PA’O,, DANG PO NI,

 

Now that we’ve covered the difference between Buddhist and non-Buddhist schools, let’s look at the differences between specific schools.  There are many Buddhist and non-Buddhist schools; we’ll start with non-Buddhists, each one in three steps: How did they come about?  What do their names mean?  And what does each school believe?  We begin with the first of these three points.

 

 

 

How the non-Buddhist schools came about

 

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[25]

KHYAD PAR ‘PHAGS BSTOD KYI ‘GREL PAS BSHAD PA LTAR, SNGON TSE LO DPAG MED KYI DUS SU BRAM ZE SER SKYA ZHES BYA BA ZHIG BYUNG STE, GRANGS CAN GYI GZHUNG BRTZAMS, DE NAS BDAG GI ‘DOD TSUL MI ‘DRA BA’I KHYAD PAR LAS MU STEGS KYI LUGS GZHAN MANG POR GYES SO,,

 

Here’s how the commentary to A Praise of the Exalted One describes it.[10]  Long, long ago——there came a Brahmin named Kapila, who was the author of the principal text of the Numerist School: the Sankhya.   Many other non-Buddhist systems branched off of the Numerists then, based on each school’s unique way of believing in a self.

 

 

 

What the names of the non-Buddhist schools mean

 

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[26]

GNYIS PA MING DON NI, NANG BA {%PA} SANGS RGYAS PA LAS GZHAN GYI SDE YIN PAS NA, GZHAN SDE, DE’I LUGS LAS PHYI ROL TU GYUR BAS NA PHYI ROL BA {%PA}, ‘JUGS DOGS [%NGOGS] KHRUS NANG STEGS DU BYAS NAS DER ZHUGS PA NI BDE ‘GROR SKYE BA’I THABS SU SMRA BAS NA, MU STEGS BYED CES BYA’O,,

 

Here is our second step from above.  We call these “The Other Schools” because they belong to a group which is other than Buddhists.  We call them “The Outsiders” because they hold a philosophical position which is outside of our own.  They are also called “Those of The Steps at The Shore,” because they teach that ritual bathing upon steps descending into a river can lead a person to achieve a birth in the higher realms.[11]

 

 

 

What each school believes

 

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[27]

GSUM PA SO SOR BSHAD PA LA, SPYIR LTA BA’I SGO NAS PHYE NA, NYER LNGA DANG, DE LAS KYANG RGYAS PAR PHYE NA, LTA BA LNGA BRGYA DANG BDUN CU DANG, ,LANG [%YANG] SUM BRGYA DANG DRUG CU RTZA GSUM [f. 3a] LTA BA’I RTZA BA BRGYA RTZA BCU, YA MTSAN CAN GYI LTA BGO [BA GO] DRUG SOGS KYI DBYE BAS MANG YANG,

 

Here’s that third step.  Generally speaking, if you divide these schools according to their viewpoints, you get 25.  If you want to expand from those, you’ll get 570 views.  You can also divide them into 363 views, which are based on 110 more basic views.  You could also divide them into the 96 “peculiar” views.  There are these and many more ways to divide them.

 

 

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[28]

BSDU NA CHAD SMRA DANG, RTAG SMRA GNYIS SU ‘DU BAS DE GNYIS BSHAD PA LA, CHAD PAR SMRA BA DANG, RTAG PAR SMRA BA’O,,

 

Then again you can group all these schools into just two: those with nihilist views and those with eternalist views.  I’ll explain these now in two stages: first the nihilists, then the eternalists.

 

 

 

Beliefs of the Nihilist schools

 

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[29]

DANG PO LA GNYIS, DE’I ‘DOD PA DGOD PA DANG, DE DGAG PA’O,,

 

We’ll address the Nihilists in two steps.  We’ll set forth their beliefs, and then we’ll refute them.

 

 

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[30]

DANG PO LA GSUM, STON PA MING DON GRUB MTHA’ ‘O,,

 

We’ll cover the beliefs in three parts.  Who are their teachers?  What does their name mean?  And what is their system?

 

 

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[31]

DRANG SRONG PHUR BU, DRANG SRONG ‘JIG RTEN MIG ,DRANG SRONG ‘JUG STOBS CAN RNAMS NI DE’I STON PA’O,,

 

The teachers of the Nihilists are the sages known as The Dagger (Birhaspati); Eyes of The World (Lokachakshu); and Power to Enter (Avatarabalin).

 

 

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[32]

SHI BA’I TSE BDAG RGYUN CHAD PAR SMRA BAS NA CHAD SMRA, ‘JIG RTEN PHYI MA DANG LAS ‘BRAS PHAL CHER MED PAR SMRA BAS NA, MED PAR SMRA BA, DRANG SRONG PHUR BU’I RJES SU ‘BRANG BAS NA PHUR BU PA, YANG DAG BA {%PA’I} NI LTA BA KHAS {%PAS} LEN GUD DU SONG BAS NA RGYANG BAN {% ‘PHEN} PA’O,,

 

They are called “Discontinuists” because they believe that, when you die, the flow of the self is cut off.  They are also known as “The Ones Who Say Things Don’t Exist,” because they mostly deny the existence of future lives, and the laws of karma and its consequences.  People as well call them “Followers of The Dagger” because they follow the sage known as The Dagger.  Since they are so far divorced from accepting correct view, we also call them “The Outcasts” (Charvaka).

 

 

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[33]

‘ON KYANG ‘DI LA SKYE BA SNGA PHYI YOD PAR ‘DOD PA’ANG SRID LA, RGYANG BAN {%’PHEN} PA’I ‘DOD PA DE LAS GZHAN DU ‘DOD PA YOD KYANG MI ‘THAD DO,,

 

Then again, it is possible that some parts of these schools might accept past and future lives, and in this sense hold beliefs which are different from those of the Outcasts; nonetheless, these alternate positions are as well incorrect.

 

 

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[34]

GNYIS PA GRUB MTHA’ NI,

‘DIS RNAM ‘GREL LAS,

,DPER NA TSER MA LA SOGS PA’I,

,RNO SOGS RGYU MED PA NYID DE,

,ZHES SOGS DANG,

 

Third, we’ll discuss the actual beliefs of the Nihilists.[12]   We see these beliefs presented in the Commentary on Valid Perception:

 

It is for example like the idea

That things like the sharpness

Of a thorn have no cause.[13]

 

 

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[35]

ZHI BA ‘TSOS,

 

,PADMA’I GSER {%GE SAR} LA SOGS PA’I,

,SNA TSOGS PA NYID GANG GIS BYAS,

,RMA BYA’I MDONGS LA SOGS PA YI,

,SNA TSOGS PA NI GANG GIS SPRUL,

 

Master Shantarakshita as well says:

 

Who created the vast variety

Of details of the lotus blooms?

Who sent forth the variety of designs

We see on a peacock’s feather?[14]

 

 

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[36]

,ZHES SOGS KYIS RGYANG BAN PA’I ‘DOD PA BRJOD PA LTANG {%LTAR}, TSER MA’I RNO BA DE NI GANG ZAG SUS KYANG LAG PA SOGS KYIS BYED PA MED PAR ‘BYUNG BAS RGYU MED KYANG ‘BRAS BU ‘BYUNG NGO ZHES ‘DOD LA, DE BZHIN DU RMA BYA’I MDONGS DANG, SRAN MA’I DBYIBS SOGS KYANG RGYU MED DU ‘BYUNG BAR ‘DOD DO,,

 

Quotations like these describe the beliefs of the Outcasts.  They are saying that since no one’s hand crafted the sharpness of a thorn, it can’t have come from a cause.  As such, they say, we can have a result without a cause.  It’s the same way with the designs on a peacock’s feathers, or the roundness of a pea.  They believe that such things arise without causes.

 

 

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[37]

YANG TSE ‘DI LA SER SNA CAN KHA CIG PHYUG PA DANG, SBYIN PA GTONG PA KHA CIG DBUL BA DANG, YANG ‘DIR CHOS SGRUB PA KHA CIG SDUG BSNGAL BA DANG, SDIG PA BYED PA KHA CIG BDE BAR MTHONG NAS DGE MI DGE’I LAS ‘BRAS MI BDEN PAR ‘DOD PA DANG,

 

In this life too we can see people hate to share what they have, and yet they are rich.  We also see people who are very generous, and yet poor.  We see those who practice the teachings, and still suffer.  And we see people who do a lot of bad things to others, and yet still seem happy.  In light of all this, the Outcasts believe that the principle that good deeds and bad deeds bear their respective fruits must be untrue.

 

 

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[38]

YANG SKYE BA LEN CHA? {%LEN PA} YOD PAR ‘DOD PA KHA CIG GIS NI NAS BTABS PA LAS NAS DANG, GRO BTAB PA LAS GRO SKYE BAR NGES PA BZHIN DU, RGYU GZHAN LA RAG MA LAS PAR, LHA SHI NAS LHA DANG, MI SHI NAS MIR SKYE BAR ‘DOD PA’ANG SRID CES GSUNGS,

 

And though some of them may accept the principle of rebirth, they say that—since you always get barley from planting barley, and you always get wheat from planting wheat—then it is always possible that, without having to depend on any other cause, a god who dies should be reborn as a god; and a human who dies should be reborn as a human.

 

 

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[39]

KHA CIG MYU GU NI RGYU MED DAM RANG BZHIN LA SKYE YANG, RDZA BUM SOGS RGYA {%RGYU} LAS SKYE BAR ‘DOD DO,,

 

While some of them say that a seedling may sprout without a cause, or through its own nature, they’d still agree that something like a clay pot does come from causes.

 

 

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[40]

DE DAG GI NANG NAS [f. 3b] ‘JIG RTEN PHA ROL MED PAR SMRA BA RNAMS KYIS NI, DE’I GZHUNG LAS,

 

Some members of that group deny the existence of future lives; their own scriptures put say things like:

 

 

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[41]

,CI TZAM DBANG PO’I SPYOD LUS PA {%YUL LA},

,SKYES BU’ANG DE TZAM KHO NAR ZAD,

,ZHES {%CES} SOGS DANG,

 

The objects our senses experience now

Are all that there is to a living being—

There is no more to it than that.[15]

 

 

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[42]

,LUS MCHOG ‘DAS GANG KHYOD LA ‘BYUNG MI ‘GYUR,

,LUS ‘DI TSOGS PAR GYUR BA TZAM ZHIG STE,

 

And also:

 

Once this supreme body has passed away,

You’ll never get it again:

This body comes together but once.[16]

 

 

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[43]

,ZHES ‘BYUNG BA LTAR RJES DPAG SA {%RJES DPAGS MI} ‘DOD PAS DA LTA MIG GI DBANG PO’I MNGON SUM GYI SPYOD YUL DU GYUR BA ‘DI TZAM ZHIG BDAG YIN LA, DE LAS GZHAN DU BDAG GTAN NAS MED PAR ‘DOD PA’I DBANG GIS LUS ZHIG NA, BDAG ZHIG CING RGYUN CHAD PAR ‘GYUR BAS ‘JIG RTEN PHA ROL MED DO ZHES SMRA’O,,

 

The point here is that the followers of this school reject the use of logic as a means of knowledge; and so for them the self is nothing more than whatever thing you are seeing directly, right here and right now.  Since they believe that there isn’t any other sort of a self at all, they say that—when this body falls apart—the self falls apart, and is discontinued.  Thus, they say, there exist no future lives.

 

 

 

Refuting the beliefs of the Nihilists

 

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[44]

GNYIS PA LUGS NGAN PA DE ‘GOG PA NI,

DPAL LDAN ZLA BAS,

GAL TE RGYU MED KHO NAR SKYE BA {%BAR} LTA ZHIG ‘GYUR NA {? ok as is} NI {%NI,}

DE TSE {%TSO} MTHA’ {%MTHA’ DAG} RTAG TU THAMS CAD LAS KYANG SKYE ‘GYUR ZHING,

,ZHES SOGS DANG,

 

Here in this second part of our presentation on the Nihilists, where we refute these terrible viewpoints.

 

The glorious Chandrakirti has said:

 

If it were somehow possible that things just arose without causes,

Then all these things should be arising all the time, and from everything.[17]

 

 

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[45]

,GAL TE ‘GROB {%’GRO BA} RGYU YIS STONG BAR GYUR NA NAM MKHA’ YI,

,ZHES SOGS DANG,

 

And:

 

If people weren’t caused, they’d be impossible to behold,

Like the smell and color of a lotus that grows in mid-air.[18]

 

 

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[46]

,GANG LA YID KYI MUN PA STUG PO ‘DI NYID DU YOD PA,

,DES NI JI LTAR ‘JIG RTEN PHA ROL YANG DAG RTOGS PAR ‘GYUR,

,ZHES SOGS DANG,

 

And also:

 

With a mind as dark and dense as yours,

How could anyone understand that there are future lives?[19]

 

 

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[47]

RNAM ‘GREL LAS,

,GANG YOD NYID NA GRAGS {%GANG} SKYE {? ok} BA’AM,

,GANG ‘GYUR NA YANG RNAM ‘GYUR BA,

,DE NI DE RGYU ZHES RAB BRJOD,

,ZHES SOGS DANG,

 

The Commentary on Valid Perception says as well—

 

Whenever you have this thing, another thing will start.

Whenever this thing changes, that other thing will change.

This thing is what we call the “cause” of that other thing.[20]

 

 

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[48]

SLOB DPON LEGS LDAN ‘BYED KYIS,

,MNGAL GNAS SNGON ROL BLO LA NI,

,ZHES SOGS DANG,

 

Master Bhavaviveka has said:

 

In the state of mind just before one is in the womb…[21]

 

 

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[49]

ZHI ‘CHOS {%‘TSOS},

,DE PHYIR THOG MA’I RNAM SHES NI,

,RANG GI NYER LEN STOBS LAS BYUNG,

,ZHES SOGS DANG,

 

Master Shantarakshita also said:

 

Therefore, the very first moment of consciousness

Must have been brought about

By the power of its very own material cause.[22]

 

 

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[50]

LAR {%YANG} ZHI ‘TSOS,

,’CHI KHA’I SKAD CIG RNAM SHES NI,

,RANG GI NYER BLANGS BSKYED NUS TE,

,ZHES SOGS DANG,

 

He further states:

 

The mind at the moment of death

Does have the ability

To birth a material result of its own.[23]

 

 

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[51]

DBUM {%DBU MA} SNYING PO LAS,

,’PHAGS PA MIN PA’I ‘CHI ‘BO’I {%’PHO’I?} SEMS,

,SEMS GZHAN BSKYED PA NYID YIN TE,

,MA RIG PA DANG BCAS PA’I PHYIR,

,SEMS DE BSKYED PAR BYED PA BZHIN,

,ZHES DANG,

 

In Heart of The Middle Way as well we see:

 

When one who is not a realized being dies and moves on,

Their state of mind must bring about another state of mind,

Because they still possess misunderstanding.

It’s just like the state of mind that brought about that one.[24]

 

 

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[52]

SLOB DPON DPA’ BOS,

,BLO NI SHES BYA RTOGS PAR {%RTOGS PA YIN PAR} GSUNGS,

,DES NA MNGAL GNAS SNGON ROL BLO YUL ‘DOD,

,ZHES SOGS DANG,

 

Master Shura has stated:

 

It was spoken that the mind

Is a thing which perceives an object;

Thus it is that we must assert

There was an object of the mind

Just before our time in the womb.[25]

 

 

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[53]

LEGS LDAN GYIS,

,BE’U YANG SNGON CHAD GOMS BYAS PAS,

,BYUNG MA THAG TU ZAS ‘CHOL {%’TSOL} BYED,

,ZHES SOGS DANG,

 

Bhavaviveka has also said:

 

Even calves seek food

Immediately after being born,

Because of the habits

They formed before.[26]

 

 

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[54]

RNAM ‘GREL LAS,

‘DOD ‘JIGS MYA NGAN GYIS BRLAM DANG,

,ZHES SOGS DANG,

 

And the Commentary on Valid Perception states:

 

Desire, fear, and grief lead to delusion…[27]

 

 

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[55]

TSAD MA’I DE NYID LAS,

,BLO DANG BRTZE BA LA SOGS DANG,

,ZHES PA NAS [f. 4a] ‘OD GSAL KUN MKHYEN NYID ‘BYUNG ‘BYUNG {%’GYUR},

,ZHES SOGS DANG,

 

The True Nature of Valid Perception adds:

 

One who relies on the teachings

Of wisdom, love, and the like—

Just as they were taught—

Will reach the high and final end:

The clear light, omniscience itself.[28]

 

 

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[56]

K’AM {%K’A MA} YA {%LA} SH’I LAS,

,GANG PHYIR RANG GI SA BON LAS,

,TSER MA LA SOGS SKYE BA NYID,

,RNO SOGS DE NYID LAS YIN PHYIR,

,ZHES PA NAS,

 

Master Kamalashila has stated:

 

Since something like a thorn

Comes from its own seed,

Something like the thorn’s sharpness

Is just the same as well.

 

 

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[57]

,BLTOS DANG BCAS PAR SKYE BA STE,

,BLTOS BYA DE DAG RGYUR ‘DOD DO,,

ZHES SOGS DANG,

 

And also:

 

Birth is something that takes place in dependence.

“Cause” is what we call the thing it depends upon. [29]

 

 

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[58]

ZHI ‘TSOS,

,DE PHYIR DNGOS PO GZHAN DAG KYANG,

,RGYUR BCAS NGES LAS SKYE PHYIR RO,,

ZHES DANG,

 

Master Shantarakshita concurs:

 

Therefore, other things too

Most certainly come

From having a cause.[30]

 

 

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[59]

YANG DES,

,KUN GYIS MA MTHONG THE TSOM DANG,

,RANG GIS MA MTHONG ‘KHRUL PA STE,

 

And also:

 

You doubt what no one sees,

And misunderstand what you don’t see.[31]

 

 

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[6o]

,ZHES SOGS KYIS SPYIR RGYA {%RGYU} MED LAS ME {%MI} SKYE BA DANG, KHYAD PAR BYIS PA BTZAS MA THAG PA DANG, ‘CHI KHA MA’I RIG PAS MTSON NAS SKYE BA SNGA PHYI YOD PA’I SGRUB BYED DUS {%DU} DANG, BLO SOGS GOMS NA RIM GYIS GSAL BA ‘ONG BA SOGS KYIS KUN MKHYEN YOD PA DANG, TSER MA’I RNO BA DE RANG RGYU TSER MA ‘GYUR BA’I NUS PA’I BYED PAS BSGRUB {%’GRUB} PAS,

 

Here we’ve given general quotations to show that things cannot start without a cause.  More specifically, we’ve given citations about a child just after birth and the mind at the moment of death, as examples of proofs of past and future lives.  We’ve added further references to show that through steady practice you will gradually clean your mind till you come to know all things.[32]  We’ve also demonstrated that a thorn’s sharpness is caused by the same power that caused the thorn itself.

 

 

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[61]

DE LTA BU MA {%LA} RGYU YOD PA DANG, SKYE BA PHYI MA RGYAD {%RGYANG} BAN {%’PHEN} LTA BU’I MNGON SUM BYIS {%GYIS} MI MTHONG YANG YOD PA’I SGRUB BYED SOGS SGRUB BYED DU MA MDZAD LA,

 

All these kinds of things really do have causes.  And even though people like the Outcasts can’t directly see future births, there are proofs that those exist too. Lots of proofs have been offered, for all of these things.

 

 

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[62]

DE DAG NI MTSON BYED TZAM YIN GYI, RGYAS PAR LEGS LDAN ‘BYED KYI SHES RAB SGRON ME, DE’I ‘GREL BSHAD PHYOGS GLAD {%GLANG} YAB SRAS KYI GZHUNG DANG, ZHI ‘TSO YAB SRAS KYI GZHUNG RNAMS LAS, DE’I LUGS BRJOD PA DANG, DE ‘GOG PA’I TSUL RGYAS PAR SNANG BAS, BLO GROS CHE BA RNAMS KYIS GZHUNG DE DAG LA LTA BAR RIGS SO,,

 

All the quotations you see here are just examples.  The descriptions of what this school believes, and how we deny these positions, are expanded upon in Master Bhavaviveka’s Lamp of Wisdom; in the commentaries to that book written by Master Dignaga and his spiritual son; and in the works of Shantarakshita and his spiritual son as well.[33]  Students with sufficient discernment would be wise to go and study these works.

 

 

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[63]

DE YANG SPYIR DNGOS STOBS KYI RIGS PAS SGRUB NUS PA NI, DES SGRUB LA, DE TZAM GYIS MI NUS PA NI DPYAD PA GSUM GYIS DAG PA’I LUNG GIS SGRUB TSUL RNAM ‘GREL DANG DE’I tIKKA MTHA’ DPYOD SOGS NA GSAL LO,,

 

In general, we should use the logic based on the nature of things to prove what can be proven that way.  In cases where this type of logic is not sufficient, we can use scriptural authority which has been confirmed with the three tests to accomplish the proof. [34]  This methodology is clearly presented in works such as the Commentary on Valid Perception; its classical commentaries; and the various analytical textbooks based upon those.

 

 

 

Beliefs of the Numerists

 

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[64]

^ ,,GNYIS PA RTAG SMRA BA’I GRUB MTHANG BA {%MTHA’ LA} GNYIS, DE’I LUGS BRJOD PA DANG, DE DGAG PA’O,,

 

The position of the Eternalists, which is our second topic here, will be described in two steps: first we’ll present their position, and then we’ll refute it.

 

 

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[65]

DANG PO LA RTAG SMRA BA BCU GCIG STE, GRANGS CAN NAS {%NAM} SER SKYAR GRAGS PA, TSANGS PA BA, BRDA’ SPROD PA, RIG BYED MTHA’ PA {%BA},  GSANG BA PA, KHYAB ‘JUG PA, DPYOD PA LA {%BA,} ZHIB PA {%ZHI BA PA}, BYE BRAG PA, RIG PA CAN, ZAD [f. 4b] BYED PA STE? {%ok as is} BCU GCIG GO ,,

 

There are eleven groups among the Eternalists:

 

  1. The Numerists (Sankhya), or followers of Kapila
  2. The Followers of Brahma (Brahman)
  3. The Grammarians (Vyakarana)
  4. Those Who have Gone to the End of the Vedas (Vedantin)
  5. The Hidden Ones (Guhyaka)
  6. The Followers of Vishnu (Vaishnava)
  7. The Analyzers (Mimansa)
  8. The Followers of Shiva (Shaiva)
  9. The Detailers (Vaisheshika)
  10. The Logicians (Nyaya)
  11. The Beggars (Kshapanaka)

 

 

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[66]

DANG PO LA STON PA, MING, GRUB MTHA’I KHYAD PAR RO,,

 

We’ll treat the first of these in three parts.  Who are their teachers; why are they called “Numerists”; and what are the features of their system?

 

 

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[67]

DRANG SRONG SER SKYA, DRANG SRONG MCHOD ‘OS, DBANG PHYUG NAG PO, STON PA CHU RLUNG {% CHU LHUNG} BZHI NI, DE’I STON PA’O,,

 

The four teachers of the Numerist school are the sage Kapila; the sage Arhat; Ishvara Krishna; and the teacher Patanjali.[35]

 

 

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[68]

SHES BYA LA NYER LNGA’I GRANGS NGES PAR ‘DOD PAS NA, GRANGS CAN PA  DANG, STON PA SER SKYA’I RJES SU ‘BRANG BAS SER SKYA BAR GRAGS SO,,

 

This group is called the “Numerists” because they believe that all things can be counted into exactly 25 categories.[36]  They’re also called the “Kapilas,” because they follow Kapila as their teacher.

 

 

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[69]

‘DI LA SNGON GYI GRANGS CAN PA DAG ‘DI LTAR SMRA STE, ‘BRAS BU THAMS CAD NI GTZO BO KHO NA LAS ‘BYUNG GI ,DBANG PHYUG GIS MA BYAS SO ZHES DBANG PHYUG LHAR MI ‘DOD PAS GRANGS CAN LTA {%LHA} MED DANG,

 

The more ancient Numerists said that all results come out of a single primal substance—and not that they were created by the all-powerful Ishvara.  Since they don’t believe in Ishvara as God, they’re referred to as the “Godless Numerists.”

 

 

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[70]

PHYIS STON PA CHU RLUNG {%CHU LHUNG} GI RJES ‘BRANG RNAMS NI, ‘BRAS BU RNAMS GTZO BO KHON {%KHO NA} LAS MA BYUNG BAR DBANG PHYUG GI BLO’I G-YO BA SNGON DU BTANG NAS KYANG BYAS TE, DPER NA RDZA BUM BYED PA NI, RDZA MKHAN LA BLTOS PA BZHIN NO ZHES ZER BAS DE LA GRANGS CAN LHAR BCAS SU GRAGS SO,,

 

Later, the followers of Patanjali said that this primal substance was not the only source for all results.  Results are also brought about, they said, through the previous, conscious intention of Ishvara, in the same way that the creation of a clay pot depends on a potter.  These practitioners, then, are known as the “Numerists also Accept a God.”

 

 

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[71]

SNGON GYI GRANGS CAN DE DAG GIS SHES BYA NYER LNGA PO THAMS CAD BEM SHES GNYIS SU ‘DU SHING, BDAG DANG SHES PA RIG PA GSUM DON GCIG PAR ‘DOD LA, BDAG DE YANG RTAG PA DANG BDE SDUG LA LONGS SPYOD PA PO DANG, ‘GRO BA THAMS CAD LA KHYAB PA SOGS KHYAD PAR DU MA DANG LDAN PAR ‘DOD DO,,

 

Those older Numerists say that all 25 knowable things can be divided into either matter or awareness.  They also say that “self,” “awareness,” and “knowing” all refer to the same thing.  Among the many qualities they ascribe to this self, they see it as unchanging; as the one who experiences pleasure and pain; and as something which pervades all living beings.

 

 

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[72]

BLO RIG GNYIS DON GCIG PAR MI ‘DOD DO, BLO RNAMS BEM PO YIN LA, SKYES BU SHES PA DANG RIG PAR ‘DOD CING GZHAN SHES BYA NYER BZHI PO THAMS CAD BEM PO ‘DUS SHING BSAGS PAR ‘DOD PA’I PHYIR RO,,

 

They say though that intellect and awareness are different things.  They consider states of intellect to be physical things; whereas the soul is awareness, or knowing.  All of the other 24 knowable things then are included into physical matter, and composed of it.

 

 

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[73]

SHES BYA NYER BZHI NI, RTZA BA’I RANG BZHIN DANG, BLO’AM CHEN PO, NGA RGYAL, GZUGS SGRA DRI RO ROL {%REG} BYA STE DE TZAM LNGA, MIG RNA BA SNA LCE LPAGS PA STE BLO’I DBANG PO LNGA, DAG {%NGAG} LAG PA RKANG PA RKUB ‘DOM STE LAS KYI DBANG PO LNGA, YID KYI DBANG PO DANG BCAS DBANG PO BCU GCIG SA CHU ME RLUNG NAM MKHA’ STE ‘BYUNG BA LNGAR BCAS LA SHES BYA NYER BZHI ZHES BYA ZHING, DE’I STENG DU BDAG GI SKYES BU BSNAN PAS NYER LNGA’O,,

 

Here are their 24 knowable things.  First are the fundamental nature,[37] the intellect or great principle, and the sense of self (1-3).  Then there are the five subtle elements: visible form, sounds, smells, tastes, and tangible things (4-8).  Next come the eleven powers, including the five sense powers—seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and touching (9-13); the five organs of action—speech, hands, legs, the anus, and the sexual organ (14-18); and the mental sense power (19).  Finally, there are the five great elements: earth, water, fire, wind, and space (20-24).  In addition to these, you can add (25) the soul or self to make twenty-five.

 

 

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[74]

DE’I GNYUNG {%GZHUNG} LAS,

 

,RTZA BA’I RANG BZHIN RNAM ‘GYUR MA [f. 5a] YIN LA,

,CHEN PO SOGS BDUN RANG BZHIN RNAM ‘GYUR ZHING,

,BCU DRUG BE NE {%PO NI} RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA STE,

,SKYES BU RANG BZHIN MA YIN RNAM ‘GYUR MIN,

 

,ZHES BSHAD PA LTAR,

 

Their own source text says:

 

The fundamental nature is no creation;

The seven that include the great principle

Are both creator and creation.

The sixteen are creations; and the soul

Is neither creator nor creation.[38]

 

 

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[75]

SPYI GTZO BO’AM RTZA BA’I RANG BZHIN NI BYED PA’I RGYU YIN KYANG BYA BA’I ‘BRAS BU MA YIN ZHING CHA MED GCIG BU {%PA?} RGYU ‘BRAS KUN LA KHYAB PA, ZHE SDANG RMONGS CHAGS GSUM MAM RDUL MUN SNYING STOBS KYI YON TAN GSUM CHA MNYAM PA’I GNAS SKABS KYI SHES BYA MI GSAL BA ZHIG TU ‘DOD LA,

 

They say that the primal energy or fundamental nature is a creator, in the sense of causing things.  It is not a result in the sense of having been made itself.  It is a single, partless thing and pervades all causes and results.  They also believe that when the three qualities of hatred, ignorance, and desire—meaning activity,[39] darkness, and light—are all in balance, then this primal nature exists but is featureless.

 

 

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[76]

CHEN PO DANG BLO GNYIS NI MING GI RNAM GRANGS TE PHYI’I YUL DANG NANG GI SKYES BU’I GZUGS BRNYAN GNYIS KA ‘CHAR BA ZHIG GO ,CHEN PO DE DANG, NGA RGYAL GNYIS, GZUGS SOGS TE BDUN NI RANG BZHIN RNAM ‘GYUR GNYIS KA DANG,

 

“Great principle” and “intellect” are different names for the same thing.  The present school believes that this great principle is like a mirror in which both outer objects and the soul itself appear.  They say that the seven which include the great principle and the sense of self, along with visible form and the rest, are both creators and creations.

 

 

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[77]

MIG SOGS DBANG PO BCU GCIG DANG, SA SOGS ‘BYUNG BA LNGA STE BCU DRUG PO NI RNAM ‘GYUR KHO NA DANG, BDAG SHES RIG GI SKYES BU NI RANG BZHIN DANG RNAM ‘GYUR GNYIS GANG YANG MIN PAR ‘DOD DE RANG BZHIN RGYU DANG RNAM ‘GYUR NI ‘BRAS BU’O,,

 

They group the eleven powers beginning with sight along with the five great elements beginning with earth, which makes 16 components which are creations alone.  And they say that the soul—meaning awareness, the self, or the knower—is neither a creator nor a creation.  When they say “creator” here, they mean “cause.”  When they say “creation,” they mean “result.”

 

 

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[78]

DE RNAMS JI LTAR SKYE BA YANG, RANG RTZA BA’I RANG BZHIN LAS CHEN PO’O, ,DE LAS NGA RGYAL, DE LAS SGRA REG BYA CHOS {%RO?} GZUGS DRI STE DE TZAM LNGA DANG, RNA BA LPAGS PA MIG LCE SNA STE BLO’I DBANG PO LNGA DANG, NGAG LAG PA RKANG PA RKUB ‘DOM STE LAS KYI DBANG PO LNGA DANG, YID KYI DBANG PO STE DBANG PO BCU GCIG RNAMS SKYE’O,,

 

The way these all spring up is like this. The great principle comes from its fundamental nature.  From the great principle comes the sense of self.  From that come the five subtle elements (sound, tangible things, tastes, visible form, and smells), as well as these eleven: the five sense organs (ears, skin, eyes, tongue, and nose); the five organs of action (speech, arms, legs, the anus, and the sexual organ); and the mental sense power.

 

 

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[79]

DE TZAM LNGA PO LAS ‘BYUNG BA {%v. 1 has ‘GYUR BA but seems should be ‘BYUNG BA?} LNGA SKYE STE, SGRA LAS RNAM MKHA’, REG LAS RLUNG, GZUGS LAS ME, RO LAS CHU, DRI LAS NI SA’O,,

 

From the five subtle elements come the five great elements.  From sound comes space; from tangible things comes wind; from visible form comes fire; from taste comes water; and from smell comes earth.

 

 

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[80]

RDUL DANG MUN PA SNYING STOBS KYI STON {%YON TAN} GSUM YANG, DGA’ BA’I BDE BA NI SNYING STOBS DANG, MI DGA’ BA’I SDUG BSNGAL NI RDUL DANG, RMONGS PA’I GTI MUG NI MUN PAR ‘DOD LA, THIM PA’I TSUL SOGS RNAM BSHAD DGONGS PA RAB GSAL DANG GZHAN DU’ANG SHES PAR BYA’O,,

 

Now as for the three qualities of activity, darkness, and light, the pleasant feeling of things that you like relates to light.  The pain of things which you don’t like relates to activity.  And delusion, in the sense of misunderstanding, relates to darkness.  The process through which they dissolve again, and other such topics, are something you can learn from the Illumination of The True Thought, as well as other such works.[40]

 

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[81]

GZHAN YANG GRANGS CAN GNYIS KAS MYU GU LTA BU RANG NYID LAS RANG NYID SKYE BAR MI ‘DOD KYANG ‘BRAS BU RNAMS DANG DE’I RANG BZHIN RGYU DUS SU MED NA RI BONG GE {%GI} RVA BZHIN DU MI SKYE BAS,

 

Furthermore, even though both groups of Numerists say that something like a sprout can’t just spring forth from itself, they also say that if the result and the nature of any the sprout hadn’t existed somehow at the time of its cause, then the sprout could never have grown at all.  And in that case it would be no different than the antlers on the head of a rabbit.[41]

 

 

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[82]

DE SNGAR GYI RGYU DUS SU YOD CES KHAS LEN PAS BDAG SKYE ‘DOD PAR MCHUNGS {%MTSUNGS} LA, [f. 5b] KHYAD BAR {%PAR} NI RANG GI RGYU DANG NGO BO GCIG PA MI GSAL BA’I TSUL DU YOD PA ZHIG GSAL BAR ‘BYUNG DGOS PAR ‘DOD PA DANG, YANG ‘O MA ZHOR {%into ZHO} ‘GYUR BA LTAR GRUB ZIN SLAR YANG SKYE BAR ‘DOD PA’I TSUL GNYIS YOD DO,,

 

Now saying that the sprout somehow existed back at the time of its cause is the same thing as saying the sprout was born from itself; but there are two ways that Numerists distance themselves from that position.  Sometimes they say that the sprout exists in some obscure form within its own cause; and that it must be revealed.  At other times they describe the sprout as already being present there in its cause; but as something that must come out once again.  They compare it to the way in which milk, which has already come out, must make an additional transformation to become yogurt.

 

 

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[83]

RGYU ‘BRAS NGO BO GCIG YIN PA NI SANGS RGYAS PAS BUM PA DNGOS PO DANG NGO BO GCIG YIN PAR ‘DOD PHA {%PA} DANG MI ‘DRA BAR

 

When they say that the cause and result share a single essence, this is different from the way in which a Buddhist would use the same term to describe how to be a water pitcher is automatically to be a working thing.

 

 

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[84]

RNAM ‘GYUR GYI DNGOS PO THAMS CAD KYI RANG BZHIN RNAMS PHAR YIN TSUR YIN DU ‘DOD PA STE, DPER NA MYU GU’I RTZA BA’I RANG BZHIN GANG YIN SA BON GYI ‘AR {%’ANG} RANG BZHIN DU ‘DOD PA BZHIN NO,,

 

According to them, every creation of fundamental nature has the same nature of as every other creation of fundamental nature.  They say for example that the fundamental nature of a sprout is also the fundamental nature of its seed.

 

 

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[85]

DE NI RGYU ‘BRAS KUN LA KHYAB PA’I RANG BZHIN SNGAR BSHAD PA DE LTA BU ‘DOD PA’I DBANG GIS YIN LA, ‘DI ‘GOG PA’I TSUL NI THUN MONG DU ‘TSAD {%‘CHAD} PAR ‘GYUR RO,,

 

The Numerists are naturally compelled to accept this idea, because of their position (which we discussed earlier) that the fundamental nature pervades all causes and all results.  We’ll explain how these ideas are denied further on, disproving them together with others.

 

 

 

Beliefs of the Brahmins

 

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[86]

^ ,GNYIS PA TSANGS PA’I ‘DOD PA LA, STON PA, MING, GRUB MTHA’ RNAMS LAS,

 

We’ll address the beliefs of the Brahmins (Brahmana), the second group of Eternalists, in the same three sections: who is their teacher; how do they get their name; and what are the features of their system?

 

 

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[87]

TSANGS PA DANG, SKYE RGU’I {%DGU’I} BDAG PO NI STON PA’O,,

 

Their teachers are Brahma and Prajapati, the Lord of All Beings.

 

 

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[88]

TSANGS PA’I BUR KHAS LEN PAS NA, TSANGS PA BA’O,,

 

They are called “Brahmins” (brahmana) because they see themselves as being the children of Brahma.

 

 

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[89]

‘DIS NI, RANG GI RIG BYED NAS ‘BYUNG BA LTAR,

 

In keeping with their “Vedas,” or “Ancient Books of Knowledge,” they commit to the following practices:

 

 

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[90]

RTA DANG PA YANG {%BA LANG} RNAMS GSON POR SREG PA DANG, BSAD NAS SHA KHRAG GI MER SBYIN SREG KYANG BYED LA,

 

They kill horses and oxen by burning them alive; and then take their flesh and blood and offer them into a fire.

 

 

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[91]

YANG RTA ‘GA’ ZHIG LA KHAB LNGA BRGYA RE BTZUGS NAS SBYIN SREG BYED DE, DE LAS LHAG TSANGS PA SGRUB PA’I THABS KHYAD PAR CAN GZHAN MED PAR ‘DOD,

 

They may also take some of these horses and pierce each one with 500 nails before offering them into the fire.  They believe there is no higher way than this to reach Brahma.

 

 

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[92]

RTAG PA’I BDAG KHAS LEN CING, TSANGS PA DBANG PHYUG GI BLOS SPRUL PA’I SGOR {%SGO NGA} LAS SKYES KYANG, TSANGS PA NYID ‘JIG RTEN THAMS CAD KYI BYED PO DANG, KHYAD PAR BRAM ZE RNAMS TSANGS PA’I KHA NAS BYUNG BAR KHAS LEN CING, TSANGS PA’I ZHAL BZHI LAS RIG BYED BZHI YANG BYUNG BAR ‘DOD RO {%DO},,

 

They believe in an eternal soul, and say that Brahma was born from an egg which was emanated from the mind of the god Ishvara, even though Brahma created all the world himself.  The Brahmin caste in particular claim to have come from Brahma’s mouth.  The four Vedas, they say, came from his four faces.

 

 

 

Beliefs of The Grammarians

 

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^ ,,GSUM PA BRDA SPROD PA LA, STON PA MING GRUB MTHA’ RNAMS LAS,

 

We’ll address the beliefs of the Grammarians (Vyakarana) in the same three sections: who is their teacher; how do they get their name; and what are the features of their system?

 

 

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[94]

TSANGS PA NI STON PA DANG, SGRA GTZO BOR BYED PAS NA BRDA SPROD PA’O,,

 

Their teacher is Brahma as well; they’re called the “Grammarians” because the main focus of their practice is sacred sound.

 

 

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[95]

‘DIS DNGOS POR GYUR BA’I {%PA’I} SGRA’I TSANGS PA ZHES BYA BA THOG MAR SKYE BA MED PA DANG MTHAR ‘JIG PA MED PA’I RTAG BA {%PA} ZHIG ‘DOD DE,

 

They believe in a functional entity that they call “God in The Form of The Sound” (Shabda Brahman); and they say it is eternal, in the sense that there was never a time when it was born, nor will it die out at the end of time.

 

 

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[96]

DE PHYOGS DANG DUS GYI CHA MED DNGOS PO KUN GYI RANG BZHIN AA AU MA GSUM GYI BDAG NYID CAN GYI YI GE’O ZER,

 

They claim that this sound cannot be divided either by time or by direction; that it is the true nature of all working things; and that it is also the combination of the three sounds “a”, “u”, and “m.”[42]

 

 

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[97]

SGRA DE YUL LA DNGOS DBANG GIS [f. 6a] BDEN PAR ‘JUG PA DANG, PHYI NANG THAMS CAD DE GCIG PO’I RANG BZHIN DU GNAS PAR ‘DOD,

 

They say that the very nature of this sound is that it pervades, in an ultimate way, all things; and that all things inside us and all outside us dwell in this one true nature.

 

 

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[98]

PHYAG {%PHYUG} GI MCHOD SBYIN KYANG BYED LA, BUD MED DANG ‘PHRAD PA’I KHAMS KYI ‘DZAG PA DE LAM GYI MCHOG YIN PAR RLOM ZHING, KHAMS ‘BAB PA’I DUS KYI RTOG PA RAGS PA LOG PA’I SNANG BA STONG SANG NGE BA DE LAM GYI GTZO BOR ‘DZIN PA DANG DE ‘DRA’I BDE STONG HANG HANG PO DE THAR PAR ‘DOD DO ZHES BSHAD,

 

Followers of this school also sacrifice cows, and entertain the delusion that intimacy with a woman, and ejaculating semen, is somehow the highest path there is.  They say that—as the semen moves—all gross conceptions are stopped; and this then leads to the appearance of sheer emptiness.  They consider this to be their principal path, and believe that this overwhelming sensation of bliss and emptiness is liberation itself.

 

 

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[99]

RTAG BDAG ‘DOD CING TSAD MA LA RIG BYED KHO NA RANG BYUNG GI TSAD MA DANG, LA LA MNGON RJES KYI TSAD MA GNYIS KYANG ‘DOD DO,,

 

They believe in an eternal soul, and in a spontaneous form of valid knowledge which can only arise from the Vedas.  There are some though among them who also consider both direct and deductive perception as valid.

 

 

 

Beliefs of the Followers of the Vedas

 

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[100]

^ ,,BZHI PA RIG BYED PA LA, STON PA MING GRUB MTHA’ RNAMS LAS,

 

The fourth Eternalist school is the Followers of the Vedas.  We’ll discuss their teacher, their name, and their system.

 

 

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[101]

‘DIR YANG TSANGS PA NI RIG BYED PA PA’AM RIG BYED MTHA’ PA’I  STON PA’O,,

 

The Followers of the Vedas, or “School at The End of the Vedas” (Vedanta), also take Brahma as their teacher.

 

 

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[102]

RIG BYED KYI MTHAR SON PAR SMRA BAS NA RIG BYED MTHA’ PA’O,,

 

They’re called “School at The End of the Vedas” (Vedanta) because they claim to have gone to the final end (anta) of the Vedas.

 

 

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[103]

‘DI LAS KHA CIG NI BDAG CHUNG BA NYUNG ‘BRU TZAM DANG, YA LA {%LA LA} NI RI RAB BZHIN CHE YANG BSTAN PAR MI NUS ZHES ‘DOD,

 

Some of them say the Self is tiny, like a single piece of grain; others say it’s as huge as a mountain.  But they all agree that the Self is not something you could ever point out to someone.

 

 

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YANG LUS CAN THAMS CAD LA KHYAB PA, RTAG PA ‘CHI BA MED PA SOGS KHYAD CHOS BRGYAD DANG LDAN PA’I SKYES BU ZHIG YOD PAR ‘DOD DE, DE NI RTOG GE ‘BAR BA LAS,

 

They also say that this Self possesses eight special features, such as pervading all living beings; never changing; and staying forever.[43]

 

 

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[105]

STENG PHYOGS NI MGO BO’O,,

‘OG PHYOGS NI RKANG PA’O,,

NAM MKHA’ NI LTO BA’O,,

PHYOGS NI BAG PA’O {%LAG PA’O?}

 

ZHES SOGS ‘BYUNG BA LTA BU DANG,

 

They also describe the Self like this—

 

Outer space is his head;

The earth is his feet;

The sky is his belly;

And the directions

Are his arms.[44]

 

 

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DE KHO NAS SNOD BCUD THAMS CAD KYI RGYU BYED LA, GANG GIS DE GSER MDOG CAN DU MTHONG BA DE’I TSE DGE SDIG MNYAM PAR ‘DOD DO,,

 

They say that the Self alone acts as the cause for all living beings, and for all the places where they live.  They also believe that all of a person’s virtues and misdeeds are equaled out in the instant that they see this Self in its golden form.

 

 

 

Beliefs of the Hidden Ones

 

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` ,,LNGA PA GSANG BA PA  LA, STON PA MING GRUB MTHA’ RNAMS LAS,

 

The fifth of the Eternalist schools is the Hidden Ones.  We’ll discuss their teacher, their name, and their system.

 

 

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[108]

STON PA NI SNGAR BZHIN NO,,

 

The teacher, as with the others, is Brahma.

 

 

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TSANGS PAS BSHAD PA’I RIG BYED BDUD RTZI THIG PA GSANG BA ZHES BYA BA’I LUNG GI RJES ‘BRANG BAS NA GSANG BA PA’O,,

 

They’re called the “Hidden Ones” because they follow, as their holy text, a book of knowledge (veda) spoken by Brahma with the name of “The Drop of Hidden Nectar(Amirta Bindu Upanishad).

 

 

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[110]

SA LA SOGS PA ‘BYUNG BZHI’I BDAG NYID CAN GYI BDAG RTAG PA YIN PA DANG, RNAM SHES KYI RANG BZHIN ‘GRO BA THAMS CAD LA KHYAB PA YAN GAR BA ZHIG ‘DOD PAR DBU MA RGYAN GYI ‘GREL BSHAD NAS GSUNGS SO,,

 

The Commentary to “Ornament of The Middle Way” explains that the Hidden Ones believe that the soul is eternal, and that it is composed of the four elements of earth and the rest.  It is a discreet being whose nature is awareness, and it pervades all living beings.[45]

 

 

 

Beliefs of the Followers of Vishnu

 

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[111]

^ ,,DRUG PA KHYAB ‘JUG PA LA, STON PA MING GRUB MTHA’ RNAMS LAS,

 

The sixth Eternalist school is the Followers of Vishnu.  We’ll discuss their teacher, their name, and their system.

 

 

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[112]

SNGON GYI STON PA NI KHYAB ‘JUG DANG, BLA MA ZLA BA YIN LA, PHYIS [f. 6b] GNON? NUM LON {%GZHON NU MA LEN} STON PA’O,,

 

Their original teacher is Vishnu; and later on came Guru Chandra.  Still later appeared the teacher Kumarila.

 

 

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[113]

KHYAB ‘JUG STON PAR ‘DZIN PAS NA KHYAB ‘JUG PA’O,,

 

They are called “Followers of Vishnu” because they consider Vishnu their teacher.

 

 

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‘DIS KHYAB ‘JUG DE ‘JUG PA BCU DANG LDAN PAR ‘DOD DE,

 

They believe that Vishu has ten different avatars, or emanations.

 

 

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[115]

JI SKAD DU,

 

,MA ZHI’I NYA DANG RUS SBAL PHAG RGOD DANG,

,MI YI SENG GE MI’U THUNG DGA’ BYED GNYIS,

,NAG PA SANGS RGYAS RIGS LDAN ‘JUG PA BCUS,

 

,ZHES BSHAD PA BZHIN DANG,

 

Here is how they are given:

 

When he is not in his peaceful form,

His avatars are the fish, the turtle, and the boar;

The man-lion, the dwarf, the two named “Rama,”

Krishna, Buddha, and Kalki.[46]

 

 

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[116]

KHYAB ‘JUG DE NI ‘GRO BA’I BYED PA PO DANG, RDUL PHRAN RTAG PA NI, SNOD BCUD KYI BYED POR YANG ‘DOD LA, ‘KHOR BA NYAMS PA’I STONG PA DE THAR BAR KHAS LEN CING, RLUNG GI RNAL ‘BYOR ‘GA’ ZHIG BSGOMS NA KHYAB ‘JUG GI THAR PAR STER BAR ‘DOD DO,,

 

They say that Vishnu is the creator of all beings; but they also say that the world and all its inhabitants were created through unchanging atoms.  They believe that nirvana is what happens when the universe fades away into emptiness; and that the cultivation of certain yogic practices relating to subtle winds in the body will deliver you into that state of liberation which is connected to Vishnu.

 

 

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[117]

KHYAB ‘JUG DES KYANG NGA RGYAL GYIS, NYI MA ZLA BA SOGS SNOD BCUD KYI BZANG BZANG THAMS CAD KHO BO YIN NO ZHES ZER ZHING, RTAG BDAG KYANG ‘DOD DO,,

 

They say Vishnu in his pride proclaims himself to be the sun and the moon and the rest; to be the world and all within it; to be every beautiful thing there is.  They also believe in an eternal soul.

 

 

 

Beliefs of the Analyzers

 

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[118]

^ ,,BDUN PA DPYOD PA LA, STON MING GRUB MTHA’ LAS,

 

The seventh Eternalist school is the Analyzers.  Again, we’ll discuss their teacher, their name, and their system.

 

 

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[119]

KHYAB ‘JUG DANG, RGYAL DPOG STON PA’O,,

 

Their teachers are Vishnu and Jaimini.

 

 

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[120]

RIG BYED LA DPYOD PAS NA DPYOD PA PA DANG, RGYAL DPOG GI RJES SU ‘BRANG BAS RGYAL DPOG PA’O,,

 

They are called the “Analyzers” (Mimamsa)[47] because they analyze the Vedas.  They are also known as the “Followers of Jaimini,” because they pursue Jamini’s teachings.

 

 

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[121]

‘DIS BDAG NI, BDE SDUG MYONG BA’I BDAG NYID CAN GNAS SKABS MI RTAG CING LUS LAS THA DAD DU GNAS PA’I YAN GAR BA NGO BO LA LDOG CHA SO SOR DBYE RGYU MED PA’I BLO ZHIG TU ‘DOD LA,

 

They describe the self as an entity which experiences pleasure and pain, and which undergoes periods of change.  It is a discrete object which is separate from the body: a state of mind whose essence cannot be divided into constituent parts.

 

 

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[122]

RIG BYED KYI TSIG MA GTOGS GZHAN GYI TSIG THAMS CAD RDZUN YIN PAR KHAS LEN TE,

 

They consider all words to be false except for the words of the Vedas—the Books of Knowledge—themselves.

 

 

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[123]

DANG PO NI, TSAD CHEN LAS,

,GZHAN DAG BDAG NI LDOG PA DANG,

,RJES ‘GRO BDAG NYID CAN GYIS NI,

,ZHES SOGS DANG,

 

This description of their idea of a self is confirmed in the Great Book on Valid Perception:

 

The others say that the self

Is an entity which reflects

The sum of constituent parts.[48]

 

 

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[124]

GNYIS PA NI, JI SKAD DU,

,SKYES BU’I TSIG NI BRDZUN NYID DE,

,RIG BYED SKYES BUS MA BYAS PHYIR,

,DES NA TSAD MAS {%MAR} GZUNG BAR BYA,

,ZHES ‘BYUNG BA BZHIN NO,,

 

And these lines confirm their position on the Vedas:

 

The words of living kind are only lies;

But the Vedas were not

Created by living beings,

And thus we accept them as correct.[49]

 

 

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[125]

NGAN SONG LAS THAR BA ZHIG THAR BAR {%PAR} ‘DOD CING, DE’I CHED DU ME LNGA BSTEN PA DANG, SBYIN SREG KYANG BYED DE RTA’I MCHOD SBYIN NI SNGAR BSHAD PA DANG ‘DRA BAR GSUNGS,

 

They believe that “freedom” refers to escape from the lower realms; and to achieve it, they follow the practice of the five fires.  They also perform fire ceremonies in which the bodies of horses are offered, in a way similar to those discussed earlier.

 

 

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[126]

RANG GI STON PA RGYAL DPOG PA KUN MKHYEN DU ‘DOD KYANG, SHES BYA THAMS CAD MKHYEN PA’I KUN MKHYEN NI MI ‘DOD DE, DE’I RGYU MTSAN YANG SHES BYA MTHA’ YAS PA DANG, DRI MA SEMS KYI RANG BZHIN LA ZHUGS PAS [f. 7a] SEMS DANG ‘BRAL MI RUNG BAS, GAL TE DRI MA ZAD NA SEMS KYANG ZAD PAR ‘GYUR ZHES ‘DOD,

 

Though they see their teacher, Jaimni, as omniscient, they don’t believe that omniscience means to know all existing things.  The reason they give for this is that the number of things that can be known is absolutely infinite; and that impurity lies at the very nature of the mind.  Thus you can never separate the mind from impurity; and to destroy impurity one would have to destroy the mind itself.

 

 

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[127]

TSAD MA MNGON RJES GNYIS DANG DE LAS GZHAN PA’I TSAD MA BZHI YANG KHAS LEN TE, TSAD MA SO SO’I NGOS ‘DZIN DANG ‘GOG TSUL NI DBU MA SNYING PO SOGS NA GSAL LO,,

 

They accept four more types of correct perception in addition to direct and deductive.  The way they identify these other four, and how we refute them, is something you can read about in Heart of The Middle Way.[50]

 

 

 

Beliefs of the Followers of Shiva

 

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[128]

^ ,,BRGYAD PA ZHI BAB {%BA PA} LA, STON MING GRUB MTHA’ RNAMS LAS,

 

The eighth Eternalist school is the Followers of Shiva.  We’ll discuss their teacher, their name, and their system.

 

 

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[129]

DBANG PHYUG GAM SHI BA DANG, RKANG MIG PA STE STON PA’O,,

 

Their teachers are Ishvara (Shiva) and Akshapada.

 

 

DBANG PHYUG ZHI BA LHAR ‘DZIN PAS NA, ZHI BA PA’O,,

 

They are called the “Followers of Shiva” because they follow the god Ishvara in the form of Shiva.

 

 

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[130]

‘DOD TSUL CUNG ZAD MI ‘DRA BA’I SGO NAS RIGS GSUM YOD LA,

 

The Follower of Shiva are divided into three groups, based on some minor differences in their beliefs.

 

 

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[131]

DBANG PHYUG CHEN PO NI, PHRA BA DANG, YANG SOGS BRGYAD LDAN DANG,

 

They say that Ishvara is endowed with eight qualities, including subtlety and lightness.

 

 

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[132]

DE YANG RANG LAG MIG SOGS KYIS BYA BA MANG DU BYED PAS PHRA BA DANG,

 

Here are the eight:

 

1) He is subtle, because he can make a great many things with just his eyes or his limbs.

 

 

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[133]

NAM MKHA’ DANG RLUNG DANGS {%DVANGS} PAR BYED CING SA CHU SDUD PA DANG RGYAS PAR BYED PAS YANG BA DANG,

 

2) He is ephemeral, because he makes the sky and wind invisible, and makes earth and water collect together and spreads them across the world.

 

 

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[134]

SNOD BCUD THAMS CAD KYI RGYU BYED PAS BDAG PO DANG,

 

3) He is the Lord, because he created the world, and all who live within it.

 

 

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[135]

THAMS CAD LA DBANG BSGYUR BAS DBANG DU GYUR BA DANG,

 

4) He has power, for he holds dominion over all things.

 

 

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[136]

YID LTAR GANG ‘DOD PA DER PHYIN NUS PAS GANG PHYIN DANG,

 

5) He is omnipresent, because wherever his mind desires, he is there.

 

 

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[137]

SKYE RGU THAMS CAD KYIS MCHOD PAR BYA BAR ‘OS PAS MCHOD PAR BYA BA DANG,

 

6) He is the one to whom we offer, for he is worthy of the offerings of every living being.

 

 

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[138]

RDUL MUN SNYING STOBS KYI YON TAN GANG LA GNAS KYANG ‘BYED NUS PAS ‘DOD RGUR LDAN PA DANG,

 

7) He fulfils all wishes, since no matter which of the qualities he resides in—activity, darkness, and light—he has the power to manifest what beings hope for.

 

 

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[139]

THAR BA DANG MTHO RIS GANG ‘DOD PA LA DE STER NUS PAS DGA’ MGUR GNAS PA STE BRGYAD DO,,

 

8) He is the place of all happiness, because he has the power to grant us our ultimate wishes: freedom, and the higher realms.

 

 

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[140]

DBANG PHYUG DE NI RI BO TI SE NA YOD PAR ‘DOD DE, DE YANG GANGS TI SEN {%SE NA} LHA MO DBU MA DANG SRAS TSOGS BDAG ‘KHOR BRGYA STONG DANG BCAS TE GNAS PAR ‘DOD PAS SO,,

 

They believe that Ishavara lives on Mt. Kailash, for they hold that he resides there together with the goddess Uma, their son Ganesh, and a great mass of beings attending upon them.

 

 

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[141]

SNOD BCUD THAMS CAD DBANG PHYUG ‘DIS BYAS PAR ‘DOD DE, ‘JIG RTEN NA DNGOS PO RIGS THA DAD PA SNA TSOGS YOD PA RNAMS DBANG PHYUG GIS BYAS KYI, RI RNAMS DANG RTZA SHING SOGS DE DAG LA DBYIBS ‘CHOS MKHAN MED PAS SO SNYAM DU BSAM MO,,

 

They believe that the world and everyone in it was created by Ishvara.  He himself made each and every one of the great variety of objects in the world, they say, since we can see that there is no one here among us who fashioned the mountains and plants and trees and all the rest.

 

 

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[142]

BDAG KYANG KHYAB ‘JUG PAS ‘DOD PA’I RTAG PA DE LTA BU DANG, KHAMS KYI DE NYID SOGS DE NYID LNGA ‘DOD CING, THIG LE ‘BAB PA’I BDE BA DANG RLUNG SBYOR ‘GA’ ZHIG GROL LAM DU ‘DZIN, ‘KHRIG BA {%PA} DE’I DUS KYI SHES PA ZHIG THAR PAR ‘DOD DE,

 

They follow the same idea of an eternal soul as the followers of Vishnu.  They accept the five subtle elements, with the idea that these compose the nature of things.  They say that the path to liberation consists of the bliss that comes when the drops of semen begin to make their movement, as followers engage in certain practices that join their inner winds with those of their partner.  According to them then liberation itself is a state of mind which occurs during sexual intercourse.

 

 

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[143]

JI SKAD [f. 7b] DU,

 

,DBANG PHYUG NUS CAN MNYAM SBYOR BAS,

,MCHOG TU BDE BA GNYIS MED MCHOG

 

,ZHES SOGS DANG,

 

We see for example lines such as:

 

When we join together

In the Lord of Power,

We come to highest bliss,

And the highest indivisible. [51]

 

 

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[144]

‘KHRIG PA’I GRUB PA NI THAR PA YIN LA,

 

ZHES SOGS GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR RO,,

 

As well as—

 

The practice of sex is liberation.

 

 

 

Beliefs of the Detailers

 

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[145]

^ ,,DGU PA BYE BRAG PA LA, STON PA MING GRUB MTHA’ RNAMS LAS,

 

The ninth Eternalist school is the Detailers.  We’ll discuss their teacher, their name, and their system.

 

 

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[146]

‘UG PA LHAR ‘KHRUL PA’I DRANG SRONG ‘UG PA’AM MING GZHAN GZEG GZAN PA NI STON PA’O,,

 

Their teacher is called “The Owl” (Uluka) because he mistook an owl for God.  He is also called “The Atom Eater” (Kanada).

 

 

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[147]

DES BYAS PA’I BYE BRAG GSAL BA’I LUNG GI RJES SU ‘BRANG BAS NA BYE BRAG BA’AM ‘JUG PA BA’O,,

 

The are called the “Detailers” (Vaisheshika) because they follow a scripture, written by Uluka, called The Clarification of the Details (Vaisheshika Sutra)They’re also sometimes called the “Engagers.”

 

 

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[148]

‘DIS NI BDAG KUN TU ‘GRO BA’I BEM PO GZUGS CAN PAR ‘DOD DE, DE’I KHYAD PAR PHYI NANG GI BDAG GNYIS SU YOD LA,

 

They see the soul as a physical thing which extends to all things.  They also distinguish between an inner self and an outer self.

 

 

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[149]

NANG GI BDAG NI LUS KYI KHONG NA GNAS PA DER DBANG PO’I TSOGS RNAMS ‘JUG CING, PHYI’I BDAG NI LUS KYI STENG NA NANG GI BDAG DE LA PHAN ‘DOGS PA ZHIG STE,

 

They say the inner self stays within the confines of the body, and that it employs the sense powers.  The outer self lies atop the body and provides support for the inner self.

 

 

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[150]

DPAL LDAN ZLA BAS,

 

,BDAG RNAM PA GNYIS SU SMRA BAR BYED DE ,’DI LTA STE, NANG GI BDAG DANG PHYI’I BDAG GO, ,DE LA NANG GI BDAG CES BYA BA NI, ,GANG ZHIG LUS KYI KHONG NA RNAM PAR GNAS SHING,

 

ZHES SOGS GSUNGS PA LTAR RO,,

 

Master Chandrakirti says:

 

They speak of two sorts of self: an inner self and an outer self.  The one they call the “inner self” is that which resides within the confines of the body…[52]

 

 

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[151]

DA LTA PHAL CHER GYIS BDAG ‘DOD PA’I TSUL ‘DI DANG MTHUN PAR SNANG STE, ‘DIS ‘DOD PA’I NANG GI BDAG DE ZHES PHUGS SU ‘TSANG ‘DUG PA’I PHYIR RO,,

 

This seems to be in line with the way that most people nowadays think about the soul.  It’s this inner self that they would say is the soul that eventually becomes enlightened.

 

 

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[152]

‘DI’I ‘DOD TSUL TSIG DON DRUG SOGS GZHAN NI RIG PA CAN DANG THUN MONG PA STE ‘CHAD PAR ‘GYUR RO,,

 

These beliefs and others, such as the “Six Principles” are shared with the Logician school.  We’ll cover them later as a group.

 

 

 

Beliefs of the Logicians

 

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[153]

^ ,,BCU PA RIG PA CAN PA LA, STON PA MING GRUB MTHA’ RNAMS LAS,

 

The tenth school among the Eternalists is the Logicians.  We’ll discuss their teacher, their name, and their system.

 

 

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[154]

DRANG SRONG RKANG MIG PA NI STON PA’O,,

 

Their teacher is the saint named Akshapada.

 

 

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[155]

STON PA DES BYAS PA RIG PA’I LTA PA’I {%BA’I} RJES SU ‘BRANG BAS NA RIG PA CAN NO,,

 

Because they follow the logical views taught by this teacher, we call them the “Logicians.”

 

 

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[156]

SNGA MA DANG ‘DI GNYIS KAS TSANG {%TSAD} MA LA MNGON RJES GNYIS DANG LUNG TSAD MA STE GSUM ‘DOD LA,

 

Both the Detailers and the Logicians accept three forms of valid perception: direct perception, deduction, and that based on scriptural authority.

 

 

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[157]

SHES BYA LA TSIG DON DRUG GI GRANGS NGES PA DANG, KHYAD PAR ‘DIS BDAG NAM MKHA’ BZHIN DU KUN LA KHYAB PA’I CHEN POR ‘DOD DO,,

 

They count all existing things as fitting into exactly six principles, and especially assert that the soul is a Greatness which extends over all things, like the sky.

 

 

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[158]

TSIG DON DRUG NI, RDZAS DANG, YON TAN, LAS, SPYI, BYE BRAG , ‘DU BA STE DRUG GO

 

The Six Principles are substance; quality; action; generality; particularity; and connection.[53]

 

 

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[159]

,RDZAS LA DGU STE, SA SOGS ‘BYUNG BA BZHI DANG NAM MKHA’ BCAS LNGA, DUS [f. 8a] PHYOGS BDAG YID BZHI STE DGU’O,,

 

The first of these, substance, comes in nine types: the four elements of earth and the rest, along with a fifth represented by space; and then the four of time, direction, self, and mind.

 

 

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[160]

YON TAN NI NYER BZHI STE, ‘DOD YON LNGA DANG, GRANGS, BONG TSONG {%TSOD}, SO SO BA, PHRAD PA, DBYE BA, GZHAN DANG GZHAN MIN PA, MIG GI BLO NAS YUS {%LUS} KYI BLO’I BAR LNGA DANG, BDAG {%BDE BA} SDUG BSNGAL, ‘DOD PA, SDANG BA, ‘BAD PA, CHOS DANG, CHOS MIN, BYAS PA’I SHUGS SO,,

 

The qualities are 24, including the five objects of the senses; number; size; individuality; contact; division; otherness & sameness; the five awarenesses from that of the eye up to that of the body; pleasure; pain; desire; hatred; effort; virtue; non-virtue; and the power of actions.

 

 

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[161]

LAS ZHES BYA BZHI RNAM PA {%BA NI} LNGA STE, ‘DEGS PA, ‘JOG PA, BSKUM PA, BRGYAR {%BRKYANG} BA, ‘GRO BA’O,

 

There are five actions: lifting up, putting down, contracting, expanding, and traveling.

 

 

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[162]

SBYI {%SPYI} NI RDZAS YON TAN LAS GSUM LAS DON GSUM PA’I RDZAS ZHIG GO

 

Generality is that thing which is composed of a triad of the three of substance, qualities, and actions.

 

 

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[163]

,DE YANG YOD PA LTA BU KUN LA KHYAB PA’I SBYI {%SPYI} DANG, BUM BA {%PA} LTA BU NYI TSE BA’I SBYIR {%SPYIR} ‘DOD DO,,

 

They say that something like existence is a generality which covers all things; whereas something like a water pitcher is a partial generality.

 

 

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[164]

BYE BRAG NI KHYAD PAR STE, DKAR NAG SOGS KYI KHYAD PAR LTA BU’O,,

 

Particularity is the distinction between things—such as the difference between black and white.

 

 

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[165]

‘DU BZHI {%BA NI} GNYIS TO {%TE}, RTAN {%RTEN} BRTEN BA {%PA} GOS {%GO SA} THA DAD GYI LDAN ‘BREL DANG, GO MA {%SA} THA MI DAD KYI ‘DU ‘BREL GNYIS TE, RGYAS PAR NI GZHAN DU SHES PAR BYA’O,,

 

There are two kinds of connection.  The first is a connection between a thing which supports something and the thing which is supported by it, where they occupy separate spaces.  The second is a connection where they occupy spaces which are not separate.   You can find more detail on these in other sources.

 

 

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[166]

BYE BRAG BA {%PA} DANG ‘DI GNYIS ? {%GNYIS KAS}, SNOD BCUD THAMS CAD, RDUL PHRA RAB KYI RGYU BYAS NAS DBANG PHYUG GIS BYAS PAR ‘DOD DE,

 

These Logicians agree with the Detailers in saying that the world and everything in it is based upon atoms, and at the same time was created by the god Ishvara.

 

 

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[167]

SNOD BCUD SNGA LA {%MA} STONG BA’I TSE ‘BYUNG BZHI’I RDUL PHRA RAB SO SON {%SO NA} YAN GAR D’A {%DU} GNAS PA RNAMS DBANG PHYUG GI BLO’I G-YO BA SNGON DU BTANG NAS BYAS BAR {%PAR} ‘DOD PA’I PHYIR RO,,

 

They say that, in the beginning, the universe and all its beings existed in a void, and that all the separate atoms of the universe—the atoms of the four elements—remained apart from one another.  And then all the things and beings were created from these atoms by a mental impulse of Ishvara.

 

 

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[168]

DBANG PHYUG GI DBANG BSKUR BA DANG KHRUS SOGS CHOS KYIS ‘KHOR BA LAS GROL BAR BYED PAS, CHOS DE LTA BU LA SPYAD NAS ‘KHOR BZLOG {%BA ZLOG} STE MAR ME SHI BA BZHIN DU RNAM RTOG ZAD PA NI THAR BAR {%PAR?} ‘DOD DE,

 

They believe that liberation from the cycle of pain is achieved through practices such as receiving initiation into the deity Ishvara; or else through ritual bathing.  And so by following such practices, they say, you can stop the cycle of pain—and at this point all thoughts simply fade away, in the same way as a candle is snuffed out.  This they believe is final freedom.

 

 

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[169]

LEGS LDAN ‘BYED KYIS, LUS DANG YID KYI RNAM RTOG NI, ,ZHES PA NAS,  SHING ZAD BA’I {%PA”I} RMA {%ME} BZHIN NO, ,ZHES GSUNGS PA LTAR RO,,

 

Master Bhavaviveka describes their point of view:

 

When you have given up your body,

And all the thoughts in your head,

Then you’ve left behind all impurity—

Like a fire that’s devoured its fuel.[54]

 

 

 

Beliefs of the Beggars

 

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[170]

` ,,BCU GCIG BZAD BYED PA LA, STON PA MING GRUB MTHA’ RNAMS LAS,

 

The eleventh and final Eternalist school is the Beggars (Kshapana).  Again we cover their teacher, their name, and their system.

 

 

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[171]

RGYAL BA DAM PA DANG, DRANG SRONG MCHOD ‘OS, LDONG RIS KHYU MCHOG RNAMS STON PA’O,,

 

Their teachers are Jinata, the sage Arhat, Vardhamana, and Irshabha.

 

 

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[172]

RANG GI SGRA {%SKRA} NYIN BZHIN DU ZAD PAR BYED BA NGAN {%BYED PAS NA} ZAD BYED PA DANG, GOS MED PAR GCER BUR RGYU BAS NA GCER BU BA’O {%PA’O},,

 

They’re called the “Removers” (Kshapana), because every day they remove the hair from their heads.  They are also known as the “Naked Ones” (Jain) because they follow a practice of remaining homeless, and wandering, without any clothes on.

 

 

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[173]

GZHAN YANG ‘DI LAS {%LA SA?} KUN TU RGYU DANG, ‘TSO BA {%’TSO BA PA} DANG, MCHOD ‘OS PAR YANG GRAG PA,

 

They’re also sometimes called the “Wanderers” (Parivrajaka); or the “Followers of the Rules on Livelihood” (Ajivika), or else the “Followers of Arhat” (Arhata).

 

 

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[174]

SKYES BU’I SROG BDAG TU ‘DOD CING, SROG DE YANG SROG CAN RANG GI LUS KYI TSAD CI TZAM YOD BA DE TZAM ZHIG DANG, [f. 8b] ‘DI NYID RDZAS RTAG LA RNAM GRANGS MI RTAG PA SEMS PA’I BDAG NYID CAN DU ‘DOD DE,

 

They hold that the life force of a person is their soul; and that the size of the soul matches the size of ones body.  They say further that the soul is a mental entity which is an unchanging substance, with changing manifestations.

 

 

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[175]

KHYAD PAR ‘PHAGS BSTOD LAS,

 

,GCER BU LUS KYI TSED {%TSAD} BZHIN DU,

,GROG NI ZHUM DANG RGYAS PAR SMRA,

 

,ZHES DANG,

 

As the Praise of One Who is Highly Exalted puts it,

 

The Jains say that the soul

Accompanies us,

Shrinking or expanding

According to the size of the body.[55]

 

 

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[176]

‘PHAGS PA LTAS {%LHAS},

 

LA LA SKYES BU’I LUS TZAM ZHIG ,

 

CES GSUNGS PA LTAR RO,,

 

Or as Aryadeva describes it,

 

For some it’s a body-sized soul.[56]

 

 

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[177]

TSIG DON DGUS SHES BYA THAMS CAD BSDUS PAR ‘DOD CING ,

 

They group all existing things into nine basic principles.

 

 

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[178]

DGU NI, SROG LDAN DANG, SROG LDAN MIN PA, ZAG BCAS KYI LAS, SDOM PA, NYES SPYOD SLONG {%SPONG} BA, LTA BA’I ‘CHING BA, THAR BA, ‘GRO BA, ‘ONG BA STE DGU’O,,

 

These nine are the living; the lifeless; impure actions; self-control; giving up misdeeds; the bondage of wrong view; liberation; going, and coming.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendices

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix A

 

On the Four Seals

 

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[A1]

Because of the great importance of this topic, we’d like to give just a brief discussion to expand on the “Four Seals Which Certify a Teaching as The Word.”

 

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[A2]

This phrase in Tibetan is bka’-btags[57] kyi phyag-rgya bzhi; in Sanskrit this is naimittavid caturmudrā.  According to the Great Dictonary, the “Four Seals Which Certify a Teaching as The Word” (bka’-btags kyi phyag-rgya bzhi); “The Four Summaries of The Teachings” (chos kyi sdom bzhi); and “The Four which Certify” (bkar-btags bzhi) all refer to the same thing.[58]

 

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[A3]

In his commentary to The Ornament of Realizations, Choney Lama Drakpa Shedrup (the author of our present text) lays out all four for us:

 

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[A4]

LTA BA BKA’ BRTAGS KYI PHYAG RGYA BZHI NI,

‘DUS BYAS THAMS CAD MI RTAG PA,

ZAG BCAS THAMS CAD SDUG BSNGAL BA,

CHOS THAMS CAD STONG ZHING BDAG MED PA,

MYA NGAN LAS ‘DAS PA ZHI BA’O,,

ZHES GSUNGS PA LTAR ‘JOG DGOS PA’I PHYIR,

 

These four seals must be present in order to mark a philosophical view as Buddhist:

 

  1. All caused things are impermanent.
  2. All impure things are suffering.
  3. All things are empty, and lack any self-nature.
  4. Nirvana is peace.[59]

 

 

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[A5]

As Choney Lama says here, these four statements are the standard by which a philosophical view point is judged to be Buddhist or not.  By extension, we can say that only a practitioner who accepts these four may be considered a Buddhist.  Kedrup Tenpa Dargye says the same thing:

 

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[A6]

‘DUS BYAS THAMS CAD MI RTAG ,ZAG PA DANG BCAS PA SDUG BSNGAL, CHOS THAMS CAD STONG ZHING BDAG MED PA MYANG NGAN LAS ‘DAS PA ZHI BAR LTA BA’I LTA BA ‘DI PHYI ROL PA RNAMS LA MED DE,

 

The non-Buddhists lack these views: that all caused things are impermanent; impure things are suffering; all things are empty, and lack any self-nature; and nirvana is peace.

 

 

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[A7]

‘DI BZHI STON PA DANG BSTAN PA GZHAN LA MED PAS LTA BA BKA’ BTAGS KYI PHYAG RGYA BZHI ZHES BSHAD PA YIN NO,,

 

No other teacher or teaching keeps to these four points of view.  This is why we say that these Four Seals mark a philosophical view as Buddhist. [60]

 

 

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[A8]

Here we’ve been given some clue as to why the four are called the “seals” (mudra, phyag-rgya) which mark a philosophical view as Buddhist.  To elaborate, the term “seal” here is often equated with the seal that a king affixes to all of his royal decrees, to certify them as his word.  Konchok Tenpay Drunme puts it like this:

 

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[A9]

RGYAL PO’I MNGA’ ‘BANGS SU GTOGS PA RNAMS RGYAL [f. 162b] BO’I {%PO’I} BKA’ KHRIMS SAM, PHYAG RGYA LAS ‘DA’ MI NUS PA BZHIN DU SANGS RGYAS KYI BSTAN PA LA ZHUGS PA RNAMS KYANG PHYAG RGYA BZHI PO ‘DI LAS ‘DA’ MI RUNG ZHING, GAL TE ‘DAS NA SANGS RGYAS KYI BSTAN PA LAS RGYAB KYIS PHYOGS PA YIN PAS NA BZHI PO ‘DI LA PHYAG RGYA ZHES ZER RO,,

 

The subjects of any particular king must never overstep the commands which bear his seal.  Similarly, no one who has taken up the teachings of the Buddha may overstep the Four Seals.  If they do, then they are taking a position antithetical to that of the Buddha.  Thus we call these four “seals.”[61]

 

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[A10]

We’ll discuss each of the Four Seals now in a little more detail.

 

 

First Seal:

All caused things are impermanent

 

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[A11]

The first of the Four Seals states that “all caused things impermanent.”  When we speak of caused things in this context, it’s an abbreviation for “things which were formed by the coming together of causes and conditions”.

 

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[A12]

In terms of what it is to be impermanent, this seems to be a source of contention for the Listener schools of Buddhism, who accuse the greater way schools of breaking the first seal by accepting that there are some things which do not end.  We find their arguments put forth in A Lamp Which Illuminates the Hidden Meaning:

 

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[A13]

DES NA NYAN THOS SDE PA NA RE, THEG CHEN BKA’ MA YIN TE, PHYAG RGYA BZHI PO ‘DI DANG ‘GAL BA’I PHYIR TE, LONGS SKU RTAG PAR BSHAD PAS NA ‘DUS BYAS THAMS CAD MI RTAG PAR BSHAD PAS PHYAG RGYA DANG ‘GAL,

 

The Listener schools reply,

 

The greater way is not the word of the Buddha, because it contradicts these Four Seals.  It contradicts the seal which says that all caused things are impermanent, since it teaches that the paradise body of an enlightened being is permanent.[62]

 

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[A14]

There are two ways in which this accusation misunderstands the position of the greater way.  First, the condition of the paradise body is not such that it stays forever, rather it remains only for as long as living beings continue to dwell in the cycle of suffering.  We see this set forth in Sera Jetsun Chukyi Gyeltsen’s list of the five certain qualities of the paradise body:

 

 

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[A15]

NGES PA LNGA YANG YOD DE,

GNAS NGES PA ‘OG MIN LHUG {%STUG} PO BKOD PA KHO NAR BZHUGS PA,

‘KHOR NGES PA BYANG ‘PHAGS SHA STAG GIS BSKOR PA,

CHOS NGES PA THEG CHEN GYI CHOS ‘BA’ ZHIG GSUNGS PA,

SKU NGES PA MTSAN DPE GSAL RDZOGS KYIS SPRAS PA,

DUS NGES PA ‘KHOR BA MA STONG GI BAR DU BZHUGS PA RNAMS SU YOD PA’I PHYIR TE,

 

Here are the five fixed qualities of the paradise body:

 

  1. Its location is fixed, in that it resides only in that divine realm called “The Mass of Clouds, below None Other.”
  2. The beings in attendance to it are fixed, for they are invariably realized beings who are warrior saints.
  3. The teachings it gives are fixed, for this body speaks only teachings of the greater way.
  4. The appearance of this body is fixed, because it is always adorned with clear and complete versions of the physical signs and marks of an enlightened being.
  5. The duration of this body is fixed, for it will last until the cycle of pain is emptied of living beings. [63]

 

 

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[A16]

It’s also important to point out that these Listeners are relying on a limited understanding of the word “impermanence” by only taking its grossest form into account.  “Gross impermanence” refers to the fact that something will eventually end.  The term “impermanence” itself can and sometimes does have this meaning.  This is obviously not however, a uniquely Buddhist understanding.

 

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[A17]

Subtle impermanence, on the other hand, refers to the fact that a thing has a kind of ending in every single instant.  In fact, the technical definition of impermanence is given as “a thing which only lasts for an instant,”[64] in the sense of a thing which is constantly in flux, a thing that is never exactly the way that it is now in even the very next instant.  From this we can see that even if a caused thing were to last forever, it would still be “impermanentin the sense of being a thing which changes from moment to moment.

 

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[A18]

The first seal then, points out that anything which occurs in dependence upon the coming together of causes and conditions must exist in the same sort of ever-shifting state as the causes and conditions which are constantly bringing it into being.  Our bodies and minds, for example, are constantly changing as the circumstances which give rise to the current state of our bodies and minds also come, and go, and shift constantly.

 

 

Second Seal:

All impure things are suffering

 

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[A19]

“Impure things” refers to almost all the same things we speak of in reference to the first seal.  All those things which come about when causes and conditions come together are also considered to be impure things, since they are stained by our own bad deeds and bad thoughts.  The classical exception to this is the spiritual path itself.  The term “path” is a commonly used as equivalent to the term “realization,” meaning a direct experience of wisdom.  Wisdom is the opposite of a negative emotion, and thus cannot be called “impure” even though it is also caused.  As the Treasure House of Higher Knowledge says:

 

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[A22]

,LAM MA GTOGS PA’I ‘DUS BYAS RNAMS,

,ZAG BCAS GANG PHYIR DE DAG LA [f. 2a],

,ZAG RNAMS KUN TU RGYAS PAR ‘GYUR,

 

With the exception of the path,

All caused things are impure,

Because it is in those things

That impurities flourish.[65]

 

 

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[A20]

To say that everything except for the path is impure, then, is to say that almost all of what we experience amounts to some form of suffering.  There are three main sufferings classically discussed in scripture.  The “suffering of suffering” refers to things that are painful in an obvious way.  The “suffering of change” refers to things which seemingly start off good but then degrade into suffering by virtue of the fact that they are caused things and thus, as we have now learned, are constantly running out.  Beyond these sorts of pain is what we call “all-pervasive suffering.”  This is the simple fact that all beings in the cycle of suffering must face the ever-present pains of birth, aging, sickness, and death.[66]

 

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[A21]

There is an argument put forth by the Listener school which attacks the greater way on the basis that warrior saints (bodhisattvas) are said to experience a greater and greater sense of bliss in the time leading up to those realizations which constitute a path.  If their own state of mind is a caused thing and not yet a path, in the sense of wisdom, then they argue it must be an impure thing, and thus suffering.  We find this argument presented in the Lamp Which Illuminates the Hidden Meaning:

 

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[A22]

,BDE NAS BDE BAR ‘GRO BA LA,

,SEMS SHES SU ZHIG SGYID LUG ‘GYUR,

,ZHES BYANG SEMS SO SKYE BDE BA’I RANG BZHIN DU BSHAD PAS ZAG BCAS THAMS CAD SDUG BSNGAL BAR BSHAD PA’I PHYAG RGYA DANG ‘GAL,

 

You of the greater way say:

 

How could anyone in the know get discouraged,

When things keep progressing from good to great?[67]

 

You break the seal which states that all impure things are suffering when you say that a warrior saint who is not yet realized has a blissful existence.[68]

 

 

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[A23]

All impure things can be included into the three sufferings.  In the short term though, suffering is not always the predominant feeling.  That said, in the long run even these short-term pleasures devolve into pain.  Lobsang Trinley Namgyal puts it like this:

 

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[A24]

DES NA RANG CAG RNAMS KYIS ‘KHOR BA SPYI BYE BRAG GI SDUG BSNGAL SOGS BSAM PA’I TSE, ‘KHOR BA PA’I GANG ZAG RNAMS ‘GA’ ZHIG DNGOS SU SDUG BSNGAL LA SPYOD, ‘GA’ ZHIG BRGYUD NAS SDUG BSNGAL LA SPYOD TSUL SOGS DANG, ‘KHOR BA’I BDE BA JI TZAM CHE YANG MTHAR SDUG BSNGAL DU ‘GYUR BAS RTAG MI THUB CING SNYING PO MED TSUL SOGS BSAM DGOS PA YIN MOD KYANG,

 

When we think about suffering in general, as well as the more particular cases, we have to admit for example that there are some beings here in the cycle of pain who experience suffering directly, and others who experience it in an indirect way.  And yet no matter how great a pleasure we feel here in the cycle, in the end it always turns to pain.  And so happiness here in the cycle is never something that lasts; and it lacks any real essence—this is the way we’re supposed to think about it.

 

 

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[A25]

RTZOD PA’I TSE, ‘KHOR BA’I BDE BA MTHA’ [f. 5b] DAG SDUG BSNGAL DU KHAS BLANGS NA ‘JOG MTSAMS DKA’ BAR ‘ONG ZHING,

 

Still, if you debate it technically, you may have a hard time trying to hold the position that every single thing in the cycle is suffering.

 

 

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[A26]

YANG, RTZOD PA’I RIG PA LA BSAM NAS ‘KHOR BA NA BDE BA NGES PAR YOD ‘DUG SNYAM CHAGS PAR YANG BYED MI RIGS SO,

 

Then again, when you think like a debater, it also doesn’t make sense to try to hold that some sort of definite happiness exists in the cycle of pain.[69]

 

 

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[A27]

The very fact that we can describe a suffering of change wherein some pleasurable experience devolves into pain, is an admission of the fact that there is some pleasure in the cycle, albeit one that devolves.  Still there is no existence within the cycle of pain which can be considered free of suffering at all.

 

Once again from Kedrup Tenpa Dargye:

 

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[A28]

MDOR NA KHAMS GSUM PO ‘DI THAMS CAD SDUG BSNGAL GYI RANG BZHIN CAN YIN NO,,

 

To put it briefly, the nature of all three of these realms is simply suffering.

 

 

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[A29]

‘DOD PA KHAMS PA THAMS CAD SDUG BSNGAL GSUM GYIS GDUNGS, BSAM GTAN GSUM PA MAN CHAD ‘DU BYED KYI SDUG BSNGAL DANG, ‘GYUR BA’I SDUG BSNGAL GYIS GDUNGS, BSAM GTAN BZHI PA YAN CHAD KHYAB PA ‘DU BYED KYI SDUG BSNGAL GYIS GDUNGS PA’I PHYIR,

 

Everyone in the desire realm is tormented by all three sufferings.  Those dwelling in concentration level three and below are tormented by all-pervasive suffering and the suffering of change; while those at the fourth concentration level and above suffer only all-pervasive suffering.[70]

 

 

He then quotes Lord Buddha himself:

 

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[A30]

MDO DRAN PA NYER GZHAG LAS,

,SEMS CAN DMYAL BA DMYAL MES NYAMS,

,YI DVAGS BKRES SHING BSKOMS PAS NYAMS,

,DUD ‘GRO GCIG LA GCIG ZAS NYAMS,

,MI DAG ‘TSE BAS GDUNGS PAS NYAMS,

,LHA DAG BAG MED PA YIS NYAMS,

,’KHOR BA KHAB KYI RTZE TZAM NA,

,BDE BA NAM YANG YOD MA YIN,

,ZHES GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR,

 

AS Bringing the Holy Teachings to Mind puts it,

 

Hell-beings are tortured by hellfire;

Craving spirits by hunger and thirst.

Animals are tortured by eating each other;

Humans by the pain of getting hurt.

 

The gods are tortured by mindlessness.

There is no happiness

Upon the tip of this needle,

The cycle of pain.[71]

 

 

Third Seal

All things are empty, and lack any self-nature

 

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[A31]

So, how does one break free of these sufferings?  As we saw above, it is possible in deep states of meditation to escape the suffering of suffering as well as the suffering of change.

All-pervasive suffering, however, is another matter.  Kedrup Tenpa Dargye says:

 

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[A32]

BSAM GTAN GYI NYER BSDOGS TZAM GYI {%GYIS? check carving} KHYAB PA ‘DU BYED KYI SDUG BSNGAL LA CHAGS BRAL BYED MI NUS, BDAG MED SGOM PA’I PHYI ROL PA MED PA’I PHYIR,

 

Just reaching the preliminary stage of this concentration level cannot free you from all-pervasive suffering; for the simple fact that non-Buddhists fail to meditate on the lack of self-nature.[72]

 

 

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[A33]

By implication, two things have been pointed out in this quotation.  On the one hand, it is admittedly true that non-Buddhists do reach sophisticated states of meditation.  On the other hand, those states of mediation are not enough by themselves to escape the grasp of all-pervasive suffering.

 

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[A34]

There is a technique unique to Buddhist schools which is that of meditating on the truth of the third seal: the truth that things are empty and lack self-nature, meaning that things do not exist independently of the way we have treated others in the past.  This sort of meditation, preformed correctly, is the only way to defeat all-pervasive suffering.  In order to defeat this form of suffering, the very nature of suffering itself must be realized.

 

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[A35]

This realization, that suffering has no self-nature—that suffering merely exists as a projection based on the pain we inflict on others—is only achieved through understanding the progression of the first three of the Four Seals.  We must come to see that, in every instant, our own bodies and minds are produced anew by the deeds we have committed in the past.  We must come to see that these deeds, with which our bodies and minds are made, are stained by the harm we’ve caused others in the past.  And through these, we come to see that all things are empty of a self-nature, in the sense that they all occur only through this process.  We act in the world, we plant seeds for the world we will experience, and then we partake of the pleasure or pain which we ourselves have planted.  In Kedrup Tenpa Dargye’s words:

 

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[A36]

DE LA CHAGS BRAL BYAS PA’I PHYI ROL PA MED PAR THAL, DE LA CHAGS BRAL BYED PA LA DE SDUG BSNGAL GYI RANG BZHIN DU RTOGS DGOS, DE LA PHRA BA’I MI RTAG PA RTOGS DGOS PA GANG ZHIG ,DE RTOGS PA’I PHYI ROL PA MED PA’I PHYIR,

 

There are no non-Buddhists who break free from attachment.  To do this, you must come to a realization that its nature is suffering.  For that, you must come to a realization of subtle impermanence; and this is not a realization that non-Buddhists achieve.

 

 

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[A37]

DES NA NYER LEN [f. 71b] GYI PHUNG PO MI RTAG PAR RTOGS PA LA BRTEN NAS DE LAS NYON GYI {%GYIS check carving} GZHAN DBANG CAN GYIS SDUG BSNGAL BAR RTOGS,

 

And so once you realize that the parts of the person that we have taken on birth are impermanent, you can go on to realize that they are suffering, all at the mercy of your previous actions and negative emotions.

 

 

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[A38]

DE LA BRTEN NAS PHUNG PO RANG RKYA THUB PA’I BDAG GIS STONG BAR RTOGS,

 

Based on that understanding, you come to see that things are empty of being self-standing.

 

 

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[A39]

DE LA BRTEN NAS DE DON GZHAN GYIS {%GYI} BDAG TU MA GRUB PAR RTOGS PAR ‘GYUR BA YIN TE,

 

And from that understanding you come to see that things have no nature of being separate.[73]

 

 

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[A40]

In this citation, the progression through the first three seals has been elegantly laid out for us.  By realizing the first seal—that all caused things are passing away in every instant, especially as it applies to our own bodies and minds—we come to see the second seal: that our own suffering is caused by the stain, of harmful deeds and thoughts, upon the causes which produce our bodies and minds.  From this we come to understand the third seal: that things have no self-nature, since they are merely results of the causes and conditions which are perpetually producing them.  Master Dharmakirti says the same in the Commentary to Valid Perception:

 

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[A41]

,DE PHYIR MI RTAG LAS SDUG BSNGAL,

,SDUG BSNGAL LAS NI BDAG MED GSUNGS,

 

And that’s why he taught

That from impermanence comes suffering,

And from suffering comes the lack

Of any self-nature.[74]

 

 

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[A42]

Here the Master Dharmakirti confirms our point, that we come to understand the second seal by understanding the first seal; and the third by understanding the second.

 

Lord Buddha as well illustrates this same progression:

 

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[A43]

DE LA BCOM LDAN ‘DAS KYIS LEGS PAR GSUNGS PA DE NI, ‘DUS BYAS THAMS CAD NI MI RTAG ,MI BRTAN, YID BRTAN DU MI RUNG, ‘GYUR BA’I CHOS CAN TE, ‘DUS BYAS THAMS CAD KYIS CHOG GO, SKYO BAR RIGS SO, ,MI ‘DOD PA’I RIGS SO,,

 

The Conqueror eloquently spoke:

 

All caused things must end.  They are unstable, unreliable, and ever-shifting.  Caused things will always break you.  Be tired of them.  Stop wanting them.

 

 

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[A44]

RNAM PAR GROL BAR BYA BAR SHES NAS, NYE BAR LEN PA’I PHUNG PO LNGA LA MI RTAG PA DANG, SDUG BSNGAL BA DANG, STONG PA DANG, BDAG MED PA NYID DU YID LA BYED PA LA ZHUGS TE,

 

When you realize that they are something you must escape, you are ready to start thinking of the parts that you took on at birth as nothing other than impermanent, and suffering, and emptiness, and things with no self-nature.

 

 

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[A45]

DES NYE BAR LEN PA’I PHUNG PO RNAMS LA MI RTAG PA DANG, SDUG BSNGAL BA [f. 138b] DANG, STONG PA DANG, BDAG MED PAR YID LA BYAS PAS NA, MI RTAG PA’I RNAM PAS ‘DI BZHIN ‘JIG TSOGS SU LTA BA’I RI’I RTZE MO NYI SHU GYEN DU BYUNG BA YE SHES KYI RDO RJES BCOM NAS, RGYUN DU ZHUGS PA’I ‘BRAS BU MNGON DU BYAS SO,,

 

And once you have had such thoughts—that these parts are impermanent, and pain, and empty and devoid of any nature of their own—then you will reach the high goal of entering the stream, because just the perception that these things are truly impermanent is enough to smash the twenty peaks of the mountains of the view of this perishable collection, with the diamond hammer of your wisdom.[75]

 

 

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[A46]

We do find some historical debate as to whether or not there are Buddhist schools who accept some kind of self-nature; and yet it cannot be the case that they would.  From the illustrations we’ve just observed, we can see that the third seal—the fact that things are empty and lack self-nature—is completely essential to Buddhist practice.  Furthermore, as we’ve discussed already, all schools agree that the Four Seals are a line which cannot be crossed.  We find such a discussion, referring to the Detailist school of Buddhism, in The Garland of White Lotuses:

 

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[A47]

DES BDAG MED RTOGS PA’I LTA BA DE LTA BA RNAM DAG TU KHAS LEN PA’I PHYIR, DER THAL, ‘DUS BYAS THAMS CAD MI RTAG, ZAG PA DANG BCAS PA THAMS CAD SDUG BSNGAL, CHOS THAMS CAD STONG ZHING BDAG MED PA, MYA NGAN LAS ‘DAS PA ZHI BAR [f. 42a] LTA BA’I LTA BA DE BDAG CAG GI STON PA STON PAR KHAS LEN PA RNAMS KYI MI ‘DA’ BA’I LTA BA YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

And that’s true because they do accept that the view with which we realize that nothing has any nature of its own is a correct one.  And that in turn must be the case, because none of us who accept the Buddha as our teacher can step beyond the view that all caused things are impermanent; that all impure things are suffering; that all the things there are, are empty and lack any self-nature; and that nirvana is peace.[76]

 

 

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[A48]

By virtue of the fact that the Detailists and all other Buddhist schools proclaim adherence to the Four Seals, we may consider them in fact to be Buddhist.  That said, there are still debates about whether or not some schools’ presentations of the lack of a self-nature are sufficient to satisfy the standards of the higher schools.  Nonetheless, as long as they deny a self-nature, we say that they have stayed within the third seal—though their position may seem to imply the existence of such a self-nature.  Choney Lama says on the matter:

 

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[A49]

BYE BRAG SMRA BA’I NANG TSAN GNAS MA BU PAS KYANG DE KHAS MI LEN PA’I PHYIR, DER THAL, DES GANG ZAG GI BDAG DON GYIS KHAS BLANGS PAR SONG YANG, DES GANG ZAG GI BDAG KHAS MI LEN PA’I PHYIR,

 

You can’t say that Detailists think people have a self-nature; even the Detailists who follow Vatsiputra deny that this could be the case.  The views they teach do basically amount to accepting that people have a self-nature, but still they do deny that.[77]

 

 

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[A50]

The Listener schools again attack the greater way.  This time, they do so on the grounds of the third seal, by claiming that the concept of Buddha-nature amounts to some sort of self-nature:

 

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[A53]

BDE GSHEGS SNYING POS SEMS CAN THAMS CAD LA KHYAB PAR BSHAD PA DES, BDAG KHAS BLANGS PAR SONG BAS CHOS THAMS CAD BDAG MED PAR BSHAD PA’I PHYAG RGYA DANG ‘GAL,

 

You say there is an essence of Those Gone to Bliss which pervades every living being.  You are basically proclaiming a self-nature, and thus breaking the seal which says that nothing in the universe possesses any nature of its own.[78]

 

 

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[A51]

Here the Listener school has failed to understand the meaning of Buddha-nature.  When we speak of an essence of Those Gone to Bliss which pervades all beings, it is exactly the lack of self-nature itself that we are referring to.  The fact that this quality is true for all things, and of course all living beings, is undeniable for anyone who claims to adhere to the Four Seals; that is, for any Buddhist.  We of the greater way refer to this truth as the “nature of the Buddhas” (or the “nature of The Ones Gone Thus” or the “nature of Those Gone to Bliss”) because it is exactly this truth about ourselves which allows us to achieve the state of an enlightened being.

 

 

Fourth Seal:

Nirvana is peace

 

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[A52]

The culmination or final outcome of the first three seals is the fourth seal, “Nirvana is peace.”  But peace in what sense?

 

We can give a definition for nirvana as follows:

 

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[A53]

NYON SGRIB MA LUS PAR SPANGS PA’I SO SOR BRTAG ‘GOG, MYANG ‘DAS KYI MTSAN NYID,

 

The definition of nirvana is “A cessation which comes from the individual analysis, and which consists of having eliminated the negative-emotion obstacles in their entirety.”[79]

 

 

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[A54]

Based on this definition, we can reasonably conclude that nirvana is peace precisely because these negative-emotion obstacles—the obstacles which prevent us from eliminating our harmful thoughts—have been put to rest.  Indeed, we can verify such a conclusion with quotations such as the following from the Indian master Dharma Mitra:

 

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[A55]

JI SKAD DU BSTAN PA’I MTSAN NYID KYIS MYA NGAN LAS ‘DAS PA NI LAS DANG NYON MONGS PA’I ‘BRAS BU’I ME ZHI BAS NA MYA NGAN LAS ‘DAS PA STE, B’A PA T’A PA ZHES SKAD KYI BYINGS LAS ‘DON PAS SO,,

 

From the definition thus given, we can say that the Sanskrit word “nirvana”—which is derived from roots meaning to “blow out” a “flame”—refers to putting a stop to the fire which results from our past actions and negative emotions.[80]

 

 

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[A56]

We do find alternate explanations, though we can see that they follow a similar theme.  For example, one could extrapolate that if karma and negative emotions are the thing which we wish to put to rest, then perhaps we could speak of the foundation of all negative emotions and mistaken deeds, as just that which we hope to achieve peace from.  In other words, we can say that misunderstanding itself is the thing which is put to rest in the state beyond all grief.  Master Jayananda expresses just this sentiment in his commentary to Entering the Middle Way:

 

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[A57]

RNAM PAR RTOG PA THAMS CAD NYE BAR ZHI BAS NA MYA NGAN LAS ‘DAS PA LA ZHI BA ZHES BYA’O,

 

Nirvana is called “peace” because—when we achieve it—all mistaken perceptions have been put to rest.[81]

 

 

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[A58]

Master Jnana Shribhadra, in his commentary on the Journey to Langka, concurs:

 

DES NA THAMS CAD MKHYEN PAS RTEN CING ‘BREL PAR ‘BYUNG BA SPROS PA NYE BAR ZHI BAS NA ZHI BAR GSUNGS SO,

 

It is called “peace” because, for one who is all-knowing, all mental elaboration about the way that things happen in dependence is put to rest. [82]

 

 

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[A59]

To continue along these lines then, instead of pointing to the causes supplied by karma and negative emotions, we could speak of the result—suffering itself—as the thing which we aim to achieve peace from.  We find this position from Master Dharmakirti Shri:

 

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[A60]

SDUG BSNGAL THAMS CAD NI NYE BAR ZHI BAS NA ZHI BA STE, MYA NGAN LAS ‘DAS PA’O,,

 

It is nirvana, travelling beyond all grief, and so “peace”: for all our suffering has been put to rest.[83]

 

 

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[A61]

One last time, let’s look at an objection by the Listener school of Buddhism. This time it concerns how the greater way addresses the fourth seal.  From A Lamp Which Illuminates the Hidden Meaning:

 

 

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[A62]

ZHES MYA NGAN LAS ‘DAS PA SLAR ‘KHOR BAR SKYE BA LEN PAR BSHAD PAS MYA NGAN LAS ‘DAS PA ZHI BAR BSHAD PA DANG ‘GAL BA’I PHYIR TE,

 

You break the seal which states that nirvana is peace, by saying that someone who has reached nirvana should choose to return to a birth in the cycle of pain.

 

 

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[A63]

MYA NGAN LAS ‘DAS PA ZHI BA’I DON NI SLAR SKYE BA MI LEN BAR {%PAR} MAR ME SHI BA LTAR BA {?} MA RIG RGYUN CHAD PA LA ‘DOD PA GANG ZHIG ,KHYOD KYIS DE SLAR SKYE BA LEN PAR ‘DOD PAS MA ZHI BA’I PHYIR ZHES ZER RO,,

 

The whole point of saying that “nirvana is peace” is that you don’t take birth again.  The stream of misunderstanding is cut off, in the same way that the flame of a butter lamp is extinguished.  You’re saying a person is supposed to come back then and take another birth?  That’s not peace![84]

 

 

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[A64]

The Listener school appears to be taking issue with some descriptions of the state of Buddhahood found in the scriptures of the greater way.  For example, in the White Lotus Sutra we find:

 

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[A65]

,KHYED NI DA DUNG MYA NGAN YONGS MA ‘DAS,

,SANGS RGYAS THEG PA NYID NI [f. 57b] BTZAL BAR BYA,

 

You shouldn’t go to nirvana now;

Seek instead the Way of the Buddhas.

 

 

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[A66]

To understand this verse correctly, one must grasp the difference between higher and lower states of nirvana.  As we clarified above, nirvana is the permanent ending of the negative-emotion obstacles; that is, of the obstacles which prevent us from eliminating our harmful thoughts.

 

 

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[A67]

There is however another set of obstacles which only practitioners of the greater way can remove.  Obstacles to omniscience stand in the way of reaching the state of a fully enlightened being, the state of knowing all things.  In this state, one does not stay locked within the silent meditation of the nirvana of the Listener schools, nor does one stay trapped within the suffering of the cycle of pain.

 

 

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[A68]

Instead, a fully enlightened being—and only this kind of being—experiences the bliss of constant meditation on ultimate reality; and at the same time has the power to appear to and engage with living beings still trapped and suffering within the cycle.  Thus, we speak of the “nirvana which does not stay,” meaning that a totally enlightened being “stays” neither in the peace of lower nirvana nor in the pain of the cycle of suffering.  This state is reached only when both sets of obstacles are removed entirely. The Garland of White Lotuses puts it this way:

 

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[A69]

SGRIB GNYIS MA LUS PAR SPANGS PA’I SO SOR BRTAG ‘GOG, MI GNAS PA’I MYANG ‘DAS KYI MTSAN NYID, MTSAN GZHI, SANGS RGYAS ‘PHAGS PA’I RGYUD KYI ‘GOG BDEN LTA BU,

 

The definition of “nirvana which does not stay” is: “A cessation which comes from the individual analysis, and which consists of having eliminated both kinds of obstacles in their entirety.” A classical example of this would be the truth of cessation in the mental stream of a realized being who is a Buddha.[85]

 

 

The Secret Four Seals

 

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[A70]

While it would be inappropriate to go into much detail here, it is worth pointing out that there is a different set of Four Seals which are sometimes spoken of in the secret teachings of Buddhism.

 

From Je Tsongkapa’s Abbreviated Presentation of the Five Steps:

 

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[A71]

PHYAG RGYA BZHI YANG ‘DIR ‘DUS TE,

LAS KYI PHYAG RGYA GRAGS PA’I BUD MED DANG,

DAM TSIG GI PHYAG RGYA BSGOMS PA’I LHA MO DANG,

CHOS KYI PHYAG RGYA SNGAGS ‘KHOR BSGOM PA SOGS DANG,

PHYAG RGYA CHEN PO’I LHA SKU BSGOM BA SOGS TE,

‘DUS TSUL GO SLA’O,,

 

We can summarize these four seals like this:

The seal of ritual for example is a normal human woman.

The seal of pledge is a goddess that we see in meditation.

The seal of the dharma is a meditation upon secret words in a circle.

The great seal is seeing yourself with the body of an angel.

This is an easy way to summarize them.[86]

 

 

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[A72]

There is even a secret commentary called The Four Seals which is commonly attributed to Arya Nagarjuna; however, Buton Rinpoche suggests this is not actually the same Nagarjuna that we know as the great innovator of the Middle-Way school.

 

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[A73]

SLOB DPON KLU SGRUB KYIS MDZAD PA’I PHYAG RGYA BZHI BSTAN PA CHOS ‘BAR GYI ‘GYUR, ‘DI KLU SGRUB KYIS BYAS PA MIN PAR MAN SNYER BSHAD,

 

The Four Seals by Acharya Nagarjuna was translated into Tibetan by Blaze of Dharma.  According to The Golden Harvest of Advices, it was not written by Nagarjuna himself. [87]

 

 

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[A74]

As we can, see the secret version of the Four Seals is a topics which is entirely outside of our current context.

 

 

The Four Seals and The Wish

 

One last time, we’ll let Choney Lama repeat for us:

 

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[A75]

LTA BA BKA’ BRTAGS KYI PHYAG RGYA BZHI KHAS MI LEN PA’I NANG PA’I GRUB MTHA’ SMRA BA PO MED PA’I PHYIR,

 

There are no Buddhist schools of philosophy which deny the Four Seals which mark a view as the word of the Buddha.[88]

 

 

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[A76]

In the case of the greater way, these Four Seals, with the addition of the Wish for enlightenment constitute a totally comprehensive summary of the path to Buddhahood.  In the words of the Third Panchen Lama:

 

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[A77]

LTA BA DE BZHI DANG, BSAM PA SEMS BSKYED SOGS THABS KYI CHA RNAMS ZUNG DU SBREL TE THEG PA CHEN PO’I LAM GYI RIM PA TSANG LA MA NOR BA DRI MA MED PA’I RIGS PA’I LAM NAS DRANGS TE STON PAR MDZAD PAS NA,

 

These four viewpoints, together with the method side of the teaching—the attitude of wanting to reach enlightenment for the sake of others—include every stage of the path of the greater way: the path which is complete and unmistaken, unstained and flawless in its logical consistency.  And we teach this path to the disciple, and guide them along it.[89]

 

 

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[A78]

We’ll turn finally to Lord Buddha as he deftly threads all of these elements together for us in the Cloud of Jewels Sutra:

 

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[A79]

‘DU BYAS NI, MI RTAG PA’O, ,ZHES YANG DAG PA JI LTA BA BZHIN DU RAB TU SHES SO,,

 

Caused things must end.  Know this.  Know it completely.  Know it correctly, and just as it is.

 

 

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[A80]

‘DU BYAD {%BYED check a carving} RNAMS NI, SDUG BSNGAL BA’O, ,ZHES YANG DAG PA JI LTA BA BZHIN DU RAB TU SHES SO,,

 

Causes are pain.  Know this.  Know it completely.  Know it correctly, and just as it is.

 

 

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[A80]

‘JIG RTEN NI, STONG PA’O, ,ZHES YANG DAG PA JI LTA BA BZHIN DU RAB TU SHES SO,,

 

The world is empty.  Know this.  Know it completely.  Know it correctly, and just as it is.

 

 

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[A82]

CHOS THAMS CAD NI, BDAG MED PA’O, ,ZHES YANG DAG PA JI LTA BA BZHIN DU RAB TU SHES SO,,

 

Nothing is itself.  Know this.  Know it completely.  Know it correctly, and just as it is.

 

 

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[A83]

‘JIG RTEN NI, SPROS PA LA MNGON PAR DGA’ BA’O, ,ZHES YANG DAG PA JI LTA BA BZHIN DU RAB TU SHES SO,,

 

The world delights in fantasy.  Know this.  Know it completely.  Know it correctly, and just as it is.

 

 

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[A84]

CHOS THAMS CAD NI, RKYEN LAS BYUNG BA’O; ;ZHES YANG DAG PA JI LTA BA BZHIN DU RAB TU SHES SO,,

 

Things happen only under conditions.  Know this.  Know it completely.  Know it correctly, and just as it is.

 

 

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[A85]

MYA NGAN LAS ‘DAS PA NI, ZHI BA’O, ,ZHES YANG DAG PA JI LTA BA BZHIN DU RAB TU SHES SO,,

 

Going beyond misery is peace.  Know this.  Know it completely.  Know it correctly, and just as it is.

 

 

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[A86]

DE YANG THOS PA DANG, BSAM PA DANG, SGOM PAS SHES KYI SGRAR BRJOD PA TZAM GYIS MA YIN TE, DE LTAR SHES NAS KYANG SNYING RJE’I SEMS BRTAN PA NYE BAR BZHAG STE SEMS CAN RNAMS KYI DON DU RTZOL ZHING ‘DAB {%‘BAD} LA BRTZON ‘GRUS RTZOM MO,,

 

These things you will come to know by listening, contemplating, and meditating; but never just by the word themselves.  Then even once you know, you must toil, struggle, and strive to reach unshakable compassion for the good of every living being.[90]

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix B

 

Gelong Sherab Wangpo

on the Numerist (Sankhya) School

 

The following section is from The True Intent Made Even More Clear: A Treatment of Difficult Points in the Explanation of “Entering the Middle Way” entitled “Illumination of the True Thought,”  by Gelong Sherab Wangpo (1500-1586).[91]

 

 

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[folio 172b]

GSUM PA ‘JIG LTA’I DMIGS YUL BSHAD PA LA, ‘O NA ‘JIG LTA’I DMIGS YUL GYI NGA DE JI LTAR YIN ZHE NA, ‘DI LA GZHAN GYI ‘DOD PA DANG, RANG GI LUGS SO,,

 

Here is the third part of our discussion, where we examine the object which is focused upon by the view of destruction.  “How,” you may ask, “do we describe the ‘me’ which the view of destruction focuses upon?”  We’ll present our answer first from the position of other schools, and then from our own point of view.

 

 

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[B2]

DANG PO GZHAN SDES ‘DOD TSUL NI,

 

Here’s the way other schools think about it.

 

 

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[B3]

,ZA PO RTAG DNGOS BYED PO MIN PA’I BDAG ,CES SOGS GSUNGS PA LTAR, GRANGS CAN NA RE, SHES BYA LA NYI SHU RTZA [f. 173a] LNGA’I GRANGS NGES ZHES ZER,

 

We begin with the well-known lines:

 

The self is the partaker of things;

It is a functioning thing which never changes,

But it is not the creator.[92]

 

These and other such references present the position of the Numerists, who claim that all existing things can be counted into exactly 25 groups.

 

 

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[B4]

DE LTAR YANG, DE’I GZHUNG LAS,

,RTZA BA’I RANG BZHIN RNAM PAR ‘GYUR MIN LA,

,CHEN PO SOGS BDUN RANG BZHIN RNAM ‘GYUR YIN,

,BCU DRUG PO NI RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA STE,

,SKYES BU RANG BZHIN MA YIN RNAM ‘GYUR YIN {%MIN},

 

Their own text on the topic states:

 

The fundamental nature is no creation;

The seven that include the great principle

Are both creator and creation.

The sixteen are creations; and the soul

Is neither creator nor creation.[93]

 

 

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[B5]

ZHES BSHAD PA LTAR, SPYI GTZO BO, BLO ‘AM CHEN PO, NGA RGYAL, GZUGS SGRA DRI RO REG BYA STE DE TZAM LNGA,

 

What this is saying is that the components of existence are fixed at precisely 25; these are listed as follows.  First there are the primal nature; intellect, or the great principle; the sense of self, and the subtle elements (sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and tangible things).

 

 

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[B6]

DE LAS BYUNG BA’I SA CHU ME RLUNG NAM MKHA’ STE, ‘BYUNG BA LNGA, MIG DBANG NAS YID DBANG GI PAR {%BAR} GYI BLO DBANG DRUG

 

From those come the five great elements (earth, water, fire, wind, and space). Then come the powers through which we come to know things (the powers of the eye, ear, nose, tongue, skin, and the power of mind).

 

 

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[B7]

,NGAG GI DBANG PO LAG PA RKANG PA RKUB ‘DOM GYI DBANG PO STE LNGA, BDAG SHES RIG KYI SKYES BU DANG NYI SHU RTZA LNGAR NGES PA’I PHYIR,

 

There are also the five powers of action (speech, the arms, the legs, the anus, and the sexual organ).  Finally, there is the conscious self; the soul.

 

 

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[B8]

DE YANG RTZA BA’I RANG BZHIN RNAM PAR ‘GYUR MIN LA, BLO’AM CHEN PO LA SOGS PA BDUN RANG BZHIN DANG RNAM ‘GYUR YIN, GZHAN BCU DRUG NI RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA DANG, SKYES BU NI RANG BZHIN DANG RNAM ‘GYUR GNYIS KA MA YIN NO, ,ZHES  ZER,

 

The claim is that the fundamental nature is not a creation; whereas the seven which include the intellect, or the great principle, and so on are both creators and creations. The other sixteen are creations. The soul is neither a creator nor a creation.

 

 

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[B9]

DE YANG ‘DI YI RANG BZHIN RGYU DANG RNAM ‘GYUR NI ‘BRAS BU LA ‘DOD DO,,

 

In this presentation, “creator” means “cause,” and “creation” means “result.”

 

 

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[B10]

GRANGS CAN DANG BYE BRAG PA GNYIS KAS KYANG, BDAG DE KHYAD CHOS LNGA LDAN DU ‘DOD PA LA ‘DRA YANG, ‘DOD TSUL MI ‘DRA STE,

 

Although the Numerists and the Detailers are the same in their agreement that the self has five features, there are some differences in way they see these.

 

 

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[B11]

GRANGS CAN GYI BDAG DE ZA PO STE, ‘BRAS BU LA LONGS SPYOD PA PO DANG, ‘BRAS BU’I BYED PO MA YIN PA DANG, RTAG PA’I DNGOS PO DANG, RDUL MUN SNYING STOBS KYI YON TAN MED PA DANG, ‘GRO ‘ONG GI BYA BA DANG LDAN PA STE, KHYAD CHOS LNGA LDAN DU ‘DOD,

 

The Numerists believe that the self has these five qualities:

 

  1. It is the one who “partakes,” meaning the one who experiences results.
  2. It does not bring about results.
  3. It is a functioning thing which does not change.
  4. It does not possess the qualities of activity, darkness, and light.
  5. It comes and it goes.

 

 

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[B12]

BYE BRAG PAS GZHAN GSUM ‘DRA BA LA ‘BRAS BU’I BYED PA PO DANG YON TAN CAN DU ‘DOD DO, ,DE LTAR ‘DOD PA’I RGYU MTSAN YOD DE, BYE BRAG PAS BDAG DE RTAG PA’I DNGOS PO DANG YON TAN TE DON GZHAN GYI RTEN BYED PA RDZAS KYI MTSAN NYID DU ‘DOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

The Detailers are the same with respect to three of these points, but they say that the self does bring about results and does possess the three qualities. They think this because they accept that the self is an unchanging functioning thing; and accept as well that any substantial thing must, by definition, be a thing which supports something else—in this case the three qualities.

 

 

 

Appendix C

 

Je Tsongkapa

on the Numerist (Sankhya) School

 

The following section is from The Illumination of the True Thought, an Explanation of the Magnificent Classical Commentary entitled “Entering the Middle Way,” by Je Tsongkapa (1357–1419).[94]

 

 

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[folio 197b]

GNYIS PA LA GNYIS, BDAG RANG BZHIN GYIS GRUB PA DGAG PA DANG, BDAG GI BA RANG BZHIN GYIS GRUB PA DGAG PA’O,,

 

The second section[95] has two parts:

 

1) Denying a that a self could exist through some nature of its own;

2) Denying that anything belonging to the self could exist

through some nature of its own.

 

 

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[C2]

DANG PO LA DRUG ,

 

The part on denying that a self could exist through a nature of its own includes, in turn, six divisions:

 

 

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[C3]

GZHAN SDES BTAGS PA’I PHUNG PO LAS NGO BO THA DAD PA’I BDAG DGAG ,

 

1) We’ll deny the possibility of a self which other schools have dreamt up: a self which possesses a nature of being separate from the parts of a person.

 

 

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[C3]

RANG SDES BTAGS PA’I PHUNG PO NYID BDAG TU ‘DOD PA DGAG ,

 

2) We’ll refute the belief of certain members of our own school who believe that there could be a self which is just the parts of a person themselves.

 

 

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[C4]

DE GNYIS KYI LHAG MA’I PHYOGS RTEN DANG BRTEN PA SOGS GSUM DGAG ,

 

3) We’ll refute three ideas in addition to those two; one of them for example is the idea that the person and the parts of a person are, mutually, a basis and what rests upon that basis.

 

 

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[C5]

DE NYID DANG GZHAN NYID DU MED PA’I GANG ZAG RDZAS YOD DGAG ,

 

4) We’ll deny the possibility of a substantially-existing person which is neither those parts nor something separate from them.

 

 

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[C6]

BDAG BRTEN NAS BTAGS PA TZAM DU BZHAG PA DPE DANG BCAS PAR BSHAD,

 

5) We’ll explain, with the use of an example, how we establish that the self is merely labeled in a dependent way.

 

 

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[C7]

DE LTAR BZHAG PA LA MTHAR ‘DZIN GYI RTOG PA SPANG SLA BA’I YON TAN BSTAN PA’O,,

 

6) Finally, we’ll demonstrate that thinking in this way has a unique quality of helping us to easily move past extreme views.

 

 

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[C8]

DANG PO LA GNYIS, PHYOGS SNGA MA BRJOD PA DANG, LUGS DE DGAG PA’O,,

 

Our denial of a self which possesses a nature of being separate from the parts of a person will proceed in two steps: we’ll explain that position, and then refute it.

 

 

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[C9]

DANG PO NI, ‘JIG TSOGS LA LTA BA’I DMIGS PA BDAG DE CI ZHIG CES DE NYID MI SHES PAS [f. 198a] STON ZHIG CE NA, ‘DI LA GNYIS, GRANGS CAN GYI LUGS BRJOD PA DANG, BYE BRAG PA LA SOGS PA’I LUGS BRJOD PA’O,,

 

Here is the first.  Now suppose someone were to say,

 

Please, teach me.  What kind of a self is the view of destruction focused on?  I don’t understand.

 

The two answers we’ll give to this question are best expressed through the position of the Numerists (Sankhya); and through the position of the Detailers (Vaisheshika)—and others like them.

 

 

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[C10]

DANG PO NI, RE ZHIG DE ZA BA PO STE BDE SDUG SOGS LA LONGS SPYOD PA PO DANG, RTAG PA’I DNGOS PO DANG RNAM ‘GYUR RNAMS KYI BYED PA PO MIN PA DANG, RDUL MUN SNYING STOBS KYI RANG BZHIN GYI YON TAN MED PA DANG, KHYAB PAR BYED PA NYID YIN PA’I PHYIR NA, BYA BA MED PAR MU STEGS GRANGS CAN RNAMS KYIS BRTAGS {%BTAGS?} SO,,

 

Here is the first.  The non-Buddhist group called the “Numerists” imagines a self which is the consumer—meaning the one who experiences pleasure and pain.  They say that it is unchanging, but at the same time functioning; although it is not the creator of the expressions.  It does not have the nature of the three qualities of activity, darkness, and light.  It is the one thing which pervades all things, but it performs no activity.

 

 

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[C11]

DE LA GRANGS CAN PA DAG NI,

 

,RTZA BA’I RANG BZHIN RNAM PAR ‘GYUR MIN LA,

,CHEN PO SOGS BDUN RANG BZHIN RNAM ‘GYUR ZHING,

,BCU DRUG PO NI RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA STE,

,SKYES BU RANG BZHIN RNAM ‘GYUR MIN,

 

,ZHES SMRA BAR BYED DO,,

 

Their own text on the topic says:

 

The fundamental nature is no creation;

The seven that include the great principle

Are both creator and creation.

The sixteen are creations; and the soul

Is neither creator nor creation.[96]

 

 

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[C12]

DE LA ‘BRAS BU RAB TU BYED PAS NA RANG BZHIN NO,,

 

We call it the “fundamental nature” because it spews out results.

 

 

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[C13]

SKABS GANG DU BYED CE NA, SKYES BU’I ‘DOD PA MTHONG BA’I DUS SU’O,,

 

When does it do this?  When it sees the soul’s desire.

 

 

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[C14]

GANG GI TSE SGRA LA SOGS PA’I YUL NYE BAR LONGS SPYOD PA’I RNAM PA CAN GYI ‘DOD PA SKYES PA DE’I TSE SKYES BU’I ‘DOD PA YONGS SU SHES PA’I RANG BZHIN DANG SKYES BU SBYOR ZHING, DE NAS GTZO BOS SGRA LA SOGS PA ‘BYIN NO,,

 

A desire first arises in the soul, wishing to partake of sounds and so on.  The fundamental nature, which knows every wish of the soul, then joins with it; and then the primal nature gives forth the sounds and other objects.

 

 

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[C15]

DE’I TSUL NI ‘DI YIN TE, RANG BZHIN LAS NI CHEN PO’O, ,DE LAS KYANG NGA RGYAL LO, ,DE LAS DBANG PO BCU GCIG DANG DE TZAM LNGA STE BCU DRUG PO’I TSOGS SO,,

 

Here’s the process through which this happens.  It happens step by step: from the fundamental nature comes the great principle; and from that in turn comes the sense of self.  From the sense of self come the eleven powers, along with the five subtle elements—for a total of sixteen.

 

 

BCU DRUG PO LAS KYANG ‘BYUNG BA LNGA NI DE TZAM LNGA LAS TE, SGRA LA SOGS PA LNGA LAS ‘BYUNG BA LNGA ‘BYUNG NGO ZHES BYA BA NI RIM PA YIN NO,,

 

From among the sixteen then, the five great elements derive from the five subtle elements; the order is indicated in the wording, “the five great elements come from sound and the rest of the five.”[97]

 

 

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[C16]

RNAM ‘GYUR MIN LA ZHES PA NI ‘BRAS BU RAB TU BYED PA KHO NA YIN GYI, CHEN PO LA SOGS PA LTAR RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA YANG NI MA YIN NO,,

 

When we say that something is “not a creation,” what we mean is that it only produces results, and is not itself a creation—as the great principle and the rest are.

 

 

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[C17]

CHEN PO LA SOGS PA BDUN NI RAB TU BYED PA’ANG YIN [f. 198b] LA RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA YANG YIN NO,,

 

The seven including the great principle are both creators and creations.

 

 

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[C18]

CHEN PO LA SOGS PA YANG RANG GI RNAM ‘GYUR LA LTOS NAS RANG BZHIN YIN LA, RTZA BA’I RANG BZHIN LA LTOS NAS RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA YIN NO,,

 

The great principle and the others are creators from the perspective of the things which are their creations.  From the perspective of the root nature, though, they are creations.

 

 

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[C19]

BLO’I DBANG PO LA SOGS PA BCU DRUG NI RNAM ‘GYUR KHO NA’O,,

 

The sixteen which include the sense power of the mind and so on are only creations.

 

 

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[C20]

SKYES BU NI RAB TU BYED PA’ANG MA YIN LA, RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA YANG MA YIN NO,,

 

The soul is neither a creator nor a creation.

 

 

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[C21]

RNA BA LA SOGS PA’I DBANG PO LNGA YID KYIS BYIN GYIS BRLABS PAS YONGS SU GZUNG BA’I YUL SGRA LA SOGS PA DAG LA BLOS ZHEN PAR BYED LA, DE NAS BLOS ZHEN PAR BYAS PA’I DON LA SKYES BUS SEMS PAR BYED DO,,

 

The ear and the rest of the five powers, inspired by the mental sense power, cause the mind to yearn towards sound and the rest: the objects that they hold.  And then the soul turns its thoughts towards the objects that the mind has been yearning for.

 

 

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[C22]

DE LTAR YUL LA SPYOD ‘DOD PAS YUL NYE BAR LONGS SPYOD CING, GANG GI TSE YUL LA CHAGS PA CHUNG BA NYID KYIS SKYES BUS YUL LA NYES DMIGS SU BLTAS PAS, CHAGS PA DANG BRAL BAR GYUR PA DE’I TSE RIM GYIS BSAM GTAN SGOM ZHING, DE LA BRTEN NAS LHA’I MIG GI MNGON ZHES {%SHES} THOB PA NA,

 

Out of a desire for these objects, the soul comes to partake of them. At some point the desire for objects lessens, and the soul comes to see faults in these things.  Through becoming free of this desire, the soul cultivates meditative concentration—which leads to the achievement of the type of clairvoyance known as “the eyes of a god.”

 

 

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[C23]

MIG DE’I SGO NAS GTZO BO LA LTA BAR BYED LA, DES BLTAS PA DANG, GTZO BO DE GZHAN GYI BUD MED LTAR NGO TSA BAR GYUR BAS, BDAG LA MI ‘GRO ZHING ‘BRAL BAR ‘GYUR RO, ,

 

The soul then looks upon the primal nature with these new eyes.  When it does, then the nature—like a woman who is being stared at by a man other than her husband—becomes shy, and shrinks from view.  This nature then no longer comes to the self, and becomes disconnected from it.

 

 

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[C24]

RNAM ‘GYUR GYI TSOGS THAMS CAD KYANG SKYE BA’I RIM PA LAS BZLOG PA’I SGO NAS GTZO BO DE NYID DU RAB TU THIM PA’I PHYIR, MI GSAL BA’I NGO BOR GYUR PA DE’I TSE SKYES BU NYAG GCIG GNAS TE, DE’I PHYIR GROL BA ZHES BYA’O,,

 

At this point the entire group of expressions—the creations—dissolve completely back into the primal nature, in reverse order to the process by which they were created.  The nature then is reduced to its own featureless essential form, and the soul simply rests in total isolation.  This is how they describe liberation.

 

 

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[C25]

BDAG DE NI RTAG TU YAN GAR BA’I NGO BOR GNAS PA’I PHYIR RTAG PA ZHES BYA’O,,

 

Since the self will rest then, forever alone in its essence, they speak of it as “unchanging.”

 

 

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[C26]

GANG ZHIG NI BYED PA PO YIN LA GANG ZHIG NI BYED PA PO MA YIN ZHE NA, ‘DI LA RDUL MUN SNYING STOBS RNAMS NI YON TAN GSUM MO, ,DE LA RDUL NI G-YO BA DANG ‘JUG PA’I [f. 199a] BDAG NYID CAN NO, ,MUN PA NI LCI BA DANG G-YOG PA’I BDAG NYID CAN NO, ,SNYING STOBS NI YANG BA DANG RAB TU GSAL BA’I BDAG NYID CAN NO, ,BDE BA DANG SDUG BSNGAL DANG GTI MUG ZHES PA NI ‘DI DAG KHO NA’I RNAM GRANGS SO,,

 

Let’s talk about which of these are creators, and which are not.  The three qualities are activity, darkness, and light.  Activity has the nature of action and engagement.  Darkness has the nature of heaviness, and of smothering.  Light has the nature of lightness, and brightness. When we speak of pleasure, pain, and dark ignorance, they are synonyms for these three.

 

 

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[C27]

‘DI DAG CHA MNYAM PA’I SKABS NI GTZO BO STE, ‘DIR YON TAN DAG GTZOR GYUR CING RAB TU ZHI BAR GYUR PA’I PHYIR RO,,

 

“Primal nature” refers to a state of balance between these three, because the three qualities are both primary to that state and at rest in that state.

 

 

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[C28]

DE DAG RNAM PAR MI ‘GYUR BA’I SKABS NI RANG BZHIN NO,,

 

We call it “fundamental nature” when these qualities are in a state where they no longer fluctuate.

 

 

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[C29]

RANG BZHIN LAS NI CHEN PO STE, CHEN PO DANG BLO GNYIS NI RNAM GRANGS TE PHYI YUL DANG NANG GI SKYES BU’I GZUGS BRNYAN GNYIS KA ‘CHAR BA ZHIG GO ,

 

From that fundamental nature comes the great principle. “Great principle” and “intellect” refer to the same thing.  It reflects both the images of objects which are outside, as well as that of the soul, which is inside.

 

 

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[C30]

CHEN PO LAS NI NGA RGYAL LO, ,NGA RGYAL NI GSUM STE RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA CAN DANG, SNYING STOBS CAN DANG, MUN PA CAN NO,,

 

From the great principle comes the sense of self, and from the sense of self come three groups of things which relate to the activity; darkness; or light.[98]

 

 

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[C31]

DE LA RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA’I NGA RGYAL LAS NI DE TZAM LNGA STE, GZUGS DANG SGRA DANG DRI DANG RO DANG REG PA DAG GO ,

 

From the sense of self relating to activity come the five subtle elements: sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and tangible things.

 

 

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[C32]

DE TZAM DAG LAS NI ‘BYUNG BA RNAMS TE, SA DANG CHU DANG ME DANG RLUNG DANG NAM MKHA’ ZHES BYA BDAG {%BA DAG?} GO,

 

From those subtle elements come the great ones, called “earth,” “water,” “fire,” “wind,” and “space.”

 

 

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[C33]

SNYING STOBS CAN GYI NGA RGYAL LAS NI LAS KYI DBANG PO LNGA PO DAG {%NGAG} DANG LAG PA DANG RKANG PA DANG RKUB DANG, ‘DOMS KYI DBANG PO DANG, BLO’I DBANG PO LNGA PO MIG DANG RNA BA DANG SNA DANG LCE DANG LPAGS PA’AM LUS KYI DBANG PO DANG, GNYIS KA’I BDAG NYID CAN GYI YID DE DE LTAR NA BCU GCIG GO

 

Eleven expressions come from the sense of self related to light.  They are five organs of action (speech, hands, legs, anus, and sexual organ) and the five sense organs (eyes, ears, tongue, and skin or body sense power).  The combination of the organs of action and the sense organs amounts to the mental sense power.

 

 

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[C34]

,MUN PA CAN GYI NGA RGYAL NI NGA RGYAL GZHAN GNYIS KA’I ‘JUG PAR BYED PA’O,,

 

The sense of self related to darkness inspires the activities of the other two qualities.

 

 

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[C35]

DE LA CHEN PO DANG NGA RGYAL DANG DE TZAM LNGA STE BDUN NI RANG BZHIN DANG RNAM ‘GYUR GNYIS KA’O,,

 

The group of seven made up of the great principle, the sense of self, and the five subtle elements are both creators and creations.

 

 

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[C36]

DBANG PO BCU DANG YID DANG ‘BYUNG BA LNGA NI RNAM ‘GYUR KHO NA DANG,

 

The ten powers, the mind, and the five great elements are only creations.

 

 

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[C37]

RTZA BA’I RANG BZHIN GTZO BO NI [f. 199b] RANG BZHIN KHO NA’O ZHES PA NI GZHUNG LUGS SO,,

 

The root nature—the primal nature—is only a creator.  This is what their text is saying.

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix D

 

Master Chandrakirti

on the Numerist (Sankhya) School

 

 

The following section is from The Autocommentary to “Entering the Middle Way,” by Master Chandrakirti (c. 650ad).[99]

 

 

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[folio 292b]

‘JIG TSOGS LA LTA BA’I DMIGS PA BDAG DE CI ZHIG CES DE NYID MI SHES SO ZHE NA, DE LA RE ZHIG ,

 

One might start with the following question:

 

What kind of a self is the view of destruction focused upon?  I don’t understand.

 

And here is our answer—

 

 

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[D2]

,ZA PO RTAG DNGOS BYED PO MIN PA’I BDAG

,YON TAN BYA MED MU STEGS RNAMS KYIS BRTAGS {%BTAGS?},

,DED BYE {%DE’I DBYE} CUNG ZAD CUNG ZAD LA BRTEN NAS,

,MU STEGS CAN RNAMS LUGS NI THA DAD ‘GYUR,

 

The non-Buddhists think of the self

As the consumer:

As a functioning thing which is unchanging;

Which is not a creator;

Without qualities; without activity.

 

Based on slight distinctions in this description,

The various non-Buddhist systems have developed.

 

 

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[D3]

,DE LA GRANGS CAN PA DAG NI,

 

,RTZA BA’I RANG BZHIN RNAM PAR ‘GYUR MIN LA,

,CHEN PO SOGS BDUN RANG BZHIN RNAM ‘GYUR ZHING,

,BCU DRUG PO NI RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA STE,

,SKYES BU RANG BZHIN MA [f. 293a] YIN RNAM ‘GYUR MIN,

 

,ZHES SMRA BAR BYED DO, ,

 

Among these, the Numerists say:

 

The fundamental nature is no creation;

The seven that include the great principle

Are both creator and creation.

The sixteen are creations; and the soul

Is neither creator nor creation.[100]

 

 

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[D4]

DE LA RAB TU BYED PAS NA RANG BZHIN NO,,

 

We call the fundamental nature a “creator” because it spews out results.

 

 

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[D5]

GNAS SKABS GANG ZHIG TU RAB TU BYED CE NA, SKYES BU’I ‘DOD PA MTHONG BA’I DUS SU’O,,

 

When does it do so?  When it sees the soul’s desire.

 

 

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[D6]

GANG GI TSE SKYES BU LA SGRA LA SOGS PA’I YUL NYE BAR LONGS SPYOD PA’I RNAM PA CAN GYI ‘DOD PA SKYES PA DE’I TSE SKYES BU’I ‘DOD PA YONGS SU SHES PA’I RANG BZHIN DANG SKYES BU SBYOR ZHING DE NAS SGRA LA SOGS PA ‘BYIN PAR BYED DO,,

 

A desire first arises in the soul, wishing to partake of sounds and so on.  The fundamental nature, which knows every wish of the soul, then joins with it; and then the primal nature gives forth the sounds and other experiences.

 

 

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[D7]

DE LA TSUL NI ‘DI YIN TE, RANG BZHIN LAS NI CHEN PO’O, ,DE LAS NGA RGYAL LO, ,DE LAS BCU DRUG PO’I TSOGS SO, ,BCU DRUG PO DE LAS KYANG ‘BYUNG BA LNGA NI LNGA LAS TE SGRA LA SOGS PA DAG LAS ‘BYUNG BA LNGA ‘BYUNG NGO ZHES BYA BA ‘DI NI RIM PA YIN NO,,

 

Here’s the process through which this happens.  It happens step by step: from the fundamental nature comes the great principle; and from that in turn comes the sense of self.  From the sense of self comes the group of sixteen.[101]  And from these sixteen then come the five great elements; as they say, “From the five subtle elements come the five great elements.”[102]

 

 

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[D8]

RNAM PAR ‘GYUR MIN LA ZHES BYA BA NI GANG GI PHYIR RAB TU BYED PA KHO NA YIN GYI, CHEN PO LA SOGS PA LTAR RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA YANG NI MA YIN NO,,

 

When they say that something “is not a creation,” what they mean is that it only produces results; that is, it is not similar to the great principle and so on—things which are also creations.

 

 

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[D9]

CHEN PO LA SOGS PA DE DAG NI RAB TU BYED PA YANG YIN LA RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA YANG YIN TE,

 

The group including the great principle are both creators and creations.

 

 

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[D10]

DE’I PHYIR CHEN PO LA SOGS PA BDUN RANG BZHIN RNAM ‘GYUR ZHING ZHES BYA BA SMRAS TE CHEN PO LA SOGS PA DAG KYANG RANG GI RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA LA LTOS NAS RANG BZHIN YIN LA, RANG BZHIN LA LTOS NAS RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA YIN NO,,

 

And this is why we can say “The seven including the great principle are both creators and creations”:  from the perspective of the things which are their creations, they are creators; and from the perspective of the fundamental nature, they are creations.

 

 

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[D11]

BLO’I DBANG PO LA SOGS PA BCU DRUG PO NI RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA KHO NA STE, DE’I PHYIR BCU DRUG PO NI RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA STE ZHES BYA BA SMRAS SO,,

 

The sixteen which include the sense power of the mind and so on are only creations; which is why the verse says that “sixteen are creations.”

 

 

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[D12]

NI’I SGRA NI RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA KHO NA STE ZHES NGES PAR BZUNG BA’I DON DU’O,,

 

The word “the” before the word “sixteen” in the verse is meant to indicate a quality of being fixed: these are only creations.[103]

 

 

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[D13]

SKYES BU NI RAB TU BYED PA YANG MA YIN LA RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA YANG MA YIN NO ZHES SMRA BA NI, SKYES BU RANG BZHIN MA YIN RNAM ‘GYUR MIN, ,ZHES BYA BA’O,,

 

The soul is “neither a creator nor a creation”; which is to say, it is neither a nature nor an expression of that nature.

 

 

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[D14]

RIM PA ‘DIS RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA’I TSOGS THAMS CAD SKYES PAS ‘DOD PA SKYES PA’I SKYES BU NYE BAR ZA BA POR JI LTAR ‘GYUR BA BRJOD PAR BYA STE,

 

The whole collection of creations come about in the following sequence.  What’s being described is how—once the soul gives rise to a feeling of desire—it then goes on to become the consumer.

 

 

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[D15]

RNA BA LA SOGS PA’I BLO’I DBANG PO YID KYIS BYIN GYIS BRLABS PA DAG GIS YONGS SU BZUNG BA’I YUL SGRA LA SOGS PA DAG LA BLOS ZHEN PAR BYED LA DE NAS BLOS ZHEN PAR BYAS PA’I DON LA SKYES BU SEMS PAR BYED DE, DE LTAR SKYES BU SEMS PA YOD PA’I RANG GI NGO BO YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

The ear and the other sense powers, inspired by the mental sense power, cause the mind to yearn towards sound and the rest: the objects that they hold.  And then the soul turns its thoughts towards the objects that the mind has been yearning for.  Thus it is that the soul becomes something with a nature of possessing thinking.

 

 

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[D16]

BDAG YUL DAG NYE BAR LONGS SPYOD DO ZHES BRJOD DO, ,DE LTAR ‘DOD PAS YUL NYE BAR LONGS SPYOD CING,

 

The soul says to itself “I would like to enjoy these objects”; and then, because of that desire, the soul partakes of those objects.

 

 

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[D17]

GANG GI TSE CHAGS [f. 293b] PA CHUNG BA NYID KYIS SKYES BU YUL DAG LA CHAGS PA DANG BRAL BAR GYUR PA DE’I TSE RIM GYIS BSAM GTAN BSGOMS SHING LHA’I SHES PA YANG DAG PAR BLANGS PAS LHA’I MIG GI SGO NAS

 

At some point that desire lessens and the soul gradually loses its attachment to those objects.  The soul then develops meditative concentration, and from that comes divine vision: the clairvoyance known as “the eyes of a god.”

 

 

RANG BZHIN LA LTA BAR BYED LA DES BLTAS PA DANG DE GZHAN GYI BUD MED LTAR NGO TSA BAR GYUR PAS BDAG LA MI KHRO {%‘GRO} ZHING BRAL BAR ‘GYUR RO,,

 

The soul then looks upon the primal nature with these new eyes.  When it does, then the nature—like a woman who is being stared at by a man other than her husband—becomes shy, and shrinks from view.  This nature then no longer comes to the self, and becomes disconnected from it.

 

 

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[D18]

RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA’I TSOGS THAMS CAD KYANG SKYE BA’I RIM PA LAS BZLOG PA’I SGO NAS DE NYID DU RAB TU ZHI BA’I PHYIR MI GSAL BA’I NGO BOR GYUR PA DE’I TSE SKYES BU NYAG GCIG GNAS TE DE’I PHYIR GROL BA ZHES BYA’O,,

 

At this point the entire group of expressions—the creations—dissolve completely back into the primal nature, in the reverse order of the process by which they were created.  The nature then returns to complete rest and is reduced to its own featureless essential form; and the soul just rests in total isolation.  This is how they describe liberation.

 

 

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[D19]

DE NI RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA ZHAR ZIN KYANG ZHA {%ZHAR} BAR MI ‘GYUR  BA NYID KYIS RTAG TU YAN GAR BA’I NGO BOR GNAS PA’I PHYIR RTAG PA ZHES BYA BA’O,,

 

The soul then has appeared as a creation; but because this appearance will never again change—since the soul will rest then, forever alone in its essence—they speak of it as “unchanging.”

 

 

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[D20]

RANG BZHIN NYID BYED PA PO YIN ZHING RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA RNAMS LAS KYANG KHA CIG BYED PA PO YIN PA’I PHYIR LA, BDAG NI BYA BA LA SNYOM LAS CAN NYID DU GYUR PA’I PHYIR NA BYED PA PO MA YIN PA NYID CES BRJOD DO,,

 

Though the fundamental nature itself is the creator, some of its creations create as well.  And since the self is relatively inactive, it is said not to be a creator.

 

 

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[D21]

NYE BAR LONGS SPYOD PA PO NYID NI JI SKAD SMRAS PA’I TSUL GYIS BSTAN ZIN PA NYID DO,,

 

We can see why the self is considered to be only an experiencer, based on what has been said already.

 

 

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[D22]

RDUL DANG MUN PA DANG SNYING STOBS KYI RANG BZHIN MED PA’I PHYIR NA YON TAN MED PA NYID DO,,

 

The self is described as being “entirely without qualities” because it lacks any nature of activity, darkness, or light.

 

 

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[D23]

KHYAB PAR BYED PA NYID MA YIN PA’I PHYIR NI BYA BA MED PA NYID DE, DE LTA BU NI SKYES BU’I KHYAD PAR DAG GO,,

 

The self is also described as “without any activity,” because it is not something which pervades all things.  These then are the features of the soul.

 

 

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[D24]

DE LA RANG BZHIN NYID BYED PA PO YIN ZHING RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA RNAMS LAS KYANG KHA CIG BYED PA PO YIN PA’I PHYIR LA ZHES GANG SMRAS NA, RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA GANG DAG GCIG NI BYED PA PO NYID YIN LA GANG DAG GCIG NI BYED PA PO NYID MA YIN ZHE NA, ‘DI LA BYE BRAG TU BSHAD PAR BYA BA’I PHYIR CUNG ZAD CIG BRJOD PAR BYA STE,

 

If the nature itself is the creator and some of its creations or expressions are described as creating as well, then which of these expressions are creators, and which are not?  Let’s go into some more detailed discussion on this question.

 

 

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[D25]

DE LA RDUL DANG MUN PA DANG SNYING STOBS GSUM NI YON TAN GSUM MO,,

 

The three qualities are activity, darkness, and light.

 

 

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[D26]

DE LA RDUL NI G-YO BA DANG ‘JUG PA’I BDAG NYID CAN NO, ,MUN PA NI LCI BA DANG G-YOGS PA’I BDAG NYID CAN NO, ,SNYING STOBS NI YANG BA DANG RAB TU GSAL BA’I BDAG NYID CAN NO,,

 

Activity has the nature of action and engagement.  Darkness has the nature of heaviness, and smothering things.  Light has the nature of lightness and brightness.[104]

 

 

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[D27]

BDE BA DANG SDUG BSNGAL BA DANG GTI MUG CES BYA BA NI ‘DI DAG KHO NA’I RNAM GRANGS SO,,

 

When we speak of “pleasure, pain, and dark ignorance,” these three are actually what we’re talking about.

 

 

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[D28]

‘DI DAG CHA MNYAM PA’I GNAS SKABS NI GTZO BO STE, ‘DIR YON TAN DAG GTZO BOR GYUR CING RAB TU ZHI BAR GYUR PA’I PHYIR RO,,

 

When these three are in balance, we call that state “the primal nature”; because at this point the qualities are primary, and are at a state of rest.

 

 

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[D29]

DE DAG RNAM PAR MI ‘GYUR BA’I GNAS SKABS NI RANG BZHIN CAN NO,,

 

When these qualities are in a state where they no longer fluctuate, we can say they possess the “nature.”

 

 

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[D30]

RANG BZHIN LAS CHEN PO STE CHEN PO ZHES [f. 294a] BYA BA NI BLO’I RNAM GRANGS SO,,

 

When we say the great principle comes from the nature, “great principle” is a synonym for “intellect.”

 

 

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[D31]

CHEN PO LAS NI NGA RGYAL LO,,

 

The sense of self comes from the great principle.

 

 

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[D32]

DE NI RNAM PA GSUM STE, RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA DANG, SNYING STOBS CAN DANG, MUN PA CAN NO,,

 

There are three types of this sense of self: changing, or involving activity; involving light; and involving darkness.

 

 

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[D33]

DE LA RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA’I NGA RGYAL LAS NI DE TZAM LNGA STE, GZUGS DANG SGRA DANG DRI DANG RO DANG REG PA DAG GO ,,

 

The five subtle elements come from the changing form of the sense of self.  These are sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and tactile objects.

 

 

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[D34]

DE TZAM DAG LAS NI ‘BYUNG BA RNAMS TE, SA DANG CHU DANG ME DANG RLUNG DANG NAM MKHA’ ZHES BYA BA DAG GO,

 

From the subtle elements come the great elements: the ones we refer to as “earth, water, fire, wind, and space.”

 

 

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[D35]

SNYING STOBS CAN GYI NGA RGYAL LAS NI LAS KYI DBANG PO LNGA PO DAG {%NGAG} DANG LAG PA DANG, RKANG PA DANG, RKUB DANG, MDOMS {%‘DOMS} DANG, BLO’I DBANG PO LNGA PO MIG DANG, RNA BA DANG, SNA DANG, LCE DANG, PAGS PA DANG, GNYI GA’I BDAG NYID CAN GYI YID DE DE LTAR NA BCU GCIG GO,

 

When the sense of self is involved with the quality of light, it leads to eleven creations. These are the five organs of action (speech, the hands, the legs, the anus, and the sexual organ); the five sense organs (the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin); and also the mental sense which is a combination of these other powers.

 

 

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[D36]

MUN PA CAN GYI NGA RGYAL NI NGA RGYAL GNYI GA’I ‘JUG PAR BYED PA’O,

 

The sense of self acts in both of those ways when it is influenced by darkness.

 

 

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[D37]

DE LA CHEN PO DANG NGA RGYAL DANG DE TZAM LNGA NI RANG BZHIN DANG RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA NYID YIN ZHING DBANG PO BCU DANG YID DANG ‘BYUNG BA CHEN PO RNAMS NI RNAM PAR ‘GYUR BA NYID KHO NA YIN LA, RANG BZHIN NI RNAM PAR MI ‘GYUR BA KHO NA YIN NO ZHES BYA BA NI GZHUNG LUGS SO,,

 

The great principle, the sense of self, and the five subtle elements are both creators and creations.  The ten powers, along with the mental sense and the five great elements, are only creations.  The fundamental nature is always a thing which is never created.  This is what their verse is saying.

 

 

357 Leave a comment on block 357 0

[D38]

JI LTAR GRANGS CAN PA DAG GIS DE LTAR KHAS BLANGS PA DE BZHIN DU, DE’I DBYE BA CUNG ZAD CUNG ZAD LA BRTEN NAS MU STEGS CAN RNAMS KYI LUGS THA DAD PAR ‘GYUR TE, ‘DI LTA STE BYE BRAG PA RNAMS NI,

 

These then are the beliefs of the Numerist system.  Minor distinctions began to develop between different members of this group, which then led to the different non-Buddhist schools.  Of these, we can start with the Detailers…

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography of works

originally written in Sanskrit

 

Please note that items marked with an asterisk (*) have been reconstructed and may require correction when further data becomes available.

 

%S1

Kṣemaṃkara@ (Tib: bDe-byed bdag-po), c. @ad.  The Praise of the One Who is More Sublime than the Gods (Devātiśaya Stotra) (Tib: Lha las phul du byung-bar bstod-pa, Tibetan translation at ACIP digital text TD01112, ff. 43b-45a of Vol. 1 [Ka] in the Collected Eulogies Section [Stotragaa*, bsTod-tsogs] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition].

 

%S2

Śākyamuni Buddha (Tib: Sh’akya thub-pa), 500bc.  An Exalted Sutra of the Greater Way entitled “A Journey to Langka” (Ārya Lakāvatāra Nāma Mahāyāna Sūtra) (Tib: ‘Phags-pa Langkar gshegs-pa’i theg-pa chen-po’i mdo, Tibetan translation at KL00107, ff. 87b-307a of Vol. 5 (Ca) of the Collection of Sutras Section [Sūtra, mDo-mang] of the bKa’-‘gyur [lHa-sa edition])

 

%S3

Udbhaṭasiddhasvāmin (Tib: mTho-btzun grub-rje), @ ad.  A Praise of the Exalted One (Viśita Stava) (Tib: Khyad-par du ‘phags-pa’i bstod-pa, Tibetan translation at TD01109, ff. 1b-4b of Vol. 1 [Ka] in the Collected Eulogies Section [Stotragaa*, bsTod-tsogs] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition].

 

%S4

Prajñāvarman (Tib: Shes-rab go-cha), c. @ ad.  A Detailed Commentary upon “A Praise of the Exalted One” (Viśea Stava Nāma īkā) (Tib: Khyad-par du ‘phags-pa’i bstod-pa’i rgya-cher bshad-pa, Tibetan translation at TD01110, ff. 5a-42b of Vol. 1 [Ka] in the Collected Eulogies Section [Stotragaa*, bsTod-tsogs] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition].

 

%S5

Śāntarakṣita (Tib: Zhi-ba tso), c. @ ad. A Collection of Verses on Suchness (Tattva Sagraha Kārikā) (Tib: De-kho-na-nyid bdus-pa’i tsig-le’ur byas-pa, Tibetan translation at TD04266, ff. 1b-133a of Vol. 18 [Ze] of the Valid-Perception Section [Pramāṇa, Tsad-ma] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

%S6

Dharmakīrti (Tib: Chos kyi grags-pa), c. @ ad.  A Detailed Commentary on Valid Perception (Pramāṇavārtika) (rGyas-pa’i bstan-bcos tsad-ma rnam-‘grel, Tibetan translation at TD04210, Vol. 1 [Ce] of the Valid-Perception Section [Pramāṇa, Tsad-ma] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

%S7

Candrakīrti (Tib: Zla-ba grags-pa), c. @ad.  The Autocommentary  to “Entering the Middle Way” (Madhyāmaka Avatāra Bhāa) (Tib: dBu-ma la ‘jug-pa’i bshad-pa, Tibetan translation at TD03862, ff. 220b-348a of Vol. 7 [‘A] in the Middle-Way Section [Madhyāmaka, dBu-ma] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

%S8

Candrakīrti (Tib: Zla-ba grags-pa), c. @ ad.  Entering the Middle Way (Madhyāmaka Avatāra) (Tib: dBu-ma la ‘jug-pa, Tibetan translation at TD03861, ff. 201b-219a of Vol. 7 [‘A] in the Middle-Way Section [Madhyāmaka, dBu-ma] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

%S9

Bhāvaviveka (Tib: Legs-ldan ‘byed), c @ ad. The Blaze of Reasoning: A Commentary to “The Heart of the Middle Way” (Madhyāmaka Hṛdaya Vṛtti Tarka Jvālā) (Tib: dBu-ma’i snying-po’i ‘grel-pa rTog-ge ‘bar-ba, Tibetan translation at TD03856, ff. 40b-329a of Vol. 3 (Dza) of the Middle-Way Section [Madhyāmaka, dBu-ma] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

%S10

Bhāvaviveka (Tib: Legs-ldan ‘byed), c @ ad.  Verses on the Heart of The Middle Way (Madhyāmaka Hṛdaya Kārikā) (Tib: dBu-ma’i snying-po’i tsig-le’ur byas-pa, Tibetan translation at TD03855, ff. 1b-40b of Vol. 3 [Dza] of the Middle-Way Section [Madhyāmaka, dBu-ma] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

%S11

Kamalaśīla (Tib: Ka-ma-la-sh’i-la), c. @ad.  A Treatise entitled “The Illumination of Suchness” (Tattvāloka Nāma Prakaraṇa) (Tib: De-kho-na-nyid snang-ba zhes-bya-ba’i rab-tu-byed-pa, Tibetan translation at TD03888, ff. 244b-273a of Vol. 12 [Sa] of the Middle-Way Section [Madhyāmaka, dBu-ma] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

%S12

Iśvarakṛṣṇa (Tib: dBang-phyug nag-po) c. @ad.  Verses on The Numerists (khya Kārikā).   “Isvarakrsna: Samkhyakarika (Samkhyasaptati) [sic],” GRETIL – Göttingen Register of Electronic Texts in Indian Languages, http://gretil.sub.uni-goettingen.de/gretil/1_sanskr/6_sastra/3_phil/samkhya/iskar_u.htm, accessed January 6, 2018.

 

%S13

Vasubandhu (Tib: dByig-gnyen), c. @ad.  The Treasure House of Higher Knowledge, Set in Verse (Abhidharmakoṣakārikā) (Tib: Chos mngon-pa’i mdzod kyi tsig-le’ur byas-pa, Tibetan translation at TD04089, ff. 1b-25a of Vol. 2 [Ku] in the Higher Knowledge Section [Abhidharma, mNgon-pa] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

%S14

Śāntideva (Tib: Zhi-ba lha).  A Guide to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life (Bodhisattva Caryāvatāra) (Tib: Byang-chub sems-dpa’i spyod-pa la ‘jug-pa, Tibetan translation at TD03871, ff. 1b-40a of Vol. 26 [La] of the Middle-Way Section [Madhyāmaka, dBu-ma] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

%S15

Śākyamuni Buddha (Tib: Sh’akya thub-pa), 500bc. An Exalted Teaching entitled “Bringing to Mind the Holy Teachings,” Part 1 (Ārya Saddharma Smityupasthāna, Prathama Vibhāga) (Tib: ‘Phags-pa dam-pa’i chos dran-pa nye-bar gzhag-pa, cha dang-po, complete Tibetan translation in four volumes: KL00287-1, ff 171a-516a of Vol. 22 (Za) of the Collection of Sutras Section [Sūtra, mDo-mang] of the bKa’-‘gyur [lHa-sa edition]; KL00287-2, ff.478 of Vol. 23 [‘A]; KL00287-3 ff.521 Vol. 24 [Ya]; KL00287-4 ff.355 Vol. 25 [Ra]).

 

%S16

Śākyamuni Buddha (Tib: Sh’akya thub-pa), 500bcAn Exalted Sutra of the Greater Way entitled “The Cloud of the Jewels” (Ārya Ratna Megha Nāma Mahāyāna Sūtra) (Tib: ‘Phags-pa dKon-mchog sprin ces-bya-ba theg-pa chen-po’i mdo, Tibetan translation at KL00231, ff. 1b-180a of Vol. 18 [Tsa] in the Sutra Section [Sūtra, mDo-mang] of the bKa’-‘gyur [lHa-sa edition]).

 

%S17

Dharmamitra (Chos-kyi bshes-gnyen) @ ad.  Verses of Perfect Clarity:  An Explanation of “The Ornament of Realizations,” a Classical Commentary of Advices upon the Perfection of Wisdom, Set in Verse (Abhisamayālakāra Kārikā Prajñāpāramitā Upadeśa Śāstra īkā Prasphua Padā Nāma) (Tib: Shes-rab kyi pha-rol tu phyin-pa’i man-ngag gi bstan-bcos mNgon-par rtogs-pa’i rgyan gyi tsig-le’ur byas-pa’i ‘grel-bshad Tsig rab-tu gsal-ba zhes-bya, Tibetan translation at TD03796, ff. 1b-110a of Vol. 87 (Nya) of the Perfection of Wisdom Section (Prajñā Pāramita, Shes-phyin) of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

%S18

Jayananda (Tib: rGyal-bas dgyes), c. @ad.  An Explanation of “Entering the Middle Way,” (Madhyāmakāvatārasya īkā) (Tib: dBu-ma la ‘jug-pa’i ‘grel-bshad, Tibetan translation at TD03870, ff. 1b-365a of Vol. 25 [Ra] in the Middle-Way Section [Madhyāmaka, dBu-ma] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

%S19

Dharmakīrtiśrī (Chos-kyi grags-pa dpal) @ ad. An Explanation of “The Illumination of Difficult Points,” a Commentary upon “The Ornament of Realizations,” Itself a Classical Commentary of Advices upon the Perfection of Wisdom (Abhisamayālakāra Nāma Prajñāpāramitā Upadeśa Śāstra Vtti Duravabodhāloka Nāma ) (Tib: Shes-rab kyi pha-rol tu phyin-pa’i man-ngag gi bstan-bcos mNgon-par rtogs-pa’i rgyan zhes-bya-ba’i ‘grel-pa rTogs-par dka’-ba’i snang-ba zhes-bya-ba’i ‘grel-bshad, Tibetan translation at TD03794, ff. 140b-254a of Vol. 7 (Ja) of the Perfection of Wisdom Section (Prajñā Pāramita, Shes-phyin) of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

%S20

Jñānaśrībhadra (Ye-shes dpal bzang-po) @ad. A Commentary upon the Exalted “Journey to Langka” (Ārya Lakāvatāra Vtti) (Tib: ‘Phags-pa Lang-kar gshegs-pa’i ‘grel-pa, Tibetan translation at TD04018, ff. 1b-262a of Vol. 9 (Ni) of the “Commentaries to Sutras” Section [Sūtra Vtti, mDo-‘grel] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

%S21

Śākyamuni Buddha (Tib: Sh’akya thub-pa), 500bc.  The Foundation of Assorted Topics of Vowed Morality (Vinaya Kudraka Vastu) (Tib: ‘Dul-ba phran-tsegs kyi gzhi, Tibetan translation at KL00006, in 2 parts: Vol. 10 [Tha], ff. 1a-467a, and Vol. 11 [Da], ff. 1a-509a, in the “Vowed Morality” Section [Vinaya, ‘Dul-ba] of the bKa’-‘gyur [lHa-sa edition]).

 

%S22

Bodhibhadra (Tib: Byang-chub bzang-po), c.  @.  An Explication of “A Compendium of the Essence of Wisdom” (Jñāna Sāra Samucchaya Nāma Nibandhana) (Tib: Ye-shes snying-po kun las btus-pa zhes-bya-ba’i bshad-sbyar, Tibetan translation at TD03852, ff. 28a-45b of Vol.  18 (Tsa) in the Middle-Way Section [Madhyāmaka, dBu-ma] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

%S23

Candrakīrti (Tib: Zla-ba grags-pa), c.  @ad.  A Detailed Explanation of the 400 Verses describing the Way of Practice of a Bodhisattva (Bodhisattva Yogacara Catuśataka īkā) (Tib: Byang-chub sems-dpa’i rnal-‘byor spyod-pa bZhi-brgya-pa’i rgya-cher ‘grel-pa, Tibetan translation at ACIP TD03865, ff. 30b-239a of Vol.  8 [Ya] in the Middle-Way Section [Madhyāmaka, dBu-ma] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

%S24

Vyāsa (Tib: Drang-srong rGyas-pa) c.  @ad.  The Great Epic of India (Mahābhārata).  “Mahabharata: Asvamedhikaparvan [sic],” GRETIL (Göttingen Register of Electronic Texts in Indian Languages), http://gretil.sub.uni-goettingen.de/gretil/1_sanskr/2_epic/mbh/mbh_14_u.htm, accessed March 13, 2018.

 

%S25

Āryadeva (Tib: ‘Phags-pa lha), c.  @ad.  Stanzas entitled “A Classical Commentary in 400 Verses” (Catuśataka Śāstra Kārikā Nāma) (Tib: bsTan-bcos bZhi-brgya-pa zhes-bya-ba’i tsig-le’ur byas-pa, Tibetan translation at TD03846, ff. 1b-18a of Vol.  18 [Tsa] in the Middle-Way Section [Madhyāmaka, dBu-ma] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

%S26

Śāntarakṣita (Tib: Zhi-ba ‘tso), c. @ad.  A Commentary to the “Jewel of the Middle Way” (Madhyāmaka Alaṃkāra Vṛtti) (Tib: dBu-ma rgyan gyi ‘grel-pa, Tibetan translation at TD03885, ff. 56b-84a of Vol. 12 [Sa] in the Middle-Way Section [Madhyāmaka, dBu-ma] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

%S27

Vairocana Rakṣita (Tib: Bee-ro-tza-na rakṣhi-ta), c. @ad.  An Explanation of Difficult Points in “A Guide to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life” (Bodhisattva Caryāvatāra Pañjikā) (Tib: Byang- chub sems-dpa’i spyod-pa la ‘jug-pa’i dka’-‘grel, Tibetan translation at TD03875A, ff. 95b-159a of Vol. 11 [Sha] in the Middle-Way Section [Madhyāmaka, dBu-ma] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

%S28

(Śrī) Vibhūti Candra (Tib: [Shr’i] Bi-bh’u-ti tzandra), c. @ad.  An Illumination of Special Points: A Commentary upon the True Thought of the “Guide to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life” (Bodhicaryāvatāra Tātparyapañjikā Viśea Dyotanī) (Tib: Byang-chub kyi spyod-pa la ‘jug-pa’i dgongs-pa’i ‘grel-pa Khyad-par gsal-byed, Tibetan translation at TD03880, ff. 192b-285a of Vol. 11 [Sha] in the Middle-Way Section [Madhyāmaka, dBu-ma] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography of works

originally written in Tibetan

 

 

%B1

(Co-ne bla-ma) Grags-pa bshad-sgrub (1675-1748).  A Brief Essence of All Schools of Philosophy (Grub-mtha’ thams-cad gyi snying-po bsdus-pa, ACIP S25008), 24ff.

 

%B2

(rJe) Tzong-kha-pa (Blo-bzang grags-pa) (1357-1419).  “The Revelation of Vital Points of All the Secrets,” being a Book on the Stages of the Path in the Practice of the Lord over the Secret World of all the Victors, the Great Keeper of the Diamond (Vajradhara) (rGyal-ba khyab-bdag rDo-rje ‘chang chen-po’i lam gyi rim-pa gSang-ba kun gyi gnad rnam-par phye-ba sngags-rim chen-mo, ACIP S05281), 441ff.

 

%B3

rGyal-tsab rje (Dar-ma rin-chen) (1364-1432).  Illumination of the Path to Freedom, on Valid Perception (Tsad-ma thar-lam gsal-byed, ACIP S05450), 436ff.

 

%B4

Co-ne bla-ma Grags-pa bshad-sgrub (1675-1748).  The Cloud of Offerings, which Pleases the Wise, and Illuminates the True Thought of the Treatise known as the “Ornament of Realizations”: A Combined Word Commentary and Dialectical Analysis of the Work (mNgon-par rtogs-pa’i rgyan gyi dgongs-pa gsal-bar byed-pa mKhas-pa dgyes-pa’i mchod-sprin, tsig don mtha’ dpyod zung ‘brel du bshad pa, ACIP S00195), in 6 volumes with the following pagination: Vol. 1 (on Chapter 1 of the root text), 173ff; Vol. 2 (on Ch. 2), 55ff; Vol. 3 (on Ch. 3), 28ff; Vol. 4 (on Ch. 4), 77ff; Vol. 5 (on Chs. 5-7), 33ff; and Vol. 6 (on Ch. 8), 36ff.

 

%B5

Pha-bong kha-pa bDe-chen snying-po (1878-1941). The Key that Opens the Door to the Excellent Path: Notes of an Explanation Granted when the Holder of the Diamond, the Good and Glorious Pabongka, Granted Profound Teachings upon “The Three Principal Paths” (rDo-rje ‘chang Pha-bong kha-pa dpal bzang-pos Lam-gtzo’i zab-khrid stzal skabs kyi gsung-bshad zin-bris Lam-bzang sgo-‘byed, ACIP S00034), 41ff.

 

%B6

lCang-skya Rol-pa’i rdo-rje (1717-1768).  Part Four of The Lovely Jewel for the Mountain Peak of the Teachings of the Able One, being a Survey of the Schools of Philosophy (‘Grub-pa’i mtha’i rnam-par bzhag-pa gsal-bar bshad-pa Thub-bstan lhun-po’i mdzes-gyan zhes-bya-ba las sde tsan-bzhi-pa, ACIP S00063), 149ff.

 

%B7

mKhas-grubs rje (dGe-legs dpal bzang-po) (1385-1438). Clearing the Darkness of the Mind—Jewel of the Seven Works on Valid Perception (Tsad-ma sde-bdun gyi rgyan Yid kyi mun-sel, ACIP S05501), 186ff.

 

%B8

rJe Tzong-kha-pa (Blo-bzang grags-pa) (1357–1419).  The Illumination of the True Thought, an Explanation of the Magnificent Classical Commentary entitled “Entering the Middle Way” (bsTan-bcos chen-po dBu-ma la ‘jug-pa’i rnam-bshad dGongs-pa rab-gsal, ACIP ST05408), 288ff.

 

%B9

dGe-slong shes-rab dbang-po (1500-1586).  The True Intent Made Even More Clear: A Treatment of Difficult Points in the Explanation of “Entering the Middle Way” Entitled “Illumination of the True Thought” (dBu-ma la ‘jug-pa’i rnam-bshad dGongs-pa rab-gsal gyi dka’-gnad gtan la ‘bebs-pa dGongs-pa yang-gsal, ACIP S00027), 188ff.

 

%B10

(Aa-lag-sha Ngag-dbang) bsTan-dar lha-rams-pa (1759-1831).  A String of Pearls to Adorn the Throats of those of Clear Intellect: Metaphors from Three Chapters of the “Mirror of Classical Poetics” (sNyan-ngag me-long le’u gsum gyi dper-brjod Blo-gsal mgul-rgyan Mu-thig [sic] phreng mdzes, ACIP S25007), 34ff.

 

%B11

Various authors (modern).  The Great Dictionary of the Tibetan and Chinese Languages (Bod-rgya tsig-mdzod chen-mo) (Beijing: Mi-rigs dpe-skrun khang, 1985, ACIP R00002), 3 vols.

 

%B12

(mKhas-grub) bsTan-pa dar-rgyas (1493-1568).  An Illumination of the “Jewel of the Essence of Good Explanation”: An Overview of the Root Text and Commentary to the Classical Commentary Known as “The Ornament of Realizations,” Part One (bsTan-bcos mNgon-par rtogs-pa’i rgyan rtza-‘grel gyi spyi-don rNam-bshad snying-po rgyan gyi snang-ba, cha dang-po, ACIP SE00009 in 6 volumes: Vol. 1, 141ff; Vol. 2, 37ff; Vol. 3, 15ff; Vol. 4, 65ff; Vol. 5, 21ff; Vol. 6, 24ff).

 

%B13

(Gung-thang) dKon-mchog bstan-pa’i sgron-me (1762-1823), A Lamp Which Illuminates the Hidden Meaning: Notes to a Teaching consisting of a Profound Explanation of the Trilogy of the Extensive, the Middle-Length, and the Briefer Presentations of the Perfection of Wisdom; the “Ornament of Realizations” (Both Root Text and Commentary); and Other Works, based on the “Commentary Which Illuminates the Meaning,” and Composed as a Jewel Anthology of the Sutras (‘Grel-pa don-gsal gyi steng-nas rGyas ‘bring bsdus gsum mNgon-rtogs rgyan rtza-‘grel sogs mdo-rgyan sbyar-ba’i gZab-bshad kyi zin-bris sBas-don gsal-ba’i sgron-me, ACIP S00903E), 174ff.

 

%B14

(Se-ra rje-btzun) Chos kyi rgyal-mtsan (1469-1546).  “An Overview of the Eighth Chapter,” from the “Excellent Explanation, a Sea of Sport for Those Fortunate Lords of the Serpentines, written in Clarification of Difficult Points found in the Two Treatises: the ‘Jewel of Realizations and its Commentary(Shes-rab kyi pha-rol-tu-phyinpa’i man-ngag gi bstan-bcos mNgon-par rtogs-pa’i rgyan ‘grel-pa dang bcas-pa’i rgya-cher bshad-pa Legs-par bshad-pa gser gyi phreng-ba dang rNam-bshad snying-po’i rgyan rnam-pa gnyis kyi dka’-ba’i gnad gsal-bar byed-pa Legs-bshad skal-bzang klu-dbang gi rol-mtso zhes-bya-ba las sKabs brgyad-pa’i spyi-don, ACIP S06814-11), 67ff.

 

%B15

(Bse) Ngag-dbang bkra-shis (1678-1738).  Fulfilling the Hopes of the Fortunate: A Necklace for the Wise, a Great Explanation which is Designed for All Three Types of People—those of Highest, Medium, and Lesser Capacity; and which Wraps into it the Meaning of the “Commentary on Correct Perception,” that Great Classical Work which itself Comments on the True Intent of the Teachings on Correct Perception (Tsad-ma’i dgongs-‘grel gyi bstan-bcos chen-po rNam-‘grel gyi don gcig tu dril-ba Blo rab ‘bring tha-ma gsum du ston-pa legs-bshad chen-po mkhas-pa’i mgul-brgyan skal-bzang re-ba kun-skong, ACIP S25009), 158ff.

 

%B16

Pha-bong kha-pa bDe-chen snying-po (1878-1941), The Key that Opens the Door to the Excellent Path: Notes of an Explanation Presented when the Holder of the Diamond, the Good and Glorious Pabongka, Granted Profound Teachings upon “The Three Principal Paths” (rDo-rje ‘chang Pha-bong kha-pa dpal bzang-pos Lam-gtzo’i zab-khrid stzal skabs kyi gsung-bshad zin-bris Lam-bzang sgo-‘byed, ACIP S00034), 41ff.

 

%B17

rGyal-dbang Blo-bzang ‘phrin-las rnam-rgyal (fl. 1850).  Light on the Lord of the Makers of Day, Words of Excellent Explanation: An Explication of the True Intent of the Treasure House of Knowledge (also known as Gyalwang’s Treaure House) (Chos mngon-pa’i mdzod kyi dgongs-don gsal-bar byed-pa’i Legs-bshad nyin-byed dbang-po’i snang-ba aka rGyal-dbang mdzod, ACIP S00044 in 8 volumes: Vol. 1, 30ff; Vol. 2, 65ff; Vol. 3, 29ff; Vol. 4, 49ff; Vol. 5, 27ff; Vol. 6, 56ff; Vol. 7, 37ff; Vol. 8, 41ff).

 

%B18

(mKhas-grub) bsTan-pa dar-rgyas (1493-1568), The Garland of White Lotuses: A Fine Explanation of Dialectical Analysis for the Classical Commentary entitled “The Ornament of Realizations,” along with Its Own Commentary (bsTan-bcos mNgon-par rtogs-pa’i rgyan ‘grel-pa dang bcas-pa’i mtha’-dpyod legs-par bshad-pa Pad-ma dkar-po’i ‘phren-ba, ACIP SE00001 in 8 Volumes: Vol. 1, 77ff; Vol. 2, 54ff; Vol. 3, 56ff; Vol. 4, 55ff; Vol. 5, 20ff; Vol. 6, 68ff; Vol. 7, 25ff; Vol. 8, 27ff).

 

%B19

rJe Tzong-kha-pa Blo-bzang grags-pa (1357-1419).  Notes on an Abbreviated Presentation of the Five Steps (Rim-lnga bsdus-pa’i zin-bris, ACIP S05293E), 23ff.

 

%B20

Bu-ston Rin-chen grub (1290-1364).  The Treasure Chest of Jewels of the Highest of Words—A History of Buddhism Which Illuminates the Teachings of Those Gone to Bliss (bDe-bar gshegs-pa’i bstan-pa’i gsal-byed chos kyi ‘byung-gnas gSung-rab rin-po-che’i mdzod, ACIP S12060E), 212ff.

 

%B21

(Paṇ-chen bla-ma sku-phreng gsum-pa) dPal-ldan ye-shes (1738-1780).  Notes that Capture Just the Very Essence of Extensive Advices granted at the Great Monastery of Trashi Hlunpo in the Fire Dog Year [1766] by His Holiness the Panchen Lama, King of the Dharma, the High and Holy Lobsang Pelden Yeshe, Good and Glorious One, to More than Three Thousand Holders of the Canon, on the Subject of the Classical Text known as the “The Commentary on Valid Perception” (Me-khyi lo chos-grva chen-po bKra-shis lhun-por 7Pa-chen Chos-kyi rgyal-po rje-btzun Blo-bzang dpal-ldan ye-shes dpal bzang-pos sde-snod ‘dzin-pa gsumstong lhag tzam la bstan-bcos Tsad-ma rnam-‘grel gyi man-ngag rgyas-par gnang-ba rnams kyi snying-po bsdus-don tzam-zhig zin-bris su bkod-pa, ACIP S012195), 6ff.

 

%B22

Still looking for name.  It just says grub mtha’ khag (grub tha khag)

/Users/michaelroach/Documents/C Drive Files/A/UNCATALOGED DATA/JASON DROPBOX AS OF 8 12/ACIP unsplit volumes/((non-acip-inputs))+/ser-smad-press/001-SERA MEY YIG-CHA – ACIP roman/09-Grub-tha-khag/001-GRUB.ACT

 

%B23

Chandra, Lokesh (b. 1927).  Tibetan-Sanskrit Dictionary (in 19 volumes,) beginning in 1992 and continuing to present; many volumes have been input by ACIP for internal reference use) (New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan). {@check current number of volumes}

 

%B24

Chos-rje Ngag-dbang dpal-ldan (b. 1806).  “The Section on the First Seven Chapters the ‘Overview of the Schools of Philosophy’ and the Rest,” from the “Cherished Gem for Those Who Think Clearly, a Book which Unravels the Knots of Every Difficult and Crucial Point”: An Annotated Commentary to “The Great Book on the Schools of Philosophy” (Grub-mtha’ chen-mo’i mchan-‘grel dKa’-gnad mdud-grol blo-gsal gces-nor zhes-bya-ba las Grub-mtha’ spyi-bshad sogs le’u dang-po bdun gyi skabs, ACIP S00986-1), 177ff.

 

%B25

‘Jam-dbyangs bzhad-pa’i rdo-rje (1648-1721).  The Jewel Lamp that Illuminates the Pure Path to Omniscience, the Roar of the Five-Faced Lion which Chases Away All Error: A Comparative Presentation of the Schools of Philosophy (Grub-pa’i mtha’ rnam-par bzhag-pa ‘Khrul-spong gdong-lnga’i sgra-dbyangs kun-mkhyen lam-bzang gsal-ba’i rin-chen sgron-me, ACIP S19027), 16ff.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography of works

originally written in English

 

%E1

Das, Sarat Chandra (1849-1917).  A Tibetan-English Dictionary, with Sanskrit Synonyms (first edition Calcutta: Bengal Secretariat Book Depot, 1902; input edition Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 1995), 1353pp.

 

%E2

Monier-Williams, Monier (1819-1899). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Etymologically and Philologically Arranged with Special Reference to Cognate Indo-European Languages (first edition Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1872), 13,333pp.

 

 

[1] Mount Mandhara: A mountain referred to in Indian legend, used by gods and demigods as a stick to churn the ocean in order to recover the nectar of deathlessness—amirta—and other treasures lost during an ancient flood.  For some detail see ff. 4b-5a of Tendar Hlarampa’s commentary to the Mirror of Classical Poetry (%B10, ACIP digital text S25007).

[2] Two collections: Huge masses of good deeds and knowledge within ones mindstream which act as the causes for the physical form and omniscient state of a Buddha, respectively.  See for example Pabongka Rinpoche’s commentary to Je Tsongkapa’s Three Principal Paths, f. 4a (%B5, ACIP digital text S00034).

[3] Two goals: Refers to the final culmination of both ones own goals and the ability to help others to achieve theirs—two qualities possessed only by a Buddha.  A famed reference is the opening section of Master Dharmakirti’s Commentary on Valid Perception; see Gyaltsab Je’s masterful explanation of the lines at ff. 3b-4b of %B3, S05450.

[4] Two lords among all your princes: Refers to Je Tsongkapa’s two main disciples, Gyaltsab Darma Rinchen (1364-1432) and Kedrup Gelek Pel Sangpo (1385-1438), more commonly known as Gyaltsab Je and Kedrup Je.

[5] Lotus-Eyed One: An epithet for the Hindu deity Vishnu, whose capacity to span a whole world with his stride is being compared to the capacity to grasp all Buddhist teaching.

[6] I teach in two ways: The full verse in this sutra goes—

I teach in two different ways,

Either by schools or instruction.

To children I explain things verbally;

And schools for the practitioners.

See f. 198a of the work, at %S2, KL00107.

[7] I accept that one: See f. 44b of the eulogy (%S1, ACIP digital text TD01112).  Kapila was the founder of the Hindu school known as the Sankhya, or Numerists—whose ideas often competed with those of Buddhism in its early years in India.

[8] The same sentiment: See f. 3b of Je Tsongkapa’s 441ff classic, where he quotes the same verse and makes typically incisive comments (%B2, ACIP S05281).  Gyaltsab Je’s entire text is of course oriented towards the preference of proof; a relevant section on how we should accept a teacher only if what they say makes sense may be found at ff. 366a-366b of his 436ff work (%B3, S05450).

[9] The Four Seals: A nice presentation of this quartet is found in Choney Lama’s own extensive commentary to the Jewel of Realizations, by Lord Maitreya and the realized being Asanga.  They are (1) all things brought about by causes must end; (2) all impure things are suffering; (3) all things are empty, in the sense of lacking a self-nature; and (4) nirvana is peace.  See f. 147a of Vol. 1 (%B4, ACIP S00195).  Because of the importance of the Four Seals in the comparative study of schools of philosophy, we have included an entire appendix on the topic.  Please see Appendix A at the end of this translation.

[10] A Praise of the Exalted One: See the section of Master Prajnavarman’s commentary starting at f. 27a (%S4, TD01110); and the original text of Master Udbhatasiddhasvamin from f. 3b (%S3, TD01109).

[11] Those of the Steps: The Sanskrit for the group’s name is Tirthika, and for the steps themselves is tirtha.

[12] Third, we’ll discuss the actual beliefs of the Nihilists: The author has actually labeled this as the second section, however as per his presentation of three sections above “We’ll cover the beliefs in three parts.  Who are their teachers?  What does their name mean?  And what is their system?”—this appears to be the third of these.

[13] The sharpness of a thorn: This quotation seems to have been wrongly attributed to the Commentary on Valid Perception. These exact words are found in the Collection on Suchness by Master Shantarakshita, in a section where this master is reporting the viewpoints of other schools; see f. 5b (%S5, ACIP TD04266).  There is, however, a similar sentiment in Master Dharmakirti’s work, at f. 114B (%S6, ACIP TD04210): ji-ltar tser-ma la sogs kyi / rno-ba nyid sogs rgyu med-pa.

[14] Who made the assortment of lotus blooms: This line appears in Master Shantarakshita’s, Collection on Suchness just before the verse quoted above in section [%34].  See f. 5b (%S5, ACIP TD04266).

[15] The objects our senses experience: This quotation is from the autocommentary to Entering the Middle Way, by Master Chandrakirti.  See f. 285b (%S7, ACIP TD03862).

[16] Once this supreme body has passed away: Again from Master Chandrakirti’s autocommentary.  See f. 285a (%S7, ACIP TD03862).

[17] If it were somehow possible that things just arose without causes: This selection is from Master Chandrakirti’s Entering the Middle Way.  See f. 209A (%S8, ACIP TD03861).

[18] A lotus that grows in mid-air: We’ve supplied the full text of the quotation; the additional line in the Tibetan is: autpala yi dri mdog ji-bzhin gzung du med nyid na.  In our present text, the author has supplied just enough of the quotation to trigger the memory of some diligent student who had previously memorized the work. This too is from Master Chandrakirti’s seminal work.  See f. 209a (%S8, ACIP TD03861).

[19] With a mind as dark and dense as yours: This quotation is from the same work; see f. 209a (%S8, ACIP TD03861).

[20] Whenever you have this thing: This lines are from The Commentary on Valid Perception by Master Dharmakirti.  See f. 105b (%S6, TD04210).

[21] In state of mind just before one is in the womb: This is all we are given of the citation in the present work. In the original text, we can see that Master Bhavaviveka is asking why this moment of mind within the womb shouldn’t have come from a moment of mind that came and went just before it started.  See f. 105b of Master Bhavaviveka’s Blaze of Reasoning (S9, TD03856).

[22] The very first moment of consciousness: See f. 69a of Master Shantarakshita’s Collection on Suchness (%S5, ACIP TD04266).

[23] The mind at the moment of death: Same work and folio as the preceding.

[24] When one who is not a realized being dies: See f. 11a of Master Bhavaviveka’s Heart of The Middle Way (%S10, ACIP TD03855).

[25] Just before our time in the womb: We find this quotation attributed to Master Shura (spelled “Śūra”; who is also known as Ashvaghosha) by Master Bhavaviveka in his Blaze of Reasoning.  See f. 105b (%S9, ACIP TD03856).

[26] Even calves seek food: See f. 11b of Master Bhavaviveka’s Heart of The Middle Way (%S10, ACIP TD03855).

[27] Desire, fear, and grief lead to delusion: From A Commentary on Valid Perception, by Master Dharmakirti.  See f. 129a (%S6, TD04210).

[28] One who relies on the teachings of wisdom: While our author has only referenced the beginning and ending of some lines in a book he calls The True Nature of Valid Perception (Tsad-ma’i de-nyid), we find the entire reference in f. 124b of the Collection on Suchness by Master Shantarakshita (%S5, ACIP TD04266).  Here it appears as: ,blo dang brtze-ba la sogs-pa, / ,’di-dag ji-skad bshad chos ldan, / ,de-dag rab kyi mthar phyin-pa, / ,’od-gsal kun-mkhyen nyid ‘byung ‘gyur,. 

 

[29] The thing it depends upon: Both this and the preceding are from f. 267a of Master Kamalashila’s Illumination of Suchness (S11%, ACIP TD03888).

[30] From a cause: From f. 6b of The Collection on Suchness (%S5, ACIP TD04266).

[31] You doubt what no one sees, and misunderstand what you don’t see: The full quotation continues: “There is grass in the hollow of Mount Piercer, even though it is not seen”; where “Mt. Piercer” is another name for the distant peak of the universal mountain, Meru.  See f. 6a of The Collection on Suchness (%S5, ACIP TD04266).

[32] Till you come to know all things: The Outcasts are said to deny not only past and future lives, but also the possibility of human perfection.  Chakya Rolpay Dorje in his Peak of the Teachings offers as an absurd consequence to one opponent’s position that “It would be a mistake to accept this; because if you did, then the Outcasts would believe in past and future lives, and believe in omniscience.”  See f. 59a (%B6, ACIP S00063).

[33] Spiritual sons: Master Dharmakirti is considered to be the spiritual son of Master Dignaga, and Master Kamalashila that of Master Shantarakshita.

[34] The three tests: In order for a work to be considered scriptural authority, three different tests must hold: the work must not contradict our direct experience; it must not contradict what we can verify through deduction; and the words of the work must be internally consistent.  See Kedrup Je’s Clearing the Darkness of the Mind at f. 171b (B7% ACIP S05501).

[35] Ishvara Krishna: Author of Verses on The Numerists (%S12), cited later by Choney Lama in this section.  Note that the Tibetan here for Master Patanjali’s name has been mis-carved twice in the block available to us, where it says Chu-rlung rather than Chu-lhung; it is also sometimes seen as Chur-lhung, which is even more accurate, since it refers to how the sage was born miraculously by descending (lhung) into (-r) the holy water (chu) cupped in his mother’s hands.

[36] Exactly 25 categories: Literally they are called “The Ones with Numbers” (Skt: ṃkhya; Tib: Grangs-can-pa) because they “number” (saṃkhyā/grangs) things.

[37] There are the fundamental nature: We have translated the Tibetan word rang-bzhin as “nature” and “creator” alternately, as seems appropriate to context. While the word is most commonly translated as “nature” (see Das’ A Tibetan-English Dictionary, f. 1165, %E1), we can see in the quotation from Ishvara Krishna’s Verses of The Numerists (%S12), cited by Choney Lama, that rang-bzhin here is a Tibetan translation of the Sanskrit word prakti.  In the context of Numerist (khya) philosophy, parkti refers to both nature and the original producer of the material world. See p. 645, l. 130029 of Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary (%E2).

[38] The fundamental nature is not a creation: This appears to be a direct quotation of v. 3 in Ishvara Krishna’s Verses of The Numerists (S12%).  The original Sanskrit of the verse is as follows: mūlapraktir aviktir mahadādyā praktiviktaya sapta, oaśakas tu vikāro na praktir na vikti purua.

[39] Activity: The Tibetans have translated the Sanskrit word rajas as rdul. While both terms can be translated as “dust,” “dirt,” or “particle,” in the context of the Numerist school, Master Chandrakirti in his Autocommentary to “Entering the Middle Way” defines the term as “that which has the nature of action and engagement”; see f. 293b of %S7, ACIP TD03862.  A translation of this section is offered in Appendix C%; see section %C24.  Given that this section appears to refer to Ishvara Krishna’s Verses on The Numerists, we have translated rdul as “activity” in this context.

 

 

[40] The process through which they dissolve again: Je Tsongkapa clarifies in his Illumination of the True Thought that the creations are dissolved back into the primal nature through the reverse of the process by which they were created.  See f. 198b (B8%, ACIP ST05408) and Appendix %B, section %B24, of the present volume.

[41] Antlers on the head of a rabbit: Meaning, an impossibility.

[42] “A,” “u,” and “m”: That is, the three traditional components of the sacred syllable Om.

[43] This soul possesses eight special features: We find the entire eight listed on p. 30 of @ (B22%, S@):

(1) This Self or Soul is the one and only lord over all living kind.

(2) It pervades all living beings.

(3) It is eternal, and can never decline.

(4) It is pure, for it is beyond all grief.

(5) It is pure in the sense of being the most excellent thing there is.

(6) It is deathless, without beginning or end.

(7) It is the place, since it is what we look to.

(8) It is the soul, for it has been here since before the world itself.

[44] They describe him like this: While we find these lines on f. 252a of Master Bhavaiveka’s Blaze of Reasoning (S9%, ACIP TD03856); it seems to be a paraphrase of lines from the Great Epic of India (Mahabharata): viśvakarman namas te ‘stu yasya te rūpam īdśam, padbhyā te pthivī vyāptā śirasā cāvta nabha, dyāvāpthivyor yan madhya jaharea tad āvtam, bhujābhyām āvtāś cāśās tvam ida sarvam acyuta, (S24%).

 

[45] Pervades all living beings: The reference appears to be to f. 80b of the commentary of Shantarakshita (%S26, TD03885).  The promised points are also covered at ff. 107a-107b in the first part of Chujey Ngawang Pelden’s commentary to Changkya Rolpay Dorje’s classic treatment of the schools of philosophy (%B24, S00986-1).

[46] His avatars: The source for these lines appears to be the study of philosophical schools by Jamyang Shepay Dorje; see f. 4b (%B25, S19027).  The two “Ramas” are listed in Lokesh Chandra as Parashurama and Ramachandra (see entry for ‘jug-pa bcu, %B23).  The name Krishna is properly pronounced “Kirshna,” but we have left it here in the traditional modern mistaken form.

[47] Analyzers (Mimamsa): The name of the school is properly pronounced Mimansa, but we have put the traditional modern mistaken mixture of diacritic with pronunciation since it will be more familiar to readers.

[48] That other self is a combination: See f. 10a of Master Shantarakshita’s Collection on Suchness (%S5, ACIP TD04266).

[49] Thus we accept them as correct: See f. 31b of Master Bhavaviveka’s Heart of The Middle Way (%S10, ACIP TD03855).

[50] Heart of The Middle Way: By Master Bhavaviveka; see f. 31b (S10%, ACIP TD03855).

 

[51] When we join together: Both these and the following lines are found on f. 40b of Master Bodhibhadra’s Compendium of the Essence of Wisdom, and there attributed to the “Secret Book of the Wrathful Angel, Bhurkunkuta” (S22%, ACIP TD03852)

[52] The one they call the inner self: See f. 158b of Master Chandrakirti’s Detailed Explanation of the 400 Verses (S23%, ACIP TD03865).

[53] Six principles: In Sanskrit these are called padartha; and in order of the text are dravya, guna, karma, samanya, vishesha, and samavaya.

[54] When you have given up your body: Our author has quoted only the first and last lines of the verse; we have supplied the entire piece from f. 244a of Master Bhavaviveka’s Blaze of Reasoning (S9%, ACIP TD03856).

[55] The Jains say that the soul accompanies us: See f. 3b of the work (%S3, TD01109).

[56] For some it’s a body-sized soul:  See f. 12b of his 400 Verses (S25%, ACIP TD03846).

[57] bTags: We commonly see alternates for this spelling, including brtags—meaning “analysis”; and rtags—meaning “reason” or “sign”.  We’ve taken btags—in the sense of “to certify” “or “apply a label” as the correct spelling.

[58] See The Great Dictionary, p. 828 (B11%, ACIP R00002).

[59] These four seals must be present: See Choney Lama’s Cloud of Offerings, which Pleases the Wise at f. 147b, Vol. 1 (%B4, ACIP S00195).

[60] There are no non-Buddhists who hold the views: Found at f. 71b, Vol. 1 of Kedrup Tenpa Dargye’s Illumination of theJewel of the Essence of Good Explanation” (B12%, ACIP SE00009).

[61] The subjects of the king can never overstep: See f. 162a-b of A Lamp Which Illuminates the Hidden Meaning (B13%, ACIP S00903E).

[62] The Listener schools reply: See f. 162a-162b of A Lamp Which Illuminates the Hidden Meaning (B13%, ACIP S00903E).

[63] Here are the five certain qualities: See f. 34b of his Overview of the Eighth Chapter of the “Jewel of Realizations” (B14%, ACIP S06814-11).

[64] A thing which only lasts for an instant: See f. 9a of Fulfilling the Hopes of the Fortunate (B15% ACIP S25009).

[65]  With the exception of the path: See f. 2a-b of the Treasure House of Higher Knowledge (S13%, ACIP TD04089).

[66] A nice presentation of the three sufferings is found at f. 21b of Pabongka Rinpoche’s commentary to The Three Principal Paths (B16% ACIP S00034N).

[67] How could anyone in the know get discouraged: From the Guide to a Bodhisattva’s Way of Life f. 21a (S14%, ACIP TD03871).

[68] You of the greater way say: See f. 162b of A Lamp Which Illuminates the Hidden Meaning (B13%, ACIP S00903E).

 

[69] When we think about suffering in general: See f. 5a-5b of Light on the Lord of the Makers of Day (B17, ACIP S00044-2).

[70] The nature of all three is suffering: See f. 71b, Vol. 1 of Kedrup Tenpa Dargye’s Illumination of the “Jewel of the Essence of Good Explanation” (B12%, ACIP SE00009).

[71] No happiness upon the tip of the needle: From Bringing to Mind the Holy Teachings f. 464b (%S15, ACIP KL00287E1).  In the version of the quotation we’ve located, the suffering of humans is referred to as constantly seeking desires (yong su tsol-ba) instead of getting hurt (‘tse-ba).

[72] The preliminary stage of this concentration level cannot free you: See Illumination of the “Jewel of the Essence of Good Explanation,” f. 71a, Vol. 1 (B12%, ACIP SE00009).

[73] No nature of being separate: This refers to the lack of separate seeds for the world we experience, and the mind with which we experience, our world in any particular moment.  This citation is also from the Illumination of the “Jewel of the Essence of Good Explanation,” ff. 71a-71b, Vol. 1 (B12%, ACIP SE00009).

[74]  From impermanence comes suffering: See f. 117a of the Commentary on Valid Perception (%S6, ACIP TD04210).

[75] The Conqueror eloquently spoke: See the Foundation of Assorted Topics of Vowed Morality ff. 138a-138b (S21%, ACIP KL00006E2).

[76] The Detailists do accept that: See the Garland of White Lotuses ff. 42b-43a, Vol. 3 (B18%, ACIP SE00001).

[77] You can’t say that Detailists think people have a self-nature: See f. 147b, Vol. 1, of Choney Lama’s Cloud of Offerings, which Pleases the Wise (%B4, ACIP S00195).

[78] You say there is an essence of Those Gone to Bliss: See f. 162b of A Lamp Which Illuminates the Hidden Meaning (B13%, ACIP S00903E).

[79] The definition of nirvana: See f. 38b, Vol. 1, of the Garland of White Lotuses (B18%, ACIP S00001).

[80] Putting a stop to the fire: The point of the citation hinges on the fact that the verb “putting a stop to” here is spelled the same as the word for “peace”: think of the English, “put to rest.”  See Verses of Perfect Clarity, f. 18b (S17%, TD03796).

[81] Nirvana is called peace: See An Explanation of “Entering the Middle Way” f. 49a (S18% ACIP TD03870).

[82] It is called peace because: See f. 118a of A Commentary upon “Journey to Langka” (S20%, ACIP TD04018).

[83] It is “peace”: See f. 151b of A Commentary to “The Illumination of Difficult Points” (S19%, ACIP TD03794).

[84] You break the seal that nirvana is peace: See f. 162b of A Lamp Which Illuminates the Hidden Meaning (B13%, ACIP S00903E).

[85] The definition of nirvana which does not stay: See f. 39a, Vol. 1 of the Garland of White Lotuses (B18%, ACIP S00001).

[86] We can summarize these four seals like this: See f. 20b of his Abbreviated Presentation of the Five Steps (B19%, ACIP S05293E).

[87] The Four Seals by Acharya Nagarjuna: See f. 203a of Buton Rinpoche’s History of Buddhism  (B20% ACIP S12060E).

[88] There are no Buddhist schools of philosophy which deny: See f. 147a of Vol. 1 of the Cloud of Offerings Which Pleases the Wise (B4%, ACIP S00195).

[89] These four viewpoints and together with the method side: See Notes that Capture Just the Very Essence f. 5a (B21% ACIP S012195E).

[90] For the good of every living being: See the Cloud of Jewels, f. 167a (S16%, ACIP KL00231).

[91] The True Intent Made Even More Clear: See ff. 172b-173a (B9% ACIP S00273).

[92] The self is the partaker: Part of a description of the Numerists by Master Chandrakirti in his classic Entering the Middle Way; see f. 201a of %S8, TD03861.  We have included this entire description below in Appendix %C.

[93] The fundamental nature is not a creation: See footnote %38 in section %74 of the primary translation in this volume.

[94] The Illumination of the True Thought: See ff. 197b-199b (B8%, ACIP ST05408)

[95] The second section: We are inside a division of Tsongkapa’s text where he uses logic to prove that a person cannot have a self-nature.  The first part of this division began at f. 196a with a demonstration of why those who seek for freedom must first be able to disprove that the self could exist through any nature of its own.

[96] The fundamental nature is not a creation: See footnote %38 in section %74 of the principal translation here.  Throughout this section, Je Tsongkapa is closely paraphrasing Master Chandrakirti’s autocommentary (see f. 293a, %S7, TD03862).

[97] They come from sound and the rest: Almost this exact wording is found in two different commentaries to the Master Shantideva’s Guide to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life; see f. 154b of the explanation by Vairochana Rakshita (%S27, TD03875A); and f. 277b of that by Shri Vibhuti Chandra (%S28, TD03880).

[98] Relate to activity: In this line, knowing that the three qualities are being referred to, we read the Tibetan rnam-par ‘gyur-ba (“creation”) in the sense of rdul (the quality of “activity”).

[99] The Autocommentary to “Entering the Middle Way”: See ff. 292b-294a (S7%, ACIP TD03862).

[100] The fundamental nature is not a creation: See footnote %38 in section %74 of the principal translation here.

[101] The group of sixteen: That is, as we have seen, the eleven powers and the five subtle elements.  The eleven powers consists of the five sense powers—seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and touching; the five organs of action—speech, hands, legs, the anus, and the sexual organ; and the mental sense power.

[102] As they say: Throughout this section, Je Tsongkapa is closely paraphrasing Master Chandrakirti’s autocommentary (see f. 293a, %S7, TD03862).  See also footnote %97 in Section %C.

[103] The word “the”: The particle being referred to in the Tibetan translation is ni; this would be tu in the Sanskrit.

[104] Activity has the nature of action and engagement: These three lines appear to be a direct quotation of v. 13 of Ishvara Krishna’s Verses on The Numerists (%S12).

 

Source: http://texts.10000booksofwisdom.com/a-brief-essence-of-all-schools-of-philosophy/