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A Ship on the Sea of Emptiness

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3 Leave a comment on paragraph 3 0 A Ship on the Sea of Emptiness

4 Leave a comment on paragraph 4 0 The Wisdom of Nagarjuna

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6 Leave a comment on paragraph 6 0 written by Choney Lama,

7 Leave a comment on paragraph 7 0 Drakpa Shedrup (1675-1748)

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9 Leave a comment on paragraph 9 0 translated by

10 Leave a comment on paragraph 10 0 Geshe Michael Roach

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15 Leave a comment on paragraph 15 0 Copyright ©2018 by Geshe Michael Roach.  All rights reserved.

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17 Leave a comment on paragraph 17 0 Sections may be reproduced with the author’s permission.

18 Leave a comment on paragraph 18 0 Please contact:

19 Leave a comment on paragraph 19 0 geshemichael@gmail.com

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22 Leave a comment on paragraph 22 0 Volume 111 of the Diamond Cutter Classics Series

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25 Leave a comment on paragraph 25 0 Diamond Cutter Press

26 Leave a comment on paragraph 26 0 6490 Arizona Route 179A

27 Leave a comment on paragraph 27 0 Sedona, AZ 86351

28 Leave a comment on paragraph 28 0 USA

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32 Leave a comment on paragraph 32 0 Table of Contents

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34 Leave a comment on paragraph 34 0 A Ship on the Sea of Emptiness……………………………………………………….. @

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36 Leave a comment on paragraph 36 0 Bowing down, and promising…………………………………………………………………………….. @

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38 Leave a comment on paragraph 38 0 How Arya Nagarjuna gave his commentaries…………………………………………………….. @

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40 Leave a comment on paragraph 40 0 The meaning of the name……………………………………………………………………………………. @

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43 Leave a comment on paragraph 43 0 Chapter 1: An Analysis of Conditions……………………………………………….. @

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45 Leave a comment on paragraph 45 0 Praising the teacher, for dependence…………………………………………………………………… @

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47 Leave a comment on paragraph 47 0 The eight impossibles………………………………………………………………………………………….. @

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49 Leave a comment on paragraph 49 0           The two kinds of self-nature that were never there……………………………………………… @

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51 Leave a comment on paragraph 51 0 A summary of the topics of the chapters……………………………………………………………… @

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53 Leave a comment on paragraph 53 0 Nothing could ever grow……………………………………………………………………………………. @

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55 Leave a comment on paragraph 55 0 Choosing the right negation………………………………………………………………………………… @

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57 Leave a comment on paragraph 57 0 The logic behind the denial…………………………………………………………………………………. @

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59 Leave a comment on paragraph 59 0           Arguments in favor of things growing from something else……………………………….. @

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61 Leave a comment on paragraph 61 0 A response denying growth by nature………………………………………………………………… @

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63 Leave a comment on paragraph 63 0 A response denying something else by nature……………………………………………………. @

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65 Leave a comment on paragraph 65 0 Nothing is a condition simply because it causes things to grow………………………….. @

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67 Leave a comment on paragraph 67 0 Nothing is a condition just because a result does grow……………………………………….. @

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69 Leave a comment on paragraph 69 0 Conditions for what? ………………………………………………………………………………………….. @

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71 Leave a comment on paragraph 71 0 Denying that a causal condition has any qualities of its own………………………………. @

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73 Leave a comment on paragraph 73 0           Denying that an object condition has any qualities of its own…………………………….. @

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75 Leave a comment on paragraph 75 0 Denying that a condition for what comes immediately after

76 Leave a comment on paragraph 76 0 has any qualities of its own………………………………………………………………………… @

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78 Leave a comment on paragraph 78 0 Denying that a dominant condition has any qualities of its own…………………………. @

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80 Leave a comment on paragraph 80 0           Concluding remarks on results that never grow…………………………………………………. @

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82 Leave a comment on paragraph 82 0 Concluding remarks on causes with no nature……………………………………………………. @

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84 Leave a comment on paragraph 84 0 Connecting the chapter to scripture…………………………………………………………………….. @

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86 Leave a comment on paragraph 86 0 The name of the chapter……………………………………………………………………………………… @

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89 Leave a comment on paragraph 89 0 Chapter 2: An Analysis of Going & Coming………………………………………. @

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91 Leave a comment on paragraph 91 0 Cancelling three parts to a path…………………………………………………………………………… @

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93 Leave a comment on paragraph 93 0 Cancelling stepping…………………………………………………………………………………………….. @

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95 Leave a comment on paragraph 95 0 Words with a meaning of their own……………………………………………………………………. @

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97 Leave a comment on paragraph 97 0 Meanings with a word of their own…………………………………………………………………….. @

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99 Leave a comment on paragraph 99 0           Single meanings for multiple words of their own……………………………………………….. @

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101 Leave a comment on paragraph 101 0 Going makes no goer…………………………………………………………………………………………… @

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103 Leave a comment on paragraph 103 0           None of three “possibilities” ………………………………………………………………………………. @

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105 Leave a comment on paragraph 105 0 Going can’t involve goers……………………………………………………………………………………. @

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107 Leave a comment on paragraph 107 0 Goers can’t involve going……………………………………………………………………………………. @

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109 Leave a comment on paragraph 109 0           Neither both goer & going…………………………………………………………………………………… @

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111 Leave a comment on paragraph 111 0 Going is impossible…………………………………………………………………………………………….. @

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113 Leave a comment on paragraph 113 0 The path has no spots to go on……………………………………………………………………………. @

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115 Leave a comment on paragraph 115 0 And no path with its parts…………………………………………………………………………………… @

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117 Leave a comment on paragraph 117 0           No standing still either………………………………………………………………………………………… @

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119 Leave a comment on paragraph 119 0           Nor any turning back………………………………………………………………………………………….. @

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121 Leave a comment on paragraph 121 0 Staying as going………………………………………………………………………………………………….. @

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123 Leave a comment on paragraph 123 0           Goer & going: one or separate? …………………………………………………………………………… @

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126 Leave a comment on paragraph 126 0 Appendices………………………………………………………………………………….. @

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128 Leave a comment on paragraph 128 0           Wisdom: Arya Nagarjuna’s root text…………………………………………………………………….. @

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130 Leave a comment on paragraph 130 0 An Excerpt from The Sutra on the Source of the Jewels……………………………………………. @

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132 Leave a comment on paragraph 132 0 Bibliography of works originally written in Sanskrit…………………………………………… @

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134 Leave a comment on paragraph 134 0 Bibliography of works originally written in Chinese…………………………………………… @

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136 Leave a comment on paragraph 136 0 Bibliography of works originally written in Tibetan……………………………………………. @

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138 Leave a comment on paragraph 138 0 Bibliography of works originally written in English……………………………………………. @

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141 Leave a comment on paragraph 141 0 A Ship on the Sea of Emptiness

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144 Leave a comment on paragraph 144 0 [1]

145 Leave a comment on paragraph 145 0 ,DBU MA RTZA BA SHES RAB KYI RNAM BSHAD RIGS PA’I RGYA MTSOR ‘JUG PA‘I GRU GZINGS ZHES BYA BA BZHUGS SO,,

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147 Leave a comment on paragraph 147 0 Herein lies A Ship on the Sea of Emptiness: An Explanation of “The Middle Way, The Root Text on Wisdom.”[1]

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150 Leave a comment on paragraph 150 0 [2]

151 Leave a comment on paragraph 151 0 [f. 1b] DBU MA RTZA BA SHES RAB KYI RNAM BSHAD RIG {%RIGS} PA’I RGYA MTSOR ‘JUG PA’I GRU GZINGS ZHES BYA BA,

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153 Leave a comment on paragraph 153 0 What you find here is a ship for entering that sea of reasoning which is an explanation of the “Middle Way, the Root Text on Wisdom.”[2]

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157 Leave a comment on paragraph 157 0 Bowing down, and promising

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159 Leave a comment on paragraph 159 0 [3]

160 Leave a comment on paragraph 160 0 BCOM LDAN ‘DAS ‘JAM DPAL GZHON NUR GYUR PA DANG RJE BTZUN BTZONG KHA PA CHEN PO DBYER MI PHYED PA’I ZHABS LA GUS PHYAG ‘TSAL ZHING SKYABS SU MCHI’O,,

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162 Leave a comment on paragraph 162 0 In deep respect, I bow down at the holy feet of both the Conqueror, Gentle Voice, in his youthful form; and to the Lord, the Revered One, Tsongkapa—indivisible one from the other.  In you do I seek my protection.

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165 Leave a comment on paragraph 165 0 [4]

166 Leave a comment on paragraph 166 0 BRTZE BAS RJES SU BZUNG NAS ZAB DON RDZOGS PAR RTOGS PA’I BLO’I MCHOG SBYIN MDZAD DU GSOL LO,,

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168 Leave a comment on paragraph 168 0 And I beg you, in your love, to take me after you; and grant me that highest of all states of mind: the one where I realize, in its entirety, the deepest of all things in the universe.

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171 Leave a comment on paragraph 171 0 [5]

172 Leave a comment on paragraph 172 0 ,TSOGS GNYIS STOBS BCU’I LUS RTZAL RAB RDZOGS SHING,

173 Leave a comment on paragraph 173 0 ,GZUNGS SPOBS TING ‘DZIN MI ‘JIGS MCHE SDER ‘BAR,

174 Leave a comment on paragraph 174 0 ,SO SO YANG DAG RIG BZHI’I G-YU RAL CAN,

175 Leave a comment on paragraph 175 0 ,SMRA BA’I SENG+GE THUB DBANG DE LA ‘DUD,

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177 Leave a comment on paragraph 177 0 I bow myself to those lions among all teachers;

178 Leave a comment on paragraph 178 0 To the Lords of the Able Ones.

179 Leave a comment on paragraph 179 0 The dance of your holy bodies

180 Leave a comment on paragraph 180 0 Is complete in every way:

181 Leave a comment on paragraph 181 0 The two collections, and all ten powers.

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183 Leave a comment on paragraph 183 0 You show the fiery fangs and claws

184 Leave a comment on paragraph 184 0 Of the courage of holy words,

185 Leave a comment on paragraph 185 0 And fearless meditation;

186 Leave a comment on paragraph 186 0 You shake your mane of midnight blue:

187 Leave a comment on paragraph 187 0 The four knowledges of purity.[3]

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190 Leave a comment on paragraph 190 0 [6]

191 Leave a comment on paragraph 191 0 ,RAB ‘BYAMS RGYAL BA KUN GYI MDUN SA CHER,

192 Leave a comment on paragraph 192 0 ,ZAB DON SGROGS LA ‘GRAN ZLA MA MCHIS PAS,

193 Leave a comment on paragraph 193 0 ,MKHYEN PA’I GTER CHEN SMRA BA’I DBANG PHYUG ZHES,

194 Leave a comment on paragraph 194 0 ,YONGS SU GRAGS PA’I ZHABS LA PHYAG ‘TSAL LO,

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196 Leave a comment on paragraph 196 0 You stand mighty at the forefront

197 Leave a comment on paragraph 197 0 Of a galaxy of all the Victors—

198 Leave a comment on paragraph 198 0 Incomparable in the way

199 Leave a comment on paragraph 199 0 You proclaim that deepest idea of all.

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201 Leave a comment on paragraph 201 0 I bow at your holy feet,

202 Leave a comment on paragraph 202 0 To the one that all proclaim

203 Leave a comment on paragraph 203 0 The very god among all Teachers,

204 Leave a comment on paragraph 204 0 Vast goldmine of knowledge.[4]

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207 Leave a comment on paragraph 207 0 [7]

208 Leave a comment on paragraph 208 0 ,RGYAL BA NYID GYIS {%KYIS} ZAB MO’I DON ‘GREL BAR,

209 Leave a comment on paragraph 209 0 ,LUNG BSTAN JI BZHIN SHING RTA’I SROL PHYE NAS,

210 Leave a comment on paragraph 210 0 ,THUB BSTAN GSAL MDZAD KLU SGRUB LHA ZLA BA,

211 Leave a comment on paragraph 211 0 ,RGYAL BA GNYIS PA YAB SRAS BCAS LA ‘DUD,

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213 Leave a comment on paragraph 213 0 I bow down to the second victorious Buddha

214 Leave a comment on paragraph 214 0 To walk in this world; and to his spiritual son:

215 Leave a comment on paragraph 215 0 To the divine angel, to Nagarjuna—

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217 Leave a comment on paragraph 217 0 Whom the Victor himself foretold

218 Leave a comment on paragraph 218 0 Would invent the spiritual wheel,

219 Leave a comment on paragraph 219 0 Commenting upon that deepest thought,

220 Leave a comment on paragraph 220 0 Clarifying the teachings of the Able;

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222 Leave a comment on paragraph 222 0 And I bow as well to the Moon.[5]

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225 Leave a comment on paragraph 225 0 [8]

226 Leave a comment on paragraph 226 0 ,RJE BTZUN BLA [f. 2a] MA’I GSUNG RAB RGYA MTSO NAS,

227 Leave a comment on paragraph 227 0 ,LHUN PO MCHOG LTAR MNGON PAR ‘PHAGS GYUR PA,

228 Leave a comment on paragraph 228 0 ,t’IG {%t’IK} CHEN RIGS PA’I RGYA MTSO’I DGONGS ZAB GNAD,

229 Leave a comment on paragraph 229 0 ,RNAM DPYOD DAD BAS {%PAS} MDOR BSDUS BRI BAR BYA,

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231 Leave a comment on paragraph 231 0 In deepest faith, and with critical analysis,

232 Leave a comment on paragraph 232 0 I will now make a summary presentation

233 Leave a comment on paragraph 233 0 Of the most profound points of the true intent

234 Leave a comment on paragraph 234 0 Of the “Great Commentary,” the “Sea of Reasoning”—

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236 Leave a comment on paragraph 236 0 A work which towers high, like the ultimate Peak,

237 Leave a comment on paragraph 237 0 Rising from that veritable sea of all holy words

238 Leave a comment on paragraph 238 0 Written by the Holy One, our Lord and Lama.[6]

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242 Leave a comment on paragraph 242 0 How Arya Nagarjuna gave his commentaries

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244 Leave a comment on paragraph 244 0 [9]

245 Leave a comment on paragraph 245 0 ` ,DE LA ‘DIR BDAG CAG GI STON PA DE NYID KYIS YUM RGYAS ‘BRING BSDUS PA GSUM SOGS GSUNG RAB DU MA NAS STONG NYID ZAB MO JI SKAD GSUNGS PA’I DON ‘PHAGS PA KLU SGRUB KYIS LAGS {%LEGS} PAR GTAN LA PHAB PA BZHIN RJE NYID KYIS GSAL BAR MDZAD PA LTAR ‘CHAD BAR BYA STE

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247 Leave a comment on paragraph 247 0 Now our Teacher himself described this deepest thing of all—emptiness—in a great many of his high teachings, such as the more extensive, medium-length, and briefer presentations of the Mother.  The meaning of these teachings was then organized, perfectly, by the realized one, Nagarjuna; and then our Lord himself offered us further clarifications of all of them.  This then is what I shall undertake to explain here.[7]

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250 Leave a comment on paragraph 250 0 [10]

251 Leave a comment on paragraph 251 0 ‘DI LA GNYIS, ‘PHAGS PAS JI LTAR BGRAL BA DANG, SKABS KYI DON BSHAD PA’O,,

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253 Leave a comment on paragraph 253 0 We will proceed in two steps: an explanation of how the Arya[8] gave his commentaries; and then an explication of each section of the text of Wisdom.

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256 Leave a comment on paragraph 256 0 [11]

257 Leave a comment on paragraph 257 0 DANG PO NI, SPYIR ‘PHAGS PAS MDO SNGAGS KYI BSTAN BCOS DU MA MDZAD CING, KHYAD PAR DU ZAB DON ‘GREL BA LA DBU MA RIGS PA’I TSOGS DRUG MDZAD DO,,

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259 Leave a comment on paragraph 259 0 Here is the first of these.  The Arya, in general, composed a great many classical commentaries upon both the open and the secret teachings.  More particularly, he wrote a collection of six different “treatises on the reasoning of the middle way,” in explanation of that most profound of all truths.

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262 Leave a comment on paragraph 262 0 [12]

263 Leave a comment on paragraph 263 0 DES? {%DES} ZAB DON LUNG RIGS GNYIS KYI SGO NAS GTAN LA ‘BEB PAR MDZAD DE, DE YANG LUNG GI SGO NAS GTZO BOR SGRUB PA LA MDO KUN LAS BTUS PA DANG, RIGS PA’I SGO NAS GTZO BOR SGRUB PA LA [f. 2b] DBU MA RTZO {%RTZA} BO {%BA} SHES RAB SOGS GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR,

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265 Leave a comment on paragraph 265 0 In these works, he set forth the meaning of this truth utilizing both scriptural authority and logical reasoning.  The text in which he primarily used scripture to establish emptiness was A Compendium of All the Sutras; whereas it was in “Wisdom, The Root Text on the Middle Way” and other such titles that he primarily used clear reasoning to establish this truth.

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268 Leave a comment on paragraph 268 0 [13]

269 Leave a comment on paragraph 269 0 PHYI MA GRUB STE, RTZA BA SHES RAB KYIS YUL RANG BZHIN MED PA’I STONG NYID RIGS PAS GTZO BOR SGRUB, ZHIB MO RNAM ‘THAG GIS ZAB DON RTOGS PA’I YUL CAN GYI YE SHES DE THAR PA DANG THAMS CAD MKHYEN PA GNYIS KA THOB BYED KYI RTZA BAR BSTAN, STONG NYID BDUN CU BAS {%PAS} RANG BZHIN MED PA LA BYA BYED ‘THAD TSUL SPYIR BSTAN NAS, RTZONG {%RTZOD} BZLOG GIS BYE BRAG TU DGAG SGRUB ‘THAD TSUL BSTAN, RIG {%RIGS} PA DRUG CU PAS MTHA’ GNYIS SPANGS PA’I LTA BA DE THAR PA THOB BYED KYI RTZA BAR BSTAN NAS, RIN CHEN PHRENG BAS LTA BA DE THAMS CAD MKHYEN PA THOB BYED KYI RTZA BA YANG YIN NO ZHES BSTAN PA’I PHYIR RO,,

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271 Leave a comment on paragraph 271 0 The latter of these two statements is itself established by the following facts:

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273 Leave a comment on paragraph 273 0 (1) His composition entitled Wisdom: The Root Text uses, primarily, clear reasoning to establish that none of the objects of our perception has any nature of its own;

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275 Leave a comment on paragraph 275 0 (2) His Smashing Wrong Ideas to Dust demonstrates that wisdom—the subject state of mind in which we realize this profound truth—is the very foundation which allows us to attain both freedom and the state of omniscience;[9]

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277 Leave a comment on paragraph 277 0 (3) Seventy Verses on Emptiness presents, in a general way, how the normal working of things is still completely reasonable, even with things that have no nature of their own;

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279 Leave a comment on paragraph 279 0 (4) Putting an End to All Argument demonstrates that—more particularly—how denying certain ideas and establishing other ideas still works very reasonably;

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281 Leave a comment on paragraph 281 0 (5) Sixty Verses on Reasoning shows that the viewpoint in which we reject two different extremes is the foundation for achieving freedom;[10] and

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283 Leave a comment on paragraph 283 0 (6) The String of Precious Jewels shows that this same viewpoint is, as well, the foundation for achieving the omniscience of enlightenment.

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286 Leave a comment on paragraph 286 0 [14]

287 Leave a comment on paragraph 287 0 DE RNAMS LAS RTZA SHE NI LUS LTA BU DANG, GZHAN LNGA NI DE LAS ‘PHROS PA’I YAN LAG LTA BU’I BSTAN BCOS SO,,

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289 Leave a comment on paragraph 289 0 Of these six, Wisdom is like the main body; while the other five are all commentaries which expand upon it, and so are like the limbs of the body.

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292 Leave a comment on paragraph 292 0 [15]

293 Leave a comment on paragraph 293 0 ZAB DON LA THOS BSAM BYAS PA’I PHAN YON NI RDOR GCOD SOGS LAS GSUNGS PA MDO KUN LAS BTUS SU DRANGS PA LTAR RJE’I GSUNG LAS KYANG ‘BYUNG STE GO SLA’O,,

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295 Leave a comment on paragraph 295 0 The benefits of studying and contemplating that most profound truth are described in the Diamond Cutter Sutra, as we see it cited in A Compendium of All the Sutras, and referenced as well in the works of Lord Tsongkapa.  These benefits are easily understood.[11]

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299 Leave a comment on paragraph 299 0 The meaning of the name

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301 Leave a comment on paragraph 301 0 [16]

302 Leave a comment on paragraph 302 0 ` ,GNYIS PA LA GSUM, MTSAN GYI DON, GZHUNG GI DON, MJUG GI DON NO,,

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304 Leave a comment on paragraph 304 0 Here we begin our explication of each section of the text of Wisdom.  This will be done in three broad sections: a discussion of the name of the text; a commentary to the main body of the work; and then an explanation of how the work is completed.

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307 Leave a comment on paragraph 307 0 [17]

308 Leave a comment on paragraph 308 0 (title)

309 Leave a comment on paragraph 309 0 Prajñā Mūlamadhyāmaka Kārikā[12]

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311 Leave a comment on paragraph 311 0 Prajna Mulamadhyamaka Karika.

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314 Leave a comment on paragraph 314 0 [f. 1b] #, ,RGYA GAR SKAD DU,

315 Leave a comment on paragraph 315 0 ,PRA DZNY’A N’A MA M’U LA MA DHY’A MA KA K’A RI K’A ,

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317 Leave a comment on paragraph 317 0 In Sanskrit, the title of this work is:

318 Leave a comment on paragraph 318 0 Prajna Nama Mulamadhyamaka Karika.

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321 Leave a comment on paragraph 321 0 BOD SKAD DU,

322 Leave a comment on paragraph 322 0 ,DBU MA RTZA BA’I TSIG LE’UR BYAS PA SHES RAB CES BYA BA,

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324 Leave a comment on paragraph 324 0 In Tibetan, this is:

325 Leave a comment on paragraph 325 0 Uma tsaway tsik-leur jepa Sherab chejawa.

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327 Leave a comment on paragraph 327 0 In English, it is:

328 Leave a comment on paragraph 328 0 Wisdom: The Root Text on the Middle Way, Set in Verse

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331 Leave a comment on paragraph 331 0 [18]

332 Leave a comment on paragraph 332 0 DANG PO NI {mtsan gyi don}, BSTAN BCOS ‘DI’I MTSAN LA, RGYA GAR GYI SKAD DU, PRA DZNY’A N’A MA M’U LA M’ADHYAM {M’ADHYA MA} KA K’A RI K’A ZHES ‘BYUNG ZHING,

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334 Leave a comment on paragraph 334 0 Here is the first of these three sections.  The title of this classical commentary, in Sanskrit, appears as Prajna Mula Madhyamaka Karika.

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337 Leave a comment on paragraph 337 0 [19]

338 Leave a comment on paragraph 338 0 DE BOD SKAD DU BSGYUR NA, PRADZNY’A NI SHES RAB, M’ADHYAM {%MADHY’A MA} KA NI DBU MA, M’U LA NI RTZA BA, K’A RI KA NI TSIG LE’UR BYAS PA, N’A MA NI ZHES BYA BA’O,,

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340 Leave a comment on paragraph 340 0 Here is how we translate the pieces of this title.  Prajna means wisdom.  Madhyamaka is middle way, and mula is root text.  Karika means set in verse, while nama is known as.  [And so, altogether, we have The Classical Commentary known as “Wisdom”: The Root Text on the Middle Way, Set in Verse.]

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343 Leave a comment on paragraph 343 0 [20]

344 Leave a comment on paragraph 344 0 DON YANG SHES RAB NI SHER PHYIN STON PA DANG, DBU MA NI RTAG CHAD GNYIS DANG BRAL BA’I DBU MA’I DON STON PA DANG,

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346 Leave a comment on paragraph 346 0 When we say “wisdom” here, we’re talking about the perfection of wisdom.  “Middle way” refers to a way in the middle, in the sense that we are free of the extremes where nothing can change, or else everything grinds to a stop.[13]

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349 Leave a comment on paragraph 349 0 [21]

350 Leave a comment on paragraph 350 0 RTZA BA NI DBU MA’I BSTAN BCOS GZHAN KUN GYI GZHI LTA BU [f. 3a] DANG, TSIG LE’UR BYAS PA’I DON TSIGS BCAD DU BYAS PA DANG, N’A MA NI ZHES BYA BA STE MING DE SKAD CES BYA’O,,

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352 Leave a comment on paragraph 352 0 The words “root text” are to indicate that this work by the Arya is like the foundation for all other classical treatises upon the middle way.  “Set in verse” conveys to readers that the work is in poetry; and “known as” is meant to indicate that the rest is a name for the text.

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356 Leave a comment on paragraph 356 0 An obeisance by the Tibetan translator

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358 Leave a comment on paragraph 358 0 [22]

359 Leave a comment on paragraph 359 0  [(translator’s prostration)

360 Leave a comment on paragraph 360 0 ,’JAM DPAL GZHON NUR GYUR PA LA PHYAG ‘TSAL LO,

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362 Leave a comment on paragraph 362 0 I bow down to Gentle Voice, become young.[14]]

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369 Leave a comment on paragraph 369 0  

370 Leave a comment on paragraph 370 0 Chapter 1

371 Leave a comment on paragraph 371 0 An Analysis of Conditions

372 Leave a comment on paragraph 372 0

373 Leave a comment on paragraph 373 0  

374 Leave a comment on paragraph 374 0  

375 Leave a comment on paragraph 375 0  

376 Leave a comment on paragraph 376 0  

377 Leave a comment on paragraph 377 0 Chapter 1

378 Leave a comment on paragraph 378 0 An Analysis of Conditions

379 Leave a comment on paragraph 379 0  

380 Leave a comment on paragraph 380 0  

381 Leave a comment on paragraph 381 0  

382 Leave a comment on paragraph 382 0 Praising the Teacher, for dependence

383 Leave a comment on paragraph 383 0  

384 Leave a comment on paragraph 384 0 [23]

385 Leave a comment on paragraph 385 0 GNYIS PA LA GSUM, STON PA LA RTEN ‘BYUNG GSUNG BA’I SGO NAS BSTOD PA, RTEN ‘BYUNG MTHA’ BRGYAD DANG BRAL BAR ‘GREL TSUL, STON PA’I BKA’ DRIN DRAN PA’I PHYAG GO

386 Leave a comment on paragraph 386 0  

387 Leave a comment on paragraph 387 0 This brings us to our second major section—a commentary to the main body of the work.  This itself consists of three parts: a praise of the Teacher, for his enunciation of the principle of dependence; the way in which we interpret this dependence in terms of it being free of eight different extremes; and a prostration for the purpose of remaining mindful of the kindness of our Teacher.

388 Leave a comment on paragraph 388 0  

389 Leave a comment on paragraph 389 0  

390 Leave a comment on paragraph 390 0 [24]

391 Leave a comment on paragraph 391 0 ,DANG PO LA GNYIS, SPYI’I DON DANG, YAN LAG GI DON NO,,

392 Leave a comment on paragraph 392 0  

393 Leave a comment on paragraph 393 0 We will cover the first of these in two steps: a general explanation of the praise, followed by ancillary points.

394 Leave a comment on paragraph 394 0  

395 Leave a comment on paragraph 395 0  

396 Leave a comment on paragraph 396 0 [25]

397 Leave a comment on paragraph 397 0 DANG PO LA, RTEN ‘BYUNG MTHA’ BRGYAD DANG BRAL BA NI ‘DI’I BRJOD BYA, ‘DI LA BRTEN NAS DON DE KHONG DU CHUD PA NI DGOS PA, SPROS PA THAMS CAD NYE BAR ZHI BA’I MYANG ‘DAS MTHAR THUG NI NYID DGOS, CHOS GSUM PHYI MA SNGA MA LA ‘BREL BA NI ‘DI’I ‘BREL BA’O,,

398 Leave a comment on paragraph 398 0  

399 Leave a comment on paragraph 399 0 Here is the first.  This opening praise contains four parts.  First, the mention of the principle of dependence free of eight different extremes reflects the subject matter of our text.  Second, the immediate goal is that we come to grasp this principle, by relying upon the Arya’s work.  Third, the ultimate goal is that we attain the ultimate form of nirvana, where we put to rest each and every fantasy we now possess, about how things exist.  Fourth, there is a crucial interrelation here, where each succeeding step of the first three relies upon the step which precedes it.[15]

400 Leave a comment on paragraph 400 0  

401 Leave a comment on paragraph 401 0  

402 Leave a comment on paragraph 402 0 [26]

403 Leave a comment on paragraph 403 0 DON LA DE LTAR YIN KYANG SKABS ‘DIR MCHOD BRJOD KYIS DE LTAR YIN TSUL DNGOS SU STON PA NI MIN NO,,

404 Leave a comment on paragraph 404 0  

405 Leave a comment on paragraph 405 0 This is the point of this offering of praise, but at the same time it’s not as if the wording itself at this juncture directly reveals this fact.

406 Leave a comment on paragraph 406 0  

407 Leave a comment on paragraph 407 0  

408 Leave a comment on paragraph 408 0 [27]

409 Leave a comment on paragraph 409 0 THEG DMAN GYI MDO LAS KYANG STONG NYID MDOR BSDUS BSTAN MOD, THEG CHEN DU RIGS PA’I RNAM GRANGS DU MAS RGYAS PAR STON PAS KHYAD PAR YOD DE,

410 Leave a comment on paragraph 410 0  

411 Leave a comment on paragraph 411 0 Now it is admittedly the case that—even in the sutras of the lower way—the principle of emptiness is presented, albeit in an abbreviated way.  But this is vastly different from the approach here in the greater way, where we cover this subject utilizing a large quantity of different logical proofs.[16]

412 Leave a comment on paragraph 412 0  

413 Leave a comment on paragraph 413 0  

414 Leave a comment on paragraph 414 0 [28]

415 Leave a comment on paragraph 415 0 MGON POS,

416 Leave a comment on paragraph 416 0 ,DE PHYIR DE NI THEG CHEN LAS,

417 Leave a comment on paragraph 417 0 ,KHYOD KYIS TSANG BAR BSTAN PA LAGS,

418 Leave a comment on paragraph 418 0 ,ZHES GSUNGS PAS SO,,

419 Leave a comment on paragraph 419 0  

420 Leave a comment on paragraph 420 0 As our Protector himself has put it,

421 Leave a comment on paragraph 421 0  

422 Leave a comment on paragraph 422 0 And so you taught these things

423 Leave a comment on paragraph 423 0 In their entirety,

424 Leave a comment on paragraph 424 0 Within the greater way.[17]

425 Leave a comment on paragraph 425 0  

426 Leave a comment on paragraph 426 0  

427 Leave a comment on paragraph 427 0 [29]

428 Leave a comment on paragraph 428 0 RTEN ‘BREL GYI DON NI, DE’I SKAD ? {%SKAD DOD} LA, PRA TI AI TI {%TYA} MA {%no MA} SA MUD {%MUT} PAD {P’A DA} ZHES YOD PA LA, RKYEN GYI DBANG GIS PRA TI {%T’I} TY’A {%TYA} SA MUD {%MUT} P’A DA ZHES PA STE PHRAD PA DANG BRTEN PA DANG BLTOS NAS ‘BYUNG BA’I DON GSUM LA ‘JUG CING,

429 Leave a comment on paragraph 429 0  

430 Leave a comment on paragraph 430 0 Now what do we mean when we speak of the “principle of dependence”?  The original Sanskrit here is pratitya samutpada.  We use this term to refer to something that occurs by force of factors—which can refer to three different ideas: something which occurs because things make contact with each other; or which occurs because things are depending upon each other; or which occurs because things are relying on each other.

431 Leave a comment on paragraph 431 0  

432 Leave a comment on paragraph 432 0  

433 Leave a comment on paragraph 433 0 [30]

434 Leave a comment on paragraph 434 0 BRTEN NAS ‘BYUNG BA’I DON NI,

435 Leave a comment on paragraph 435 0 ,BYED PO LAS {karma} LA BRTEN BYAS SHING,

436 Leave a comment on paragraph 436 0 ,LAS KYANG BYED PA PO NYID LA,

437 Leave a comment on paragraph 437 0 ,BRTEN NAS ‘BYUNG PA MA GTOGS PAR,

438 Leave a comment on paragraph 438 0 ,’GRUB PA’I RGYU NI MA MTHONG NGO,,

439 Leave a comment on paragraph 439 0 ZHES ‘BYUNG BA LTAR,

440 Leave a comment on paragraph 440 0  

441 Leave a comment on paragraph 441 0 What it means when we say that “something occurs because things depend upon each other” is described in the following lines:

442 Leave a comment on paragraph 442 0  

443 Leave a comment on paragraph 443 0 An agent comes into being

444 Leave a comment on paragraph 444 0 Dependent upon an action;

445 Leave a comment on paragraph 445 0 And the action in turn occurs

446 Leave a comment on paragraph 446 0 Through dependence upon the agent;

447 Leave a comment on paragraph 447 0 We see no other cause than this

448 Leave a comment on paragraph 448 0 That can ever make things occur.[18]

449 Leave a comment on paragraph 449 0  

450 Leave a comment on paragraph 450 0  

451 Leave a comment on paragraph 451 0 [31]

452 Leave a comment on paragraph 452 0 CHOS THAMS CAD PHAN TSUN GCIG CIG SHOS LA BRTEN NAS [f. 3b] ‘JOG DGOS BA’I {%PA’I} DON YIN GYI, RGYU RKYEN LAS ‘BYUNG BA’I DON TZAM MIN NO,,

453 Leave a comment on paragraph 453 0  

454 Leave a comment on paragraph 454 0 And so the point of the “principle of dependence” here is not just that things occur through causes and conditions; but rather that all objects in the universe can only be established through a process of mutual interdependence.

455 Leave a comment on paragraph 455 0  

456 Leave a comment on paragraph 456 0  

457 Leave a comment on paragraph 457 0  

458 Leave a comment on paragraph 458 0 The eight impossibles

459 Leave a comment on paragraph 459 0  

460 Leave a comment on paragraph 460 0 [32]

461 Leave a comment on paragraph 461 0 GNYIS PA NI,

462 Leave a comment on paragraph 462 0  

463 Leave a comment on paragraph 463 0 This brings us to our second step from above: ancillary points in the praise, expressed in the following lines of the root text.

464 Leave a comment on paragraph 464 0  

465 Leave a comment on paragraph 465 0  

466 Leave a comment on paragraph 466 0 [33]

467 Leave a comment on paragraph 467 0 (I.1-2)

468 Leave a comment on paragraph 468 0 Anirodham anutpādam anucchedam aśāśvatam,
Anekārtham anānārtham anāgamam anirgamam,

469 Leave a comment on paragraph 469 0 Ya pratītyasamutpāda prapañcopaśama śivam,
Deśayāmāsa Sa
buddhas ta vande vadatā varam.

470 Leave a comment on paragraph 470 0  

471 Leave a comment on paragraph 471 0 Anirodham anutpadam anuchedam ashashvatam,

472 Leave a comment on paragraph 472 0 Anekartham ananartham anagamam anirgamam,

473 Leave a comment on paragraph 473 0 Yah pratityasamutpadam prapanchopashaman shivam,

474 Leave a comment on paragraph 474 0 Deshayamasa Sambuddhas tan vande vadatan varam.

475 Leave a comment on paragraph 475 0  

476 Leave a comment on paragraph 476 0  

477 Leave a comment on paragraph 477 0 ,GANG GIS RTEN CING ‘BREL BAR ‘BYUNG,

478 Leave a comment on paragraph 478 0 ,’GAG PA MED PA SKYE MED PA,

479 Leave a comment on paragraph 479 0 ,CHAD PA MED PA RTAG MED PA,

480 Leave a comment on paragraph 480 0 ,’ONG BA MED PA ‘GRO MED PA,

481 Leave a comment on paragraph 481 0 ,THA DAD DON MIN DON GCIG MIN,

482 Leave a comment on paragraph 482 0 ,SPROS PA NYER ZHI ZHI BSTAN PA,

483 Leave a comment on paragraph 483 0 ,RDZOGS PA’I SANGS RGYAS SMRA RNAMS KYI,

484 Leave a comment on paragraph 484 0 ,DAM PA DE LA PHYAG ‘TSAL LO,,

485 Leave a comment on paragraph 485 0 ZHES PA’O,,

486 Leave a comment on paragraph 486 0  

487 Leave a comment on paragraph 487 0 I bow down to that highest of teachers;

488 Leave a comment on paragraph 488 0 To the fully Enlightened One,

489 Leave a comment on paragraph 489 0 Who teaches us to reach that peace

490 Leave a comment on paragraph 490 0 Where our fantasies about how things exist

491 Leave a comment on paragraph 491 0 Are put to a final rest.

492 Leave a comment on paragraph 492 0  

493 Leave a comment on paragraph 493 0 I bow to the one who taught us

494 Leave a comment on paragraph 494 0 That things happen in dependence:

495 Leave a comment on paragraph 495 0 Nothing ends, and nothing begins;

496 Leave a comment on paragraph 496 0 Nothing stops, but nothing

497 Leave a comment on paragraph 497 0 Ever lasts forever.

498 Leave a comment on paragraph 498 0 Nothing comes, and nothing goes;

499 Leave a comment on paragraph 499 0 No two things are different,

500 Leave a comment on paragraph 500 0 Nor are any two the same.

501 Leave a comment on paragraph 501 0  

502 Leave a comment on paragraph 502 0  

503 Leave a comment on paragraph 503 0 [34]

504 Leave a comment on paragraph 504 0 DON NI, PHYAG ‘TSAL LO ZHES DRANG NGO,,

505 Leave a comment on paragraph 505 0  

506 Leave a comment on paragraph 506 0 As for the import of these first lines, we can begin from the words, “I bow…”[19]

507 Leave a comment on paragraph 507 0  

508 Leave a comment on paragraph 508 0  

509 Leave a comment on paragraph 509 0 [35]

510 Leave a comment on paragraph 510 0 GANG LA NA SMON {%STON} PA GANG GIS RTEN CING ‘BREL BAR ‘BYUNG BA BSTAN PA‘I THUB DBANG RDZOGS PA’I SANGS RGYAS DE LA‘O,,

511 Leave a comment on paragraph 511 0  

512 Leave a comment on paragraph 512 0 To whom does Nagarjuna bow?  To the Teacher: to the Lord of the Able Ones—to the fully Enlightened One who taught us that things happen in dependence.

513 Leave a comment on paragraph 513 0  

514 Leave a comment on paragraph 514 0  

515 Leave a comment on paragraph 515 0 [36]

516 Leave a comment on paragraph 516 0 JI LTAR NA RTEN ‘BYUNG DE NI MNYAM GZHAG ZAG MED KYI YUL GYI RANG BZHIN LA LTOS NAS SKAD CIG MAR ‘JIG PA’I ‘GAG PA DANG, RANG GI NGO BO THOB PHYIR SKYE BA DANG SNGA MA RGYUN CHAD PA DANG MI ‘JIG PA’I RTAG PA DANG TSUR ‘ONG BA DANG PHAR ‘GRO BA DANG DGOS {%DE GO SA?} SOGS KYI DON SO SO BA’I THA DAD PA DANG DON SO SO BA MIN PA’I GCIG PA RNAMS NI MED DO ZHES DGAG TSIG MTHAR SBYAR RO,,

517 Leave a comment on paragraph 517 0  

518 Leave a comment on paragraph 518 0 And how did he teach us this dependence?  He stated that the fact of dependence—as an object of that immaculate state of meditation[20]—is none of the following, at least with regard to any nature this object could have of its own.  Thus we are to add words of negation—“nothing”—to the each member of this list:

519 Leave a comment on paragraph 519 0  

520 Leave a comment on paragraph 520 0 1) Something that could ever end, in the sense of blinking out of existence, moment by moment;

521 Leave a comment on paragraph 521 0  

522 Leave a comment on paragraph 522 0 2) Something that could ever begin, in terms of taking on some identity of its own;

523 Leave a comment on paragraph 523 0  

524 Leave a comment on paragraph 524 0 3) Something that could ever stop, as the flow of how it has existed up to now is discontinued;

525 Leave a comment on paragraph 525 0  

526 Leave a comment on paragraph 526 0 4) Something that could ever last forever—never be destroyed;

527 Leave a comment on paragraph 527 0  

528 Leave a comment on paragraph 528 0 5) Something that could ever come, from there to here;

529 Leave a comment on paragraph 529 0  

530 Leave a comment on paragraph 530 0 6) Something that could ever go, from here to there;

531 Leave a comment on paragraph 531 0  

532 Leave a comment on paragraph 532 0 7) Two things that could ever be different from one another, in senses such as occupying some separate space; and

533 Leave a comment on paragraph 533 0  

534 Leave a comment on paragraph 534 0 8) Two things that could ever be the same as each other, insofar as not being separate in those same senses.

535 Leave a comment on paragraph 535 0  

536 Leave a comment on paragraph 536 0  

537 Leave a comment on paragraph 537 0 [37]

538 Leave a comment on paragraph 538 0 RTEN ‘BYUNG GI CHOS NYID ‘PHAGS PA’I YE SHES KYIS JI LTAR GZIGS PA’I GZIGS DOR {%NGOR} SKYE ‘GAG LA SOGS PA’I SPROS PA THAMS CAD NYE BAR ZHI BA DANG,

539 Leave a comment on paragraph 539 0  

540 Leave a comment on paragraph 540 0 The nature of all things, within their dependence, represents a point where—to the perceptions of a realized being,[21] to their state of wisdom—all fantasies about how things exist are put to a final rest.

541 Leave a comment on paragraph 541 0  

542 Leave a comment on paragraph 542 0  

543 Leave a comment on paragraph 543 0 [38]

544 Leave a comment on paragraph 544 0 DER SEMS DANG SEMS BYUNG GI RNAM RTOG GI RGYU BA MED BAS SKYE RGA SOGS KYIS NYE BAR ‘TSE BA THAMS CAD DANG BRAL BA’I PHYIR ZHI BA’O,,

545 Leave a comment on paragraph 545 0  

546 Leave a comment on paragraph 546 0 We can also describe this as peace, since—because at this point both our main mind and our mental functions are free of any circulation of mistaken thoughts about things—we are freeing ourselves from the damage done to us by rebirth, aging, and the rest.[22]

547 Leave a comment on paragraph 547 0  

548 Leave a comment on paragraph 548 0  

549 Leave a comment on paragraph 549 0 [39]

550 Leave a comment on paragraph 550 0 RTEN ‘BYUNG GI DE NYID RDZOGS PA’I SANGS RGYAS NYID KYIS JI LTA BA BZHIN DU MNGON SUM DU GZIGS NAS GZHAN LA LEGS PAR BSTAN PAS SMRA BA RNAMS KYI DAM PA ZHES BYA’O,,

551 Leave a comment on paragraph 551 0  

552 Leave a comment on paragraph 552 0 This true nature of dependence is something that only a fully Enlightened One can see, directly, in just the way it is.  They then teach it to others perfectly—which makes them the highest of all teachers.

553 Leave a comment on paragraph 553 0  

554 Leave a comment on paragraph 554 0  

555 Leave a comment on paragraph 555 0 [40]

556 Leave a comment on paragraph 556 0 ‘DIR ‘GAG SOGS BRGYAD GSUNGS PA NI RANG GZHAN GYI RTZOD PA’I GZHI’I [f. 4a] GTZO BO YIN PA LA DGONGS LA, DE YANG ‘GAG SOGS BRGYAD NI ‘PHAGS PA’I MNYAM GZHAG GI GZIGS NGOR MED KYANG THA SNYAD DU YOD DO,,

557 Leave a comment on paragraph 557 0  

558 Leave a comment on paragraph 558 0 Now why are these particular eight—of ending and the rest—selected for mention in these first lines?  The idea is that, first of all, these are the main points that we would tend to argue about with others.  Secondly, we can say that—to the perceptions of a realized being who is inside the direct experience of emptiness—none of these things can be seen to exist; although, on a conventional level, they certainly do exist.

559 Leave a comment on paragraph 559 0  

560 Leave a comment on paragraph 560 0  

561 Leave a comment on paragraph 561 0 [41]

562 Leave a comment on paragraph 562 0 ‘GAG PA MED PA NI SKYE BA MED PA ZHES PA’I SNGON DU ‘BYUNG BA RANG BZHIN GYIS GRUB NA SKYE ‘GAG GO RIM MA NGES PAR ‘GYUR BAR STON PA’I CHED DO,,

563 Leave a comment on paragraph 563 0  

564 Leave a comment on paragraph 564 0 Now why does Arya Nagarjuna mention ending before beginning?  He wants to make the point that—if these things were to exist through some nature of their own—then we could never say with certainty whether things would begin first and then end; or end first and then begin.

565 Leave a comment on paragraph 565 0  

566 Leave a comment on paragraph 566 0  

567 Leave a comment on paragraph 567 0  

568 Leave a comment on paragraph 568 0 The two kinds of self-nature that were never there

569 Leave a comment on paragraph 569 0  

570 Leave a comment on paragraph 570 0 [42]

571 Leave a comment on paragraph 571 0 GNYIS PA LA GNYIS, RAB BYED KYI GZHUNG NYAMS LEN GYI RIM PAR BSGRIG PA DANG, GZHUNG RNAMS SO SOR BSHAD PA’O,,

572 Leave a comment on paragraph 572 0  

573 Leave a comment on paragraph 573 0 This brings us to the second part promised above: on the way in which we interpret this dependence in terms of it being free of eight different extremes.  This will be treated in two steps of (1) a presentation of the different chapters arranged in an order in which they might actually be put into practice; and then (2) our explanation of the actual subject matter of each of these chapters.

574 Leave a comment on paragraph 574 0  

575 Leave a comment on paragraph 575 0  

576 Leave a comment on paragraph 576 0 [43]

577 Leave a comment on paragraph 577 0 DANG PO LA, DMIGS PA GANG ZAG LA DMIGS NAS RNAM PA RANG GI MTSAN NYID KYIS GRUB BAR ‘DZIN PA’I BLO NI GANG ZAG GI BDAG ‘DZIN DANG,

578 Leave a comment on paragraph 578 0  

579 Leave a comment on paragraph 579 0 Here is the first.  Now when our mind takes, as its object, a person; and then holds it, as its aspect, to exist in and of itself; we call this “the tendency to believe that a person exists as a person.”

580 Leave a comment on paragraph 580 0  

581 Leave a comment on paragraph 581 0  

582 Leave a comment on paragraph 582 0 [44]

583 Leave a comment on paragraph 583 0 DMIGS PA GANG ZAG MA YIN PA’I PHUNG SOGS KYI CHOS LA DMIGS NAS RNAM PA RANG GI MTSAN NYID KYIS GRUB PAR ‘DZIN PA’I BLO NI CHOS KYI BDAG ‘DZIN TE,

584 Leave a comment on paragraph 584 0  

585 Leave a comment on paragraph 585 0 And when our mind takes, as its object, things that are not the person themselves—things like the five parts to a person; and then holds these things, as their aspect, to exist in and of themselves; then we call this “the tendency to believe that things exist as things.”

586 Leave a comment on paragraph 586 0  

587 Leave a comment on paragraph 587 0  

588 Leave a comment on paragraph 588 0 [45]

589 Leave a comment on paragraph 589 0 BLO SNGON MAS BZUNG BA LTAR MED PA NI GANG ZAG GI BDAG MED YIN LA, PHYI MAS BZUNG BA LTAR MED PA NI CHOS KYI BDAG MED DO,,

590 Leave a comment on paragraph 590 0  

591 Leave a comment on paragraph 591 0 And what we call the “lack of any self-nature to the person” is the simple fact that what the former state of mind thinks it sees cannot exist; while the “lack of any self-nature to things” is the fact that what the latter state of mind thinks it sees cannot exist, either.

592 Leave a comment on paragraph 592 0  

593 Leave a comment on paragraph 593 0  

594 Leave a comment on paragraph 594 0 [46]

595 Leave a comment on paragraph 595 0 DES NA MED RGYU’I BDAG CIG GANG ZAG GI STENG DU BKAG PA GANG ZAG GI BDAG MED DANG, CHOS KYI STENG DU BKAG PA CHOS KYI BDAG MED YIN BAS {%PAS} DGAG GZHI SO SO YIN YANG DGAG BYA’I BDAG LA KHYAD PAR MED DO,,

596 Leave a comment on paragraph 596 0  

597 Leave a comment on paragraph 597 0 So what’s happening here is that we’re considering a single kind of self-nature that could never exist.  When we deny it with reference to a person, then we call it “the lack of any self-nature to the person”; and when we deny it with reference to things, then we call it “the lack of any self-nature to things.”  And so although we deny this nature with regard to two different referents, it’s not that there’s any difference in the two self-natures we are denying.

598 Leave a comment on paragraph 598 0  

599 Leave a comment on paragraph 599 0  

600 Leave a comment on paragraph 600 0 [47]

601 Leave a comment on paragraph 601 0 DE’I PHYIR BDAG MED GNYIS MA {%LA} PHRA RAGS KYI KHYAD PAR MED KYANG GANG ZAG GI STENG DU NGES SLA ZHING CHOS KYI STENG DU NGES DKA’ BA’I KHYAD PAR NI YOD DO,,

602 Leave a comment on paragraph 602 0  

603 Leave a comment on paragraph 603 0 As such, we can’t really say that one of these two lacks of any self-nature is more or less subtle than the other; nonetheless, there is a difference in the relative difficulty of perceiving the two.  That is, the fact that nothing is itself is easier to recognize with respect to a person; and more difficult to recognize with respect to things in general.

604 Leave a comment on paragraph 604 0  

605 Leave a comment on paragraph 605 0  

606 Leave a comment on paragraph 606 0 [48]

607 Leave a comment on paragraph 607 0 ‘JIG LTA NI GANG ZAG GI BDAG ‘DZIN GYI BYE BRAG STE, DE YANG RANG RGYUD KYI NGA LA DMIGS NAS NGA DANG NGA YI’O SNYAM DU RANG GI MTSAN NYID KYIS GRUB PAR ‘DZIN PA ZHIG GO

608 Leave a comment on paragraph 608 0  

609 Leave a comment on paragraph 609 0 Now what we call the “view of destruction” is a particular variant of the tendency to believe that a person is themselves.  This state of mind focuses on the “me” that relates to my own continuum, and holds that it is either “me” or “mine”—but in a way where these exist in and of themselves.

610 Leave a comment on paragraph 610 0  

611 Leave a comment on paragraph 611 0  

612 Leave a comment on paragraph 612 0 [49]

613 Leave a comment on paragraph 613 0 ,DES NA ‘DIR [f. 4b] ‘GOG RGYU LA YUL ‘GOG PA DANG YUL CAN ‘GOG PA GNYIS TE, DE LA BLO DE GNYIS KYIS YUL JI LTAR BZUNG BA’I DON LA RIGS PA’I GNOD PA BSTAN NAS YUL CAN GYI ‘DZIN PA YANG ‘GOG PA’O,,

614 Leave a comment on paragraph 614 0  

615 Leave a comment on paragraph 615 0 As such, there are two divisions to what we need to deny here: we need to deny the object, and we need to deny the subject.  In this regard, we can also deny how the subject state of mind holds to its object, when we demonstrate how what those two states of mind think they see can be thrown into question by clear reasoning.

616 Leave a comment on paragraph 616 0  

617 Leave a comment on paragraph 617 0  

618 Leave a comment on paragraph 618 0 [50]

619 Leave a comment on paragraph 619 0 DE’I TSE YUL CAN DE DAG GIS JI LTAR BZUNG BA’I DON THA SNYAD DU YOD PA ‘GOG KYANG YUL YUL CAN DE DAG THA SNYAD DU YOD PA MI ‘GOG GI, THA SNYAD KYI DBANG GIS BZHAG TZAM MA YIN PAR YOD PA ‘GOG STE YOD PA THAMS CAD LA ‘DRA’O,,

620 Leave a comment on paragraph 620 0  

621 Leave a comment on paragraph 621 0 At this point, we are disproving that what these subject states of mind think they see could exist, in any conventional sense.  We are not though denying that—conventionally speaking—the subject and object could not exist at all.  All we are doing is disproving that anything could ever exist, unless it were established as existing through the power of the words we use, and nothing more.  This methodology remains the same, no matter which of the existing objects in the universe we have taken under consideration.

622 Leave a comment on paragraph 622 0  

623 Leave a comment on paragraph 623 0  

624 Leave a comment on paragraph 624 0 [51]

625 Leave a comment on paragraph 625 0 SKYES SAM MA SKYES ‘ONGS SAM MA ‘ONGS ZHES SOGS DPYOD PA NI THA SNYAD DU KHAS LEN KYANG, DE TZAM GYIS MA TSIM BAR THA SNYAD BTAGS PA’I BTAGS DON DE JI ‘DRA BA ZHIG TU GRUB PAR BTZAL BA NA RNYED PAR KHAS MI LEN TE

626 Leave a comment on paragraph 626 0  

627 Leave a comment on paragraph 627 0 Let’s look at how we analyze whether any of these things ever begins, or never begins; how they come, or never come.  We do accept that, in a conventional sense, such things do exist.  But what we’re saying is that we do not accept that—if a person refused to be satisfied with this description of things, and instead insisted upon seeking out the thing that they have named with their names—they would ever find anything.

628 Leave a comment on paragraph 628 0  

629 Leave a comment on paragraph 629 0  

630 Leave a comment on paragraph 630 0 [52]

631 Leave a comment on paragraph 631 0 SNGA MA NI THA SNYAD KYI DPYOD PA YIN LA, PHYI MA NI DON DAM LA DPYOD PA YIN PA’I PHYIR RO,,

632 Leave a comment on paragraph 632 0  

633 Leave a comment on paragraph 633 0 The former process we would call an “analysis of the conventional nature of things”; and the latter an “analysis of the ultimate nature of things.”

634 Leave a comment on paragraph 634 0  

635 Leave a comment on paragraph 635 0  

636 Leave a comment on paragraph 636 0 [53]

637 Leave a comment on paragraph 637 0 TSUL ‘DI LA RIGS PAS DPYAD MI BZOD PA DANG RIGS PAS GNOD PA DANG RIGS SHES KYIS MA RNYED PA DANG, DES BKAG PA RNAMS SO SOR BYED {%PHYED} PA DGOS SHING,

638 Leave a comment on paragraph 638 0  

639 Leave a comment on paragraph 639 0 When we’re going through these different processes, we need to learn to distinguish between: (1) deciding whether or not something will stand up under logical analysis; (2) whether or not something is drawn into question by logic; (3) whether or not something can be located by a state of mind acting in a logical mode; and (4) whether or not it is actually disproven by this same state of mind.

640 Leave a comment on paragraph 640 0  

641 Leave a comment on paragraph 641 0  

642 Leave a comment on paragraph 642 0 [54]

643 Leave a comment on paragraph 643 0 YID BDAG GNYIS DANG BDAG MED GNYIS LA ZHUGS MA ZHUGS KYI KHYAD BAR {%PAR} YANG SHES PAR BYA’O,,

644 Leave a comment on paragraph 644 0  

645 Leave a comment on paragraph 645 0 We also need to learn to identify when the mind is engaged in one of the two types of a supposed self-nature; and when it is engaged in one of the two types of a lack of any such self-nature.

646 Leave a comment on paragraph 646 0  

647 Leave a comment on paragraph 647 0  

648 Leave a comment on paragraph 648 0  

649 Leave a comment on paragraph 649 0 A summary of the topics of the chapters

650 Leave a comment on paragraph 650 0  

651 Leave a comment on paragraph 651 0 [55]

652 Leave a comment on paragraph 652 0 RAB BYED RNAMS KYIS JI LTAR BSTAN PA’I BSDUS DON NI,

653 Leave a comment on paragraph 653 0  

654 Leave a comment on paragraph 654 0 Let’s move on to a summary of the topics presented in each of the chapters of the Arya’s masterpiece.[23]

655 Leave a comment on paragraph 655 0  

656 Leave a comment on paragraph 656 0  

657 Leave a comment on paragraph 657 0 [56]

658 Leave a comment on paragraph 658 0 DE LA THOG MAR BDAG DANG BDAG GIR ‘DZIN PA’I MA RIG BA’I {%PA’I} ZHEN YUL MED PAR GTAN LA DBAB DGOS PAS DE RAB BYED BCO BRGYAD PAS STON,

659 Leave a comment on paragraph 659 0  

660 Leave a comment on paragraph 660 0 The 18th chapter, “An Analysis of the Person and of Things,” could be considered before any of the other chapters, since our very first job is that we have to establish how what misunderstanding believes in—what the tendencies to believe in some self, or something of a self, believe in—could never even exist.

661 Leave a comment on paragraph 661 0  

662 Leave a comment on paragraph 662 0  

663 Leave a comment on paragraph 663 0 [57]

664 Leave a comment on paragraph 664 0 GANG ZAG LA RANG BZHIN MED NA ‘JIG RTEN PHA ROL NAS ‘DIR ‘ONG BA DANG ‘DI NAS PHA ROL TU ‘GRO BA DANG LAS DGE SDIG BYED PA MI [f. 5a] ‘THAD SNYAM PA ‘GOG PA LA ‘GRO ‘ONG PA RTAG {%’ONG BRTAG} PA DANG BYED PA PO BRTAG PA GNYIS,

665 Leave a comment on paragraph 665 0  

666 Leave a comment on paragraph 666 0 Once they hear that the person possesses no nature of their own, someone might start to wonder how such a person could come into this life from some other life; or go into another life from this one.  They might also wonder, then, about the workings of karma itself: good deeds and bad deeds.  And so these topics are covered in Chapter 2—“An Analysis of Going & Coming”; and in Chapter 8—“An Analysis of Agents & Actions.”

667 Leave a comment on paragraph 667 0  

668 Leave a comment on paragraph 668 0  

669 Leave a comment on paragraph 669 0 [58]

670 Leave a comment on paragraph 670 0 BYED PA PO RANG BZHIN MED PAR BSTAN PA LA LEN PA POR MI RUNG NGO SNYAM PA ‘GOG BAR {%PAR} SNGA ROL NA GNAS PA BRTAG PA,,

671 Leave a comment on paragraph 671 0  

672 Leave a comment on paragraph 672 0 Once they have listened to a presentation on how the agents of actions have no nature of their own, people might begin to think that there could never be anyone who took a rebirth.  And so to prevent this idea, the 9th chapter is presented: “An Analysis of Who Might Have Been There, Before.”

673 Leave a comment on paragraph 673 0  

674 Leave a comment on paragraph 674 0  

675 Leave a comment on paragraph 675 0 [59]

676 Leave a comment on paragraph 676 0 NYE BAR LEN PA PO LA RANG BZHIN YOD PAR SGRUB PA’I DPE DGAG PA NI BCU PA DANG,

677 Leave a comment on paragraph 677 0  

678 Leave a comment on paragraph 678 0 The 10th chapter then—“An Analysis of Fire and Firewood”—is devoted to denying a certain metaphor which people have employed, in an attempt to prove that the one who takes on the different parts of a person at rebirth could possess some nature of their own.

679 Leave a comment on paragraph 679 0  

680 Leave a comment on paragraph 680 0  

681 Leave a comment on paragraph 681 0 [60]

682 Leave a comment on paragraph 682 0 DE’I RTAGS ‘GOG PA LA BCU GCIG PA DANG BCU GNYIS PA,

683 Leave a comment on paragraph 683 0  

684 Leave a comment on paragraph 684 0 Next we have Chapter 11, “An Analysis of a First Beginning, or a Final Ending, to Things,” and Chapter 12, “An Analysis of Whether Pain was Created by Itself, or by Something Else.”  These are meant to disprove the reason given in the metaphor just mentioned.

685 Leave a comment on paragraph 685 0  

686 Leave a comment on paragraph 686 0  

687 Leave a comment on paragraph 687 0 [61]

688 Leave a comment on paragraph 688 0 CHOS KYI BDAG ‘GOG PA LA SKYE BA RANG BZHIN GYIS YOD PA ‘GOG PA LA RAB BYED DANG PO,,

689 Leave a comment on paragraph 689 0  

690 Leave a comment on paragraph 690 0 In seeking to disprove that things could be themselves, we need to show how nothing could begin through any nature of its own—thus, the first chapter: “An Analysis of Conditions.”

691 Leave a comment on paragraph 691 0  

692 Leave a comment on paragraph 692 0  

693 Leave a comment on paragraph 693 0 [62]

694 Leave a comment on paragraph 694 0 LUNG LAS PHUNG SOGS LA RANG BZHIN YOD PAR GSUNGS SO SNYAM PA LA SKYE MCHED BRTAG PA SOGS GSUM {Ch. 5: khams brtag pa; other 2 must be Ch. 3 “DBANG PO BRTAG PA” and Ch. 4 “PHUNG PO BRTAG PA“},

695 Leave a comment on paragraph 695 0  

696 Leave a comment on paragraph 696 0 Someone though might object, thinking to themselves: “But scripture itself describes how the parts to the person, and so on, do have a nature of their own.”  To address this idea, we have three chapters, beginning with Chapter 5, “An Analysis of the Categories,” and including Chapter 3, “An Analysis of the Powers,” and Chapter 4, “An Analysis of the Parts to a Person.”

697 Leave a comment on paragraph 697 0  

698 Leave a comment on paragraph 698 0  

699 Leave a comment on paragraph 699 0 [63]

700 Leave a comment on paragraph 700 0 CHAGS SOGS DANG SKYE ‘JIG GNAS GSUM DANG DE’I RGYU LAS DANG BYED PA PO YOD PAS DE DAG LA RANG BZHIN YOD DO SNYAM PA ‘GOG BAR {%PAR} ‘DOD CHAGS BRTAG PA SOGS GSUM,

701 Leave a comment on paragraph 701 0  

702 Leave a comment on paragraph 702 0 Another thought might occur to some: “Given that we see emotions such as desire; and the three stages of beginning, ending, and staying—as well as the causes for these, karma and agents of action—can’t we say that they have some nature of their own?”  Denying this idea is the task of three chapters beginning with Chapter 6, “An Analysis of Desire & Attachment”; along with Chapter 7, “An Analysis of Beginning, Staying, & Ending,” and Chapter 13, “An Analysis of Factors.”

703 Leave a comment on paragraph 703 0  

704 Leave a comment on paragraph 704 0  

705 Leave a comment on paragraph 705 0 [64]

706 Leave a comment on paragraph 706 0 GANG ZAG DANG CHOS LA RANG BZHIN YOD PA’I SGRUB BYED DU CHOS RNAMS KYI ‘PHRAD PA DANG SKYED PA’I RGYU RKYEN NYE BAR LEN PA DANG GCIG NAS GCIG TU ‘KHOR BA YOD CES SMRA BA ‘GOG PA LA PHRAD PA DANG RANG BZHIN DANG BCINGS THAR BRTAG PA GSUM,

707 Leave a comment on paragraph 707 0  

708 Leave a comment on paragraph 708 0 Some might posit—as proof that both the person, and things, do possess a nature of their own—that things do make contact with each other; and that causes and conditions do lead to their corresponding results; and that beings do circle from one birth to another.  To refute these attempted proofs, we have Chapter 14, “An Analysis of Contact between Things”; Chapter 15, “An Analysis of a Nature to Things”; and Chapter 16, “An Analysis of Bondage, and Freedom from Bondage.”

709 Leave a comment on paragraph 709 0  

710 Leave a comment on paragraph 710 0  

711 Leave a comment on paragraph 711 0 [65]

712 Leave a comment on paragraph 712 0 ‘KHOR BA LA RANG BZHIN YOD PA’I SGRUB BYED LAS ‘BRAS KYI ‘BREL BA’I RTEN YIN PA ‘GOG PA LA LAS ‘BRAS BRTAG PA,

713 Leave a comment on paragraph 713 0  

714 Leave a comment on paragraph 714 0 Others assert that the cycle of pain does have its own nature; as proof of this, they cite the very foundation of the connection between karma and its consequences.  To deny this position, we see Chapter 17: “An Analysis of Karma & Consequences.”

715 Leave a comment on paragraph 715 0  

716 Leave a comment on paragraph 716 0  

717 Leave a comment on paragraph 717 0 [66]

718 Leave a comment on paragraph 718 0 DNGOS PO LA RANG BZHIN YOD PA’I SGRUB BYED DU DUS GSUM GDAGS BA’I {%PA’I} RGYU YIN PA’I PHYIR ZHES ‘GOG PA LA DUS BRTAG PA,

719 Leave a comment on paragraph 719 0  

720 Leave a comment on paragraph 720 0 Still others assert that working things do possess a nature of their own, since this is what allows us to apply the names to the three times; to dispel this belief, we have Chapter 19: “An Analysis of Time.”

721 Leave a comment on paragraph 721 0  

722 Leave a comment on paragraph 722 0  

723 Leave a comment on paragraph 723 0 [67]

724 Leave a comment on paragraph 724 0 DUS LA RANG BZHIN YOD PAR SGRUB PA LA ‘BRAS BU’I BYED RKYEN DANG ‘BYUNG ‘JIG GI RGYU YIN BA {%PA} ‘GOG PA LA TSOGS PA DANG ‘BYUNG ‘JIG BRTAG PA GNYIS,

725 Leave a comment on paragraph 725 0  

726 Leave a comment on paragraph 726 0 Some say that time must have a nature of its own, since it acts as the factor that produces results; and is further the cause for things to occur and to pass away.  To refute this position we see Chapter 20, “An Analysis of the Convergence of Causes & Conditions”; as well as Chapter 21, “An Analysis of How Things Occur, & Then Pass Away.”

727 Leave a comment on paragraph 727 0  

728 Leave a comment on paragraph 728 0  

729 Leave a comment on paragraph 729 0 [68]

730 Leave a comment on paragraph 730 0 [f. 5b] SRID RGYUN RANG BZHIN MED BAR BSTAN PA NA DE’I RGYUN DE BZHIN GSHEGS PA DANG NYON MONGS YOD PAS MI ‘THAD DO SNYAM DU DOGS PA ‘GOG PA LA DE BZHIN GSHEGS PA BRTAG PA DANG PHYIN CI LOG BRTAG PA GNYIS,

731 Leave a comment on paragraph 731 0  

732 Leave a comment on paragraph 732 0 Others assert that—when we teach that the flow of being has no nature—we must be mistaken, for Those Gone Thus do possess such a flow; as do the negative emotions.  To address this doubt, we see Chapter 22, “An Analysis of Those Gone Thus,” and Chapter 23, “An Analysis of Error.”

733 Leave a comment on paragraph 733 0  

734 Leave a comment on paragraph 734 0  

735 Leave a comment on paragraph 735 0 [69]

736 Leave a comment on paragraph 736 0 RANG BZHIN GYIS STONG BA LA BDEN BZHI SOGS MI ‘THAD SNYAM PA LA BDEN PA BRTAG PA,

737 Leave a comment on paragraph 737 0  

738 Leave a comment on paragraph 738 0 Some may think that principles like the four truths[24] could not apply, if things are empty of any nature of their own; to counter this idea we have Chapter 24: “An Analysis of the Higher Truths.”

739 Leave a comment on paragraph 739 0  

740 Leave a comment on paragraph 740 0  

741 Leave a comment on paragraph 741 0 [70]

742 Leave a comment on paragraph 742 0 DE LA MYANG ‘DAS MI ‘THAD SNYAM PA ‘GOG BAR {%PAR} MYANG ‘DAS BRTAG PA,

743 Leave a comment on paragraph 743 0  

744 Leave a comment on paragraph 744 0 The idea that, for the same reason, nirvana would not be possible is disproven in Chapter 25, “An Analysis of Nirvana.”

745 Leave a comment on paragraph 745 0  

746 Leave a comment on paragraph 746 0  

747 Leave a comment on paragraph 747 0 [71]

748 Leave a comment on paragraph 748 0 RTEN ‘BYUNG MTHONG NA DBU MA’I LAM MTHONG BAR GSUNGS PA’I DON STON PA LA RTEN ‘BREL BRTAG PA,

749 Leave a comment on paragraph 749 0  

750 Leave a comment on paragraph 750 0 The chapter where we analyze dependence itself—Chapter 26, “An Analysis of the Twelve Links of Suffering Existence”—presents what the Buddha meant when he said that “Someone who sees dependence sees the middle way.”

751 Leave a comment on paragraph 751 0  

752 Leave a comment on paragraph 752 0  

753 Leave a comment on paragraph 753 0 [72]

754 Leave a comment on paragraph 754 0 RTEN ‘BYUNG GI DE NYID RTOGS NA LTA BA NGAN PA THAMS CAD LDOG PAR STON PA LA LTA BA BRTAG PA GSUNGS TE,

755 Leave a comment on paragraph 755 0  

756 Leave a comment on paragraph 756 0 Chapter 27, finally, is devoted to “An Analysis of Viewpoints,”in order to indicate that—once we realize the true nature of dependence—then we are able to stop each and every mistaken viewpoint we might ever entertain.

757 Leave a comment on paragraph 757 0  

758 Leave a comment on paragraph 758 0  

759 Leave a comment on paragraph 759 0 [73]

760 Leave a comment on paragraph 760 0 THAMS CAD KYANG RANG RGYUD LA THAR LAM BSKYED PA DANG BRTAN PA DANG ‘PHEL BAR BYA BA’I CHED DU YIN GYI GZHAN DANG RTZOD PA TZAM GYI PHYIR MIN TE,

761 Leave a comment on paragraph 761 0  

762 Leave a comment on paragraph 762 0 Now the point of all these different analyses is not simply to engage in dispute with others about their ideas; rather, the purpose of each and every one of these chapters is to first give birth to the path to freedom within our own heart; and then make this path more firm; and further to bring it to increase.

763 Leave a comment on paragraph 763 0  

764 Leave a comment on paragraph 764 0  

765 Leave a comment on paragraph 765 0 [74]

766 Leave a comment on paragraph 766 0 DBU MA ‘JUG PA LAS,

767 Leave a comment on paragraph 767 0 ,BSTAN BCOS LAS DPYAD RTZOD LA CHAGS PA’I PHYIR,

768 Leave a comment on paragraph 768 0 ,MA MDZAD RNAM GROL PHYIR NI DE NYID BSTAN,

769 Leave a comment on paragraph 769 0 ,ZHES GSUNGS PA LTAR RO,,

770 Leave a comment on paragraph 770 0  

771 Leave a comment on paragraph 771 0 As Entering the Middle Way puts it,

772 Leave a comment on paragraph 772 0  

773 Leave a comment on paragraph 773 0 The classical commentary does not engage

774 Leave a comment on paragraph 774 0 In analysis, or debate, out of any attachment

775 Leave a comment on paragraph 775 0 To these methods in themselves;

776 Leave a comment on paragraph 776 0 Rather, they are presented for the sole purpose

777 Leave a comment on paragraph 777 0 Of helping us attain liberation.[25]

778 Leave a comment on paragraph 778 0  

779 Leave a comment on paragraph 779 0  

780 Leave a comment on paragraph 780 0  

781 Leave a comment on paragraph 781 0 Nothing could ever grow

782 Leave a comment on paragraph 782 0  

783 Leave a comment on paragraph 783 0 [75]

784 Leave a comment on paragraph 784 0 GNYIS PA LA GSUM, RTEN ‘BYUNG RANG BZHIN GYIS STONG PAR BSTAN PA, DE RTOGS MA RTOGS LAS ‘KHOR BAR LDOG ‘JUG BYED TSUL, RTOGS NA LTA NGAN LDOG TSUL LO,,

785 Leave a comment on paragraph 785 0  

786 Leave a comment on paragraph 786 0 This brings us to our second step from above—an explanation of the actual subject matter of each of these chapters.  We proceed in three parts: a demonstration that dependence itself possesses no nature of its own; how the question of whether we escape or engage in the cycle of pain depends upon whether we realize this truth or not; and finally a description of how—if we do realize it—we can put a stop to every mistaken viewpoint.

787 Leave a comment on paragraph 787 0  

788 Leave a comment on paragraph 788 0  

789 Leave a comment on paragraph 789 0 [76]

790 Leave a comment on paragraph 790 0 DANG PO LA GNYIS, DNGOS DANG, RTZOD SPONG NGO,,

791 Leave a comment on paragraph 791 0  

792 Leave a comment on paragraph 792 0 The first of these parts has two sections of its own: the actual demonstration; and then a refutation of argument concerning it.

793 Leave a comment on paragraph 793 0  

794 Leave a comment on paragraph 794 0  

795 Leave a comment on paragraph 795 0 [77]

796 Leave a comment on paragraph 796 0 DANG PO LA GNYIS, BDAG MED GNYIS MDOR BSTAN PA DANG, RGYAS PAR BSHAD PA’O,,

797 Leave a comment on paragraph 797 0  

798 Leave a comment on paragraph 798 0 The first of these sections, in turn, covers two points: an abbreviated presentation of the way in which things and people cannot be themselves; and then a more detailed treatment of this same point.

799 Leave a comment on paragraph 799 0  

800 Leave a comment on paragraph 800 0  

801 Leave a comment on paragraph 801 0 [78]

802 Leave a comment on paragraph 802 0 DANG PO LA GNYIS, RGYU ‘BRAS KYI BYA BYED LA BRTAGS NAS CHOS LA RANG BZHIN DGAG PA DANG, ‘GRO ‘ONG GI BYA BYED LA BRTAG NAS GANG ZAG LA RANG BZHIN DGAG PA’O,,

803 Leave a comment on paragraph 803 0  

804 Leave a comment on paragraph 804 0 The abbreviated presentation proceeds in two steps: an examination of the workings of cause & effect, which leads to disproving that things could have any nature of their own; and then an examination of the workings of going & coming, which leads to disproving that the person could have any nature of their own.

805 Leave a comment on paragraph 805 0  

806 Leave a comment on paragraph 806 0  

807 Leave a comment on paragraph 807 0 [79]

808 Leave a comment on paragraph 808 0 DANG PO LA GSUM, RAB BYED KYI GZHUNG BSHAD PA, NGES DON GYI LUNG DANG SBYAR BA, MTSAN BSTAN PA’O,,

809 Leave a comment on paragraph 809 0  

810 Leave a comment on paragraph 810 0 We’ll cover the first of these, in turn, in three sections: an explanation of the text of this chapter; connecting the chapter to literal presentations of these topics in scripture; and then a presentation on the chapter’s name.

811 Leave a comment on paragraph 811 0  

812 Leave a comment on paragraph 812 0  

813 Leave a comment on paragraph 813 0 [80]

814 Leave a comment on paragraph 814 0 DANG PO LA GNYIS, ‘BRAS BU LA SKYE BA’I RANG BZHIN DGAG [f. 6a] PA DANG, SKYED BYED LA RKYEN KYI RANG BZHIN DGAG PA’O,,

815 Leave a comment on paragraph 815 0  

816 Leave a comment on paragraph 816 0 The first of these sections comes in two parts of its own: denying that results could have any nature of growing; and then denying that what produces these results could have any nature of being a condition.

817 Leave a comment on paragraph 817 0  

818 Leave a comment on paragraph 818 0  

819 Leave a comment on paragraph 819 0 [81]

820 Leave a comment on paragraph 820 0 DANG PO LA GNYIS, MTHA’ BZHI’I SKYE BA DGAG PA DANG, GZHAN SKYE BKAG PA LA LUNG ‘GAL SPANG BA’O,,

821 Leave a comment on paragraph 821 0  

822 Leave a comment on paragraph 822 0 The first of these has two parts too: denying that things could grow in any of the four extreme ways; and then proving that the idea that things cannot grow from something other than themselves could never contradict, in any way, the teachings of the Buddha.

823 Leave a comment on paragraph 823 0  

824 Leave a comment on paragraph 824 0  

825 Leave a comment on paragraph 825 0 [82]

826 Leave a comment on paragraph 826 0 DANG PO LA GNYIS, SKYE BA ‘GOG PA’I DAM BCA’ BA DANG, DE ‘GOG PA’I RIGS PA’O,,

827 Leave a comment on paragraph 827 0  

828 Leave a comment on paragraph 828 0 The first of these as well has two parts: the assertion where we deny that anything could grow; and then the logic behind this denial.

829 Leave a comment on paragraph 829 0  

830 Leave a comment on paragraph 830 0  

831 Leave a comment on paragraph 831 0 [83]

832 Leave a comment on paragraph 832 0 DANG PO LA GNYIS, DNGOS DANG, ‘PHROS DON NO, ,DANG PO NI,

833 Leave a comment on paragraph 833 0  

834 Leave a comment on paragraph 834 0 Finally then the first of these comes in two parts: the actual assertion; and then additional points raised by this assertion.  The first is expressed in the following lines of the root text:

835 Leave a comment on paragraph 835 0  

836 Leave a comment on paragraph 836 0  

837 Leave a comment on paragraph 837 0 [84]

838 Leave a comment on paragraph 838 0             (I.3)

839 Leave a comment on paragraph 839 0 Na svato nāpi parato na dvābhyā nāpy ahetuta,

840 Leave a comment on paragraph 840 0 Utpannā jātu vidyante bhāvā kva cana ke cana.

841 Leave a comment on paragraph 841 0  

842 Leave a comment on paragraph 842 0 Na svato napi parato na dvabhyan napyahetutah,

843 Leave a comment on paragraph 843 0 Utpanna jatu vidyante bhavah kva chana ke chana.

844 Leave a comment on paragraph 844 0  

845 Leave a comment on paragraph 845 0  

846 Leave a comment on paragraph 846 0 ,BDAG LAS MA YIN GZHAN LAS MIN,

847 Leave a comment on paragraph 847 0 ,GNYIS LAS MA YIN RGYU MED MIN,

848 Leave a comment on paragraph 848 0 ,DNGOS PO GANG DAG GANG NA YANG,

849 Leave a comment on paragraph 849 0 ,SKYE BA NAM YANG YOD MA YIN,

850 Leave a comment on paragraph 850 0 ,ZHES GSUNGS,

851 Leave a comment on paragraph 851 0  

852 Leave a comment on paragraph 852 0 Nothing grows from itself;

853 Leave a comment on paragraph 853 0 Nothing grows from something else;

854 Leave a comment on paragraph 854 0 Nothing grows from both;

855 Leave a comment on paragraph 855 0 And nothing grows without a cause.

856 Leave a comment on paragraph 856 0 There is nothing at all that grows at all.

857 Leave a comment on paragraph 857 0  

858 Leave a comment on paragraph 858 0  

859 Leave a comment on paragraph 859 0 [85]

860 Leave a comment on paragraph 860 0 DON NI, PHYI NANG GI DNGOS PO GANG DAG CHOS CAN, BDAG LAS YUL DANG DUS DANG GRUB BA’I {%PA’I} MTHA’ GANG NA YANG SKYE BA NAM YANG YOD PA MA YIN TE, BDAG LAS SKYEN {%SKYE NA} SLAR YANG SKYE BA DON MED PA DANG SLAR YANG SKYE BA THUG BA {%PA} MED BA’I NYES PAR ‘GYUR BA’I PHYIR RO,,

861 Leave a comment on paragraph 861 0  

862 Leave a comment on paragraph 862 0 Here is the point that’s being made:[26]

863 Leave a comment on paragraph 863 0  

864 Leave a comment on paragraph 864 0 Consider all the things there are—whether they exist within us,

865 Leave a comment on paragraph 865 0 or outside of us.

866 Leave a comment on paragraph 866 0  

867 Leave a comment on paragraph 867 0 There is nothing at all that grows at all from itself—regardless of the place,

868 Leave a comment on paragraph 868 0 or the time, or the point of view we consider;

869 Leave a comment on paragraph 869 0  

870 Leave a comment on paragraph 870 0 Because—if things were to grow from themselves—then there would

871 Leave a comment on paragraph 871 0 be two problems: (1) it would be pointless for them to grow

872 Leave a comment on paragraph 872 0 once more; and (2) their growing once again would be endless.

873 Leave a comment on paragraph 873 0  

874 Leave a comment on paragraph 874 0  

875 Leave a comment on paragraph 875 0 [86]

876 Leave a comment on paragraph 876 0 JI LTAR NA MYU GU CHOS CAN, SLAR RANG GI RGYU’I SKAD CIG GNYIS PAR SKYE BA DON MED PAR THAL, RANG GI RGYU’I DUS NA RANG GI BDAG NYID DU RDZOGS PAR GRUB ZIN PA’I PHYIR,

877 Leave a comment on paragraph 877 0  

878 Leave a comment on paragraph 878 0 And how is that?

879 Leave a comment on paragraph 879 0  

880 Leave a comment on paragraph 880 0 Let’s consider a sprout.

881 Leave a comment on paragraph 881 0  

882 Leave a comment on paragraph 882 0 It must too be the case that it would be pointless for the sprout to

883 Leave a comment on paragraph 883 0 grow again, in the second moment of its existence.

884 Leave a comment on paragraph 884 0  

885 Leave a comment on paragraph 885 0 Why do you say that?

886 Leave a comment on paragraph 886 0  

887 Leave a comment on paragraph 887 0             Because, according to you, it would already have come into

888 Leave a comment on paragraph 888 0 complete existence even in the moment of its cause.

889 Leave a comment on paragraph 889 0  

890 Leave a comment on paragraph 890 0  

891 Leave a comment on paragraph 891 0 [87]

892 Leave a comment on paragraph 892 0 MA KHYAB NA, DE CHOS CAN, KHYOD SLAR YANG SKYE BA THUG PA MED PAR THAL, RANG GI RGYU’I DUS NA RANG GI BDAG NYID THOB ZIN KYANG SLAR YANG SKYE BA DON YOD PA’I PHYIR,

893 Leave a comment on paragraph 893 0  

894 Leave a comment on paragraph 894 0 Just because the sprout would already have come into complete existence

895 Leave a comment on paragraph 895 0                         even in the moment of its cause doesn’t necessarily mean that it

896 Leave a comment on paragraph 896 0 would be pointless for the sprout to grow again, in the second

897 Leave a comment on paragraph 897 0 moment of its existence.

898 Leave a comment on paragraph 898 0  

899 Leave a comment on paragraph 899 0 Well then, let’s take this same sprout.  Are you saying that it would

900 Leave a comment on paragraph 900 0 continue to grow, again and again, endlessly?

901 Leave a comment on paragraph 901 0  

902 Leave a comment on paragraph 902 0 Why do you say that?

903 Leave a comment on paragraph 903 0  

904 Leave a comment on paragraph 904 0             Because it has already come out completely at the time of its cause,

905 Leave a comment on paragraph 905 0 and yet—according to you—there is some point to its growing

906 Leave a comment on paragraph 906 0 once again.

907 Leave a comment on paragraph 907 0  

908 Leave a comment on paragraph 908 0  

909 Leave a comment on paragraph 909 0 [88]

910 Leave a comment on paragraph 910 0 DNGOS PO GANG DAG CHOS CAN, GZHAN LAS YUL DUS GRUB MTHA’ GANG NA YANG SKYE BA NAM YANG YOD PA MA YIN TE, GZHAN LAS SKYEN {%SKYE NA} KUN LAS KUN SKYE BAR ‘GYUR BA’I PHYIR,

911 Leave a comment on paragraph 911 0  

912 Leave a comment on paragraph 912 0 And let’s take any of these working things, once more.

913 Leave a comment on paragraph 913 0  

914 Leave a comment on paragraph 914 0 It is never the case that any of them could at all grow from

915 Leave a comment on paragraph 915 0 something else—something other than itself—regardless

916 Leave a comment on paragraph 916 0 of the place, or the time, or the point of view we consider;

917 Leave a comment on paragraph 917 0  

918 Leave a comment on paragraph 918 0 Because if any of them were to grow from something else,

919 Leave a comment on paragraph 919 0 then everything there is could grow from everything

920 Leave a comment on paragraph 920 0 else there is.

921 Leave a comment on paragraph 921 0  

922 Leave a comment on paragraph 922 0  

923 Leave a comment on paragraph 923 0 [89]

924 Leave a comment on paragraph 924 0 JI LTAR NA, SA BON CHOS CAN, MYU GU DANG ‘BREL MED DON GZHAN DU THAL, MYU GU DANG LTOS MED KYI GZHAN YIN PA’I PHYIR,

925 Leave a comment on paragraph 925 0  

926 Leave a comment on paragraph 926 0 And how is that?

927 Leave a comment on paragraph 927 0  

928 Leave a comment on paragraph 928 0 Consider a seed.

929 Leave a comment on paragraph 929 0  

930 Leave a comment on paragraph 930 0 It must be a thing which is totally other than, and disconnected from,

931 Leave a comment on paragraph 931 0 its sprout.

932 Leave a comment on paragraph 932 0  

933 Leave a comment on paragraph 933 0 Why do you say that?

934 Leave a comment on paragraph 934 0  

935 Leave a comment on paragraph 935 0             Because it is something other than the sprout which in no way

936 Leave a comment on paragraph 936 0 relies upon the sprout.

937 Leave a comment on paragraph 937 0  

938 Leave a comment on paragraph 938 0  

939 Leave a comment on paragraph 939 0 [90]

940 Leave a comment on paragraph 940 0 ‘DOD NA, KHYOD LAS [f. 6b] MYU GU SKYE BA LTAR RDO SOL SOGS THAMS CAD SKYE BAR THAL, MYU GU KHYOD DANG ‘BREL MED DON GZHAN YIN YANG SKYE BA’I PHYIR

941 Leave a comment on paragraph 941 0  

942 Leave a comment on paragraph 942 0 Well then, I agree: A seed is a thing which is totally other than, and

943 Leave a comment on paragraph 943 0                         disconnected from, its sprout.

944 Leave a comment on paragraph 944 0  

945 Leave a comment on paragraph 945 0             If you do agree, then it must be the case that—in the same way that

946 Leave a comment on paragraph 946 0 a sprout can grow from this seed—then things like stones or

947 Leave a comment on paragraph 947 0 lumps of coal can also grow from it.

948 Leave a comment on paragraph 948 0  

949 Leave a comment on paragraph 949 0 Why do you say that?

950 Leave a comment on paragraph 950 0  

951 Leave a comment on paragraph 951 0             Because—even though the sprout is totally other than, and disconnected

952 Leave a comment on paragraph 952 0 from, the seed—it can still grow from it.

953 Leave a comment on paragraph 953 0  

954 Leave a comment on paragraph 954 0  

955 Leave a comment on paragraph 955 0 [91]

956 Leave a comment on paragraph 956 0 RTAGS KHAS BLANGS,

957 Leave a comment on paragraph 957 0  

958 Leave a comment on paragraph 958 0 Well! I disagree with this reason!

959 Leave a comment on paragraph 959 0  

960 Leave a comment on paragraph 960 0             But you’ve already accepted the reason!

961 Leave a comment on paragraph 961 0  

962 Leave a comment on paragraph 962 0  

963 Leave a comment on paragraph 963 0 [92]

964 Leave a comment on paragraph 964 0 DE BZHIN DU DNGOS PO GANG DAG CHOS CAN, RANG GZHAN GNYIS LAS YUL DUS GRUB MTHA’ GANG NA YANG SKYE BA NAM YANG YOD BA {%PA} MA YIN TE, BDAG LAS KYANG MI SKYE, GZHAN LAS MI SKYE BA’I PHYIR TE, RIGS PA BSTAN ZIN PA’I PHYIR,

965 Leave a comment on paragraph 965 0  

966 Leave a comment on paragraph 966 0 Just so, let us consider any of those working things.

967 Leave a comment on paragraph 967 0  

968 Leave a comment on paragraph 968 0 Neither are they something which could ever be a thing that

969 Leave a comment on paragraph 969 0 grew, at all, from both themselves and from something else—

970 Leave a comment on paragraph 970 0 regardless of the place, or the time, or the point of view we

971 Leave a comment on paragraph 971 0 consider;

972 Leave a comment on paragraph 972 0  

973 Leave a comment on paragraph 973 0 Because they neither grow from themselves, nor from something

974 Leave a comment on paragraph 974 0 else; we have already showed you the relevant reasoning!

975 Leave a comment on paragraph 975 0  

976 Leave a comment on paragraph 976 0  

977 Leave a comment on paragraph 977 0 [93]

978 Leave a comment on paragraph 978 0 DNGOS PO GANG DAG CHOS CAN, RGYU MED LAS YUL DUS GRUB MTHA’ GANG NA YANG SKYE BA NAM YANG YOD PA MA YIN TE, RGYU MED DU SKYE NA YUL DUS SO SOR NGES PA MI ‘THAD CING, RGYU SGRUB PA RNAMS DON MED PAR ‘GYUR BA’I PHYIR,

979 Leave a comment on paragraph 979 0  

980 Leave a comment on paragraph 980 0 Consider, finally, any of those same working things.

981 Leave a comment on paragraph 981 0  

982 Leave a comment on paragraph 982 0 Neither are they something that could grow without a cause at all;

983 Leave a comment on paragraph 983 0 regardless of the place, or the time, or the point of view we

984 Leave a comment on paragraph 984 0 consider;

985 Leave a comment on paragraph 985 0  

986 Leave a comment on paragraph 986 0 For if these things could grow with no causes, then it would be

987 Leave a comment on paragraph 987 0 incorrect to assert that certain things have to grow in certain

988 Leave a comment on paragraph 988 0 places, or at certain times; moreover, it would be pointless

989 Leave a comment on paragraph 989 0 then to try to provide them the proper causes for their growth.

990 Leave a comment on paragraph 990 0  

991 Leave a comment on paragraph 991 0  

992 Leave a comment on paragraph 992 0 [94]

993 Leave a comment on paragraph 993 0 JI LTAR NA, MYU GU CHOS CAN, RGYU MED DU MI ‘BYUNG STE, YUL DUS SO SOR DES {%NGES} PA’I SKYE BA MTHONG PA {%BA} DANG, ‘BRAS BU’I DON DU RGYU RTZOL BAS SGRUB BA {%PA} YANG MTHONG ZHING DON YOD PA’I PHYIR,

994 Leave a comment on paragraph 994 0  

995 Leave a comment on paragraph 995 0 And how is that?

996 Leave a comment on paragraph 996 0  

997 Leave a comment on paragraph 997 0 Consider a sprout.

998 Leave a comment on paragraph 998 0  

999 Leave a comment on paragraph 999 0 It cannot occur without any cause at all;

1000 Leave a comment on paragraph 1000 0  

1001 Leave a comment on paragraph 1001 0 Because, first of all, we can see with our own eyes that certain

1002 Leave a comment on paragraph 1002 0 things grow only in certain places, and at certain times.

1003 Leave a comment on paragraph 1003 0 Secondly, we can see with our own eyes that when we

1004 Leave a comment on paragraph 1004 0 labor to provide the causes for a certain  result, then that

1005 Leave a comment on paragraph 1005 0 result does come about—that there is a point served by

1006 Leave a comment on paragraph 1006 0 all this effort.

1007 Leave a comment on paragraph 1007 0  

1008 Leave a comment on paragraph 1008 0  

1009 Leave a comment on paragraph 1009 0  

1010 Leave a comment on paragraph 1010 0 Choosing the right negation

1011 Leave a comment on paragraph 1011 0  

1012 Leave a comment on paragraph 1012 0 [95]

1013 Leave a comment on paragraph 1013 0 GNYIS PA NI,

1014 Leave a comment on paragraph 1014 0  

1015 Leave a comment on paragraph 1015 0 This brings us to the second part from above: additional points raised by the assertion that nothing ever grows.

1016 Leave a comment on paragraph 1016 0  

1017 Leave a comment on paragraph 1017 0  

1018 Leave a comment on paragraph 1018 0 [96]

1019 Leave a comment on paragraph 1019 0 ‘DIR DGAG PA GNYIS KYI KHYAD PAR SHES DGOS PAS DE’I TSUL NI RGYAS PAR GZHAN DU BSTAN ZIN PA LAS SHES PAR BYA LA, BSDU NA,

1020 Leave a comment on paragraph 1020 0  

1021 Leave a comment on paragraph 1021 0 Now in general there exist two different types of negation; and at this point our reader needs to know the difference between the two.  I have already presented the details of how this works in other writings, so I would advise you to refer to those.  I will though here give you just a brief review.

1022 Leave a comment on paragraph 1022 0  

1023 Leave a comment on paragraph 1023 0  

1024 Leave a comment on paragraph 1024 0 [97]

1025 Leave a comment on paragraph 1025 0 MED DGAG NI, BLOS DGAG BYA DNGOS SU BCAD NAS CHOS GZHAN MI ‘PHEN PA ZHIG STE, RANG BZHIN MED PA DANG, DNGOS PO MED PA LTA BU’O,,

1026 Leave a comment on paragraph 1026 0  

1027 Leave a comment on paragraph 1027 0 The first type of negation is a simple absence of something.  This is where—incidental to the mind denying one thing—it is not the case that another thing is understood.  Examples would be the fact that there exists no nature which is inherent to a thing; or the fact that some objects simply don’t exist.

1028 Leave a comment on paragraph 1028 0  

1029 Leave a comment on paragraph 1029 0  

1030 Leave a comment on paragraph 1030 0 [98]

1031 Leave a comment on paragraph 1031 0 MA YIN DGAG NI BLOS DGAG BYA BCAD NAS CHOS GZHAN ‘PHEN PA ZHIG STE, BUM PA MA YIN PA LAS LOG PA DANG, BUM MIN YOD PA LTA BU,

1032 Leave a comment on paragraph 1032 0  

1033 Leave a comment on paragraph 1033 0 The second type of negation is where we say that something is not something.  This is where—incidental to the mind denying one thing—it is the case that another thing is understood.  Examples would be the opposite of everything which is not a water pitcher; or the presence of something which is not itself a water pitcher.

1034 Leave a comment on paragraph 1034 0  

1035 Leave a comment on paragraph 1035 0  

1036 Leave a comment on paragraph 1036 0 [99]

1037 Leave a comment on paragraph 1037 0 GZHAN YANG JI SKAD DU,

1038 Leave a comment on paragraph 1038 0 ,DGAG PA DON GYIS BSTAN PA DANG,

1039 Leave a comment on paragraph 1039 0 ,TSIG GCIG SGRUB PAR BYED PA DANG,

1040 Leave a comment on paragraph 1040 0 ,DE LDAN RANG TSIG MI STON PA,

1041 Leave a comment on paragraph 1041 0 ,ZHES ‘BYUNG BA LTAR BZHI STE SLA’O,,

1042 Leave a comment on paragraph 1042 0  

1043 Leave a comment on paragraph 1043 0 We also see the following lines, where four different kinds of this second type of negation are listed—and these are easily understood:

1044 Leave a comment on paragraph 1044 0  

1045 Leave a comment on paragraph 1045 0 There are types of negation

1046 Leave a comment on paragraph 1046 0 Where one thing implies another;

1047 Leave a comment on paragraph 1047 0 Where a single expression asserts another;

1048 Leave a comment on paragraph 1048 0 Where both together are the case;

1049 Leave a comment on paragraph 1049 0 And where the word itself implies nothing.[27]

1050 Leave a comment on paragraph 1050 0  

1051 Leave a comment on paragraph 1051 0  

1052 Leave a comment on paragraph 1052 0 [100]

1053 Leave a comment on paragraph 1053 0 ‘DIR BSTAN PA’I DAM [f. 7a] BCA’ BZHI’I ZHEN DON MED DGAG YIN LA, MYU GU RANG BZHIN MED PA YANG MED DGAG YIN PAS, RIGS SHES KYIS MYU GU RANG BZHIN MED PAR GRUB KYANG RANG BZHIN MED PA YOD PA NI DNGOS SHUGS GANG RUNG LA GRUB PA MIN NO,,

1054 Leave a comment on paragraph 1054 0  

1055 Leave a comment on paragraph 1055 0 The thing that we think is there, in the four assertions described in this verse of the Arya’s root text, is a simple absence of something—while the fact that a sprout has no nature of its own is also a simple absence of something.  A state of mind where we are reasoning clearly can conclude that the sprout has no nature of its own; but the existence of the fact that there is no nature of its own is not something it concludes—neither directly, nor implicitly.

1056 Leave a comment on paragraph 1056 0  

1057 Leave a comment on paragraph 1057 0  

1058 Leave a comment on paragraph 1058 0 [101]

1059 Leave a comment on paragraph 1059 0 ‘ON KYANG BAR DU TSAD MA GZHAN BRGYUD PA LAM {%LA MA} BLTOS PAR RIG {%RIGS?} SHES KYI STOBS LAS MYU GU RANG BZHIN MED PA DE MED PAR DOGS PA’I SGRO ‘DOGS DANG ‘DZIN STANGS DNGOS SU ‘GAL BA’I BLO BSKYED NUS SHING,

1060 Leave a comment on paragraph 1060 0  

1061 Leave a comment on paragraph 1061 0 Nonetheless, one can—even without relying upon another, intervening perception which is accurate; all through the force of a state of mind where we are reasoning clearly—give rise to a mental state which is in direct contradiction to the way in which a mental overestimation of things holds to its object, as it entertains a suspicion that the fact that a sprout has no nature of its own is itself something that cannot exist.

1062 Leave a comment on paragraph 1062 0  

1063 Leave a comment on paragraph 1063 0  

1064 Leave a comment on paragraph 1064 0 [102]

1065 Leave a comment on paragraph 1065 0 DE NYID KYIS SGRO ‘DOGS DE GCOD NUS TE, ‘DI CUNG DKA’ BA’I GNAS YIN PAS ZHIB TU DPYAD DGOS SO,,

1066 Leave a comment on paragraph 1066 0  

1067 Leave a comment on paragraph 1067 0 This in itself though is not enough to cut off this tendency towards overestimation.  All this is a somewhat difficult point; as such, it requires some careful examination.

1068 Leave a comment on paragraph 1068 0  

1069 Leave a comment on paragraph 1069 0  

1070 Leave a comment on paragraph 1070 0 [103]

1071 Leave a comment on paragraph 1071 0 ‘DI LEGS PAR MA SHES RNA {%NA} LTA BA SKYONG BA’I TSE, RANG BZHIN MED PA’I MED DGAG NYID BLO’I ‘DZIN STANGS KYI YUL DU MI BYED BAR {%PAR} MA YIN DGAG BLO YUL DU SGRUB PAR BYAS NA LTA BA RNYED PA’I GEGS SU ‘GYUR RO,,

1072 Leave a comment on paragraph 1072 0  

1073 Leave a comment on paragraph 1073 0 If we fail to understand these points well, then as we work to maintain a correct viewpoint of the way things are, we fail in turn to take that simple absence as the object of how we are thinking of these points; rather, we posit—as the object of our mind—a negation of the second type, where we say that something is not something else.  And this then becomes an obstacle in our attempts to arrive at an accurate view of reality.

1074 Leave a comment on paragraph 1074 0  

1075 Leave a comment on paragraph 1075 0  

1076 Leave a comment on paragraph 1076 0  

1077 Leave a comment on paragraph 1077 0 The logic behind the denial

1078 Leave a comment on paragraph 1078 0  

1079 Leave a comment on paragraph 1079 0 [104]

1080 Leave a comment on paragraph 1080 0 GNYIS PA LA GNYIS, BDAG SKYE ‘GOG PA DANG, GZHAN SKYE ‘GOG PA’I RIGS PA’O,,

1081 Leave a comment on paragraph 1081 0  

1082 Leave a comment on paragraph 1082 0 This brings us to the second part in our denial that things could grow in any of the four extreme ways—where we present the logic behind this denial.  This itself comes in two steps: the logic behind denying that things could grow from themselves; and the logic behind denying that things could grow from something other than themselves.

1083 Leave a comment on paragraph 1083 0  

1084 Leave a comment on paragraph 1084 0  

1085 Leave a comment on paragraph 1085 0 [105]

1086 Leave a comment on paragraph 1086 0 DANG PO NI, SANGS RGYAS BSKYANGS KYIS DNGOS PO RNAMS BDAG LAS SKYE BA MED DE, DE DAG GI SKYE BA DON MED PA NYID DU ‘GYUR BA’I PHYIR DANG SKYE BA THUG PA MED PA NYID DU ‘GYUR BA’I PHYIR, ZHES GSUNGS PA LA,

1087 Leave a comment on paragraph 1087 0  

1088 Leave a comment on paragraph 1088 0 Here is the first.  Master Buddhapalita made the statement as follows:

1089 Leave a comment on paragraph 1089 0  

1090 Leave a comment on paragraph 1090 0 Things cannot grow from themselves, because—if they did—then their growth would be entirely pointless; and that growth would as well be entirely endless.

1091 Leave a comment on paragraph 1091 0  

1092 Leave a comment on paragraph 1092 0  

1093 Leave a comment on paragraph 1093 0 [106]

1094 Leave a comment on paragraph 1094 0 SLOB DPON LEGS LDAN ‘BYED KYIS SKYON BRJOD PA DANG, ZLA BAS SKYON DE SPONG BA’I TSUL RNAMS NI DBU MA’I GZHUNG LAS SHES PAR BYA STE ‘DIR MANG DU DOGS NAS MI BRJOD LA,

1095 Leave a comment on paragraph 1095 0  

1096 Leave a comment on paragraph 1096 0 Master Bhavaviveka then criticized this position; and Master Chandrakirti, in turn, overturned that criticism.  The history here is something you can learn from the great books of the middle way; I shall not present it here, for fear that my work would then go on too long.

1097 Leave a comment on paragraph 1097 0  

1098 Leave a comment on paragraph 1098 0  

1099 Leave a comment on paragraph 1099 0 [107]

1100 Leave a comment on paragraph 1100 0 GNYIS PA GZHAN SKYE BKAG PA LA YANG SKYON BRJOD TSUL DANG DE SPONG TSUL YANG GZHAN DU SHES PAR BYA’O,,

1101 Leave a comment on paragraph 1101 0  

1102 Leave a comment on paragraph 1102 0 The parallel history—where the way in which things growing from something other than themselves was denied; and where that denial was criticized; and that criticism was itself overturned—is again something you can learn more about from other sources.

1103 Leave a comment on paragraph 1103 0  

1104 Leave a comment on paragraph 1104 0  

1105 Leave a comment on paragraph 1105 0 [108]

1106 Leave a comment on paragraph 1106 0 MDOR NA RTZA BA’I GZHUNG ‘DI DAG GIS MTHA’ BZHI’I SKYE BA MED PA’I DAM BCA’ DNGOS SU MDZAD NAS SGRUB BYED DNGOS [f. 7b] SU MA BSTAN KYANG GZHUNG ‘OG MA RNAMS KYI SKABS PHAL CHAR {%CHER} DANG ‘GREL PA LAS GSAL BAR BSTAN PA LTAR RO,,

1107 Leave a comment on paragraph 1107 0  

1108 Leave a comment on paragraph 1108 0 To put it briefly, the lines of the root text here present—directly—the assertion that nothing can grow in any of the four extreme ways; but in doing so, they do not present, in any direct sense, corresponding proofs that something else is the case.  Nonetheless, we are following the way in which these latter points are quite clearly made in the great majority of the lines of the root text to follow; and in the commentary as well.[28]

1109 Leave a comment on paragraph 1109 0  

1110 Leave a comment on paragraph 1110 0  

1111 Leave a comment on paragraph 1111 0 [109]

1112 Leave a comment on paragraph 1112 0 MTHA’ BA ZHI’I {%BZHI’I} SKYE BA KHAS LEN PA RNAMS KYIS SKYE RGYU’I DNGOS PO RNAMS RANG BZHIN GYIS GRUB PAR BZUNG STE MTHA’ BZHI GANG RUNG LAS SKYE BAR ‘DOD PA YIN LA,

1113 Leave a comment on paragraph 1113 0  

1114 Leave a comment on paragraph 1114 0 Those who do believe that things could grow in one of these four extreme ways take the position that the things that grow exist, themselves, through some nature of their own—and then they say that these kinds of things must grow in some one or more of the four different ways.

1115 Leave a comment on paragraph 1115 0  

1116 Leave a comment on paragraph 1116 0  

1117 Leave a comment on paragraph 1117 0 [110]

1118 Leave a comment on paragraph 1118 0 ‘DIR DNGOS BO {%PO} RNAMS RGYU RKYEN LA BRTEN NAS SKYE BA NYID KYIS MTHA’ BZHI’I SKYE BA ‘GOG BA {%PA} YIN TE,

1119 Leave a comment on paragraph 1119 0  

1120 Leave a comment on paragraph 1120 0 Here in Nagarjuna though we would say that the very fact that things grow based upon their causes and conditions itself disproves that these things could grow in any of the four, extreme ways.

1121 Leave a comment on paragraph 1121 0  

1122 Leave a comment on paragraph 1122 0  

1123 Leave a comment on paragraph 1123 0 [111]

1124 Leave a comment on paragraph 1124 0 ‘DI LTAR RGYU MED LAS SKYE BA NI ‘GOG SLA ZHING, RGYU YOD KYANG RANG DANG NGO BO GCIG PA DANG THA DAD PA’I RGYU GANG RUNG LAS SKYE DGOS PAS,

1125 Leave a comment on paragraph 1125 0  

1126 Leave a comment on paragraph 1126 0 How does this go?  We can easily disqualify the idea that things could ever grow without any causes at all.  Now assuming that they do have to have causes, then they would either have to grow from causes that were one with them, or causes that were distinct from them.

1127 Leave a comment on paragraph 1127 0  

1128 Leave a comment on paragraph 1128 0  

1129 Leave a comment on paragraph 1129 0 [112]

1130 Leave a comment on paragraph 1130 0 RANG DANG NGO BO GCIG PA’I RGYU LAS SKYE BA ‘DOD TSUL NI BDAG SKYE ‘DOD TSUL YIN PAS DE SLAR YANG SKYE BA DON MED DU THAL BA SOGS KYIS ‘GOG LA,

1131 Leave a comment on paragraph 1131 0  

1132 Leave a comment on paragraph 1132 0 Saying that things could grow from causes that were one with them is tantamount to saying that things could grow from themselves; which again we deny because it would be pointless for these things to grow once more—and so on.

1133 Leave a comment on paragraph 1133 0  

1134 Leave a comment on paragraph 1134 0  

1135 Leave a comment on paragraph 1135 0 [113]

1136 Leave a comment on paragraph 1136 0 RANG DANG NGO BO THA DAD BA’I {%PA’I} ‘BREL MED DON GZHAN LAS SKYE BAR ‘DOD PA NI GZHAN SKYE ‘DOD TSUL TE, DE NI THAMS CAD LAS THAMS CAD SKYE BA ‘GOG PA’I RIGS PAS ‘GOG PA’I PHYIR GNYIS KA LAS SKYE BAR ‘DOD PA NI RIGS PA DE RNAMS KYI SA {%KYIS} ‘GOG NUS SO,,

1137 Leave a comment on paragraph 1137 0  

1138 Leave a comment on paragraph 1138 0 Saying that things could grow from causes that were distinct from them—from other things with which they shared no connection—is what it means when we say that someone accepts the idea that things could grow from something else.  This idea is itself denied by the logic with refuses that everything there is could grow from everything else there is.  And all this logic is enough, in turn, to disprove any belief that things could ever grow both from themselves, and from other things, at the same time.

1139 Leave a comment on paragraph 1139 0  

1140 Leave a comment on paragraph 1140 0  

1141 Leave a comment on paragraph 1141 0  

1142 Leave a comment on paragraph 1142 0 Arguments in favor of things growing from something else

1143 Leave a comment on paragraph 1143 0  

1144 Leave a comment on paragraph 1144 0 [114]

1145 Leave a comment on paragraph 1145 0 GNYIS PA LA GNYIS, RTZOD PA DANG, LAN NO,,

1146 Leave a comment on paragraph 1146 0  

1147 Leave a comment on paragraph 1147 0 We turn now to the logic behind denying that things could grow from something other than themselves.  This begins with an argument, and continues on to our response to the argument.

1148 Leave a comment on paragraph 1148 0  

1149 Leave a comment on paragraph 1149 0  

1150 Leave a comment on paragraph 1150 0 [115]

1151 Leave a comment on paragraph 1151 0 DANG PO NI, RANG SDE DNGOS SMRA BA RNAMS NA RE, RANG GI RGYU’I BDAG NYID LAS SKYE BA MI ‘THAD PAS BDAG SKYE MI RIGS SHING, DE MI RIGS PAS GNYIS KA LAS SKYE BA YANG MI RIGS LA, RGYU MED LAS SKYE BA NI SHIN TU THA CHAD PAS MI RIGS NA’ANG, GZHAN LAS MIN ZHES GZHAN SKYE ‘GOG PA ‘DI MI ‘THAD DE, RGYAL BAS RKYEN BZHI GZHAN DU ‘GYUR BA KHO NA ‘BRAS BU RNAMS KYI SKYED BYED DU GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR,

1152 Leave a comment on paragraph 1152 0  

1153 Leave a comment on paragraph 1153 0 Here is the first.  The functionalist group[29] among our own Buddhist schools makes the following statement:

1154 Leave a comment on paragraph 1154 0  

1155 Leave a comment on paragraph 1155 0 Saying that things grow from themselves is incorrect, since it would be wrong to say that anything could grow from a unit including both the result and its cause.  Given that this would be wrong, it would also be wrong to say that something could grow both from itself and from something else.  Saying that anything could grow without any cause at all would be wrong as well, since that would simply be way beyond possible.

1156 Leave a comment on paragraph 1156 0  

1157 Leave a comment on paragraph 1157 0 Saying though that things cannot grow from something other than themselves—“nothing grows from something else”—could never be correct; for the victorious Buddha himself stated that the four types of conditions (and these only as things other than their results) are what act to cause results to grow.

1158 Leave a comment on paragraph 1158 0  

1159 Leave a comment on paragraph 1159 0  

1160 Leave a comment on paragraph 1160 0 [116]

1161 Leave a comment on paragraph 1161 0 DE YANG GANG ZHE NA,

1162 Leave a comment on paragraph 1162 0  

1163 Leave a comment on paragraph 1163 0 “What then,” you may ask, “are these four different conditions?”  The answer is found in the following verse.

1164 Leave a comment on paragraph 1164 0  

1165 Leave a comment on paragraph 1165 0  

1166 Leave a comment on paragraph 1166 0 [117]

1167 Leave a comment on paragraph 1167 0 (I.4)

1168 Leave a comment on paragraph 1168 0 Catvāra pratyayā hetur ārambaam anantaram,

1169 Leave a comment on paragraph 1169 0 Tathaivādhipateya ca pratyayo nāsti pañcama.

1170 Leave a comment on paragraph 1170 0  

1171 Leave a comment on paragraph 1171 0 Chatvarah pratyaya hetur arambanam anantaram,

1172 Leave a comment on paragraph 1172 0 Tathaivadhipateyan cha pratyayo nasti panchamah.

1173 Leave a comment on paragraph 1173 0  

1174 Leave a comment on paragraph 1174 0  

1175 Leave a comment on paragraph 1175 0 ,RKYEN RNAM BZHI STE RGYU DANG NI,

1176 Leave a comment on paragraph 1176 0 ,DMIGS PA DANG NI DE MA THAG

1177 Leave a comment on paragraph 1177 0 ,BDAG [f. 8a] PO YANG NI DE BZHIN TE,

1178 Leave a comment on paragraph 1178 0 ,RKYEN LNGA PA NI YOD MA YIN,

1179 Leave a comment on paragraph 1179 0 ,ZHES SO,,

1180 Leave a comment on paragraph 1180 0  

1181 Leave a comment on paragraph 1181 0 The different types of conditions

1182 Leave a comment on paragraph 1182 0             Are four: the causal condition,

1183 Leave a comment on paragraph 1183 0             And just so then the object condition;

1184 Leave a comment on paragraph 1184 0             The condition for what comes immediate after;

1185 Leave a comment on paragraph 1185 0             And finally the dominant condition.

1186 Leave a comment on paragraph 1186 0             There is no fifth kind of condition.

1187 Leave a comment on paragraph 1187 0            

1188 Leave a comment on paragraph 1188 0  

1189 Leave a comment on paragraph 1189 0 [118]

1190 Leave a comment on paragraph 1190 0 ‘DI LTAR RKYEN NI RNAM PA BZHI STE, ‘BRAS BU GANG GI SGRUB BYED SA BON GYI NGO BOR GNAS RGYU‘I RKYEN DANG, YANG DE BZHIN DU DMIGS PA GANG GIS SEMS SEMS BYUNG GAR {%GANG} SKYE BAR ‘GYUR BA DMIGS PA’I RKYEN DANG,

1191 Leave a comment on paragraph 1191 0  

1192 Leave a comment on paragraph 1192 0 The different types of conditions, then, are four.  First there is the causal condition, which exists in the form of a seed which acts to bring a particular result into being.  And just so then there is the object condition—referring to any particular object of the mind which acts to produce a particular main mind, or mental functions.

1193 Leave a comment on paragraph 1193 0  

1194 Leave a comment on paragraph 1194 0  

1195 Leave a comment on paragraph 1195 0 [119]

1196 Leave a comment on paragraph 1196 0 RGYU ‘GAG MA THAG GANG GIS ‘BRAS BU SKYED PAR BYED PA NI DE MA THAG PA’I RKYEN DANG, GANG ZHIG YOD NA GANG RANG DBANG DU SKYED PA BDAG PO‘I RKYEN YIN LA,

1197 Leave a comment on paragraph 1197 0  

1198 Leave a comment on paragraph 1198 0 Next there is the condition for what comes immediately after—the one which produces a result just after that cause has ended.  And then finally there is the dominant condition: the one which, if it is present, will of its own accord produce something.

1199 Leave a comment on paragraph 1199 0  

1200 Leave a comment on paragraph 1200 0  

1201 Leave a comment on paragraph 1201 0 [120]

1202 Leave a comment on paragraph 1202 0 DER MA ‘DUS PA’I RKYEN LNGA PA NI YOD PA MA YIN TE, MING MI MTHUN PA’I RKYEN MTSAN NYID PA RNAMS NI BZHI PO DER ‘DUS LA, GZHAN GYIS BTAGS PA’I DBANG PHYUG RTAG PA SOGS NI RKYEN DU MI RUNG BA’I PHYIR, DES NA GZHAN SKYE BKAG PA LUNG DANG ‘GAL ZHES ZER RO,,

1203 Leave a comment on paragraph 1203 0  

1204 Leave a comment on paragraph 1204 0 There is no fifth kind of condition: one which is not included among the four just mentioned.  Which is to say, actual conditions with names other than the ones you see here can be grouped into the four; whereas things that other groups just call “conditions”—a creator being who is unchanging, for example—could never truly be conditions.  And because these actual types of conditions do exist—says the opponent here—you are contradicting the word of the Buddha when you deny that things could grow from something other than themselves.

1205 Leave a comment on paragraph 1205 0  

1206 Leave a comment on paragraph 1206 0  

1207 Leave a comment on paragraph 1207 0  

1208 Leave a comment on paragraph 1208 0 A response denying growth by nature

1209 Leave a comment on paragraph 1209 0  

1210 Leave a comment on paragraph 1210 0 [121]

1211 Leave a comment on paragraph 1211 0 GNYIS PA LAN LA GNYIS, RANG BZHIN GYIS SKYE BA ‘GOG PA DANG, RANG BZHIN GYIS GZHAN YIN PA ‘GOG PA’O,,

1212 Leave a comment on paragraph 1212 0  

1213 Leave a comment on paragraph 1213 0 Our response to these arguments proceeds in two steps: a denial that things could grow through any nature of their own; and a denial that things could even be something else, through any nature of their own.

1214 Leave a comment on paragraph 1214 0  

1215 Leave a comment on paragraph 1215 0  

1216 Leave a comment on paragraph 1216 0 [122]

1217 Leave a comment on paragraph 1217 0 DANG PO NI,

1218 Leave a comment on paragraph 1218 0  

1219 Leave a comment on paragraph 1219 0 The first of these is expressed in the following verse of the root text:

1220 Leave a comment on paragraph 1220 0  

1221 Leave a comment on paragraph 1221 0  

1222 Leave a comment on paragraph 1222 0 [123]

1223 Leave a comment on paragraph 1223 0 (I.5)

1224 Leave a comment on paragraph 1224 0 Na hi svabhāvo bhāvānā pratyayādiu vidyate,

1225 Leave a comment on paragraph 1225 0 Avidyamāne svabhāve parabhāvo na vidyate.

1226 Leave a comment on paragraph 1226 0  

1227 Leave a comment on paragraph 1227 0 Na hi svabhavo bhavanam pratyayadishu vidyate,

1228 Leave a comment on paragraph 1228 0 Avidyamane svabhave parabhavo na vidyate.

1229 Leave a comment on paragraph 1229 0  

1230 Leave a comment on paragraph 1230 0  

1231 Leave a comment on paragraph 1231 0 ,DNGOS PO RNAMS KYI RANG BZHIN NI,

1232 Leave a comment on paragraph 1232 0 ,RKYEN LA SOGS LA YOD MA YIN,

1233 Leave a comment on paragraph 1233 0 ,BDAG GI DNGOS PO YOD MIN NA,

1234 Leave a comment on paragraph 1234 0 ,GZHAN DNGOS YOD PA MA YIN NO,,

1235 Leave a comment on paragraph 1235 0 ZHES SO,,

1236 Leave a comment on paragraph 1236 0  

1237 Leave a comment on paragraph 1237 0 The nature of things is not something

1238 Leave a comment on paragraph 1238 0 That exists in their conditions or such;

1239 Leave a comment on paragraph 1239 0 If there is no thing that’s a thing itself,

1240 Leave a comment on paragraph 1240 0 Then there is no thing that’s something else.

1241 Leave a comment on paragraph 1241 0  

1242 Leave a comment on paragraph 1242 0  

1243 Leave a comment on paragraph 1243 0 [124]

1244 Leave a comment on paragraph 1244 0 ‘BRAS BU’I DNGOS PO RNAMS KYI RANG BZHIN TE NGO BO MYU GU LA SOGS PA NI CHOS CAN, SA BON LA SOGS PA’I RKYEN TSOGS PA DANG KHA YAR BA DANG GNYIS KA SOGS GANG LA YANG RANG SKYES PA’I SNGA ROL TU NGO BO THA DAD PA’I TSUL DU BRTEN NAS YOD PA MA YIN TE, DE LTAR YOD PA NI DMIGS RUNG MA DMIGS PAS KHEGS SHING, SLAR YANG SKYE BA DON MED PAR ‘GYUR BA’I PHYIR,

1245 Leave a comment on paragraph 1245 0  

1246 Leave a comment on paragraph 1246 0 Let’s consider the nature, or essence, of things—of results: things like sprouts or the like.

1247 Leave a comment on paragraph 1247 0  

1248 Leave a comment on paragraph 1248 0 It is not something that exists in their conditions—in their seeds, or whatever the case may be—whether we consider these conditions as they convene; or as they exist individually; as both of these, or any such possibility.  That is, this nature is not something which could exist before the result itself had grown, in a form where it depended upon these conditions as things which were essentially separate from it.

1249 Leave a comment on paragraph 1249 0  

1250 Leave a comment on paragraph 1250 0 And that is impossible because—if that were the way things were—it would be something that we could observe in the world; but in fact we do not.  Moreover, it would in that case be pointless for the result to grow over again.

1251 Leave a comment on paragraph 1251 0  

1252 Leave a comment on paragraph 1252 0  

1253 Leave a comment on paragraph 1253 0 [125]

1254 Leave a comment on paragraph 1254 0 ‘BRAS BU’I BDAG GI DNGOS PO MYU GU SOGS CHOS CAN, [f. 8b] RANG RGYU SA BON DON GZHAN LAS ‘BYUNG BA’I DNGOS POR NGO BO NYID KYIS YOD PA MA YIN PAS GZHAN LAS SKYE BA MED DE, RANG RGYU SA BON GYI DUS NA YOD PA MA YIN PA’I PHYIR,

1255 Leave a comment on paragraph 1255 0  

1256 Leave a comment on paragraph 1256 0 And let’s consider a thing that’s a thing—a result—itself: the sprout, or whatever it may be.

1257 Leave a comment on paragraph 1257 0  

1258 Leave a comment on paragraph 1258 0 It is not a thing which could ever grow from something else, for it is not something which could ever be there as a thing that existed in and of itself, and which came from something that was other than itself: from a seed, for example, acting as its cause.

1259 Leave a comment on paragraph 1259 0  

1260 Leave a comment on paragraph 1260 0 And that’s true because it is not something which even exists, at the time of its cause—at the time of the seed.

1261 Leave a comment on paragraph 1261 0  

1262 Leave a comment on paragraph 1262 0  

1263 Leave a comment on paragraph 1263 0 [126]

1264 Leave a comment on paragraph 1264 0 KHYAB STE, SA BON DON GZHAN LAS NGO BO NYID KYIS SKYES NA SA BON GYI DUS DER YANG BYA BA’I RTEN DU YOD DGOS PA’I PHYIR,

1265 Leave a comment on paragraph 1265 0  

1266 Leave a comment on paragraph 1266 0 Just because something doesn’t exist at the time of its cause doesn’t necessarily imply that it is not a thing which could ever grow from something else, for the reason you’ve stated.

1267 Leave a comment on paragraph 1267 0  

1268 Leave a comment on paragraph 1268 0 And yet it does necessarily imply that; for if something were to grow, in and by itself, from a seed that was an object separate from it, then it would have to exist as well—as a basis of the event—at the time of its seed.

1269 Leave a comment on paragraph 1269 0  

1270 Leave a comment on paragraph 1270 0  

1271 Leave a comment on paragraph 1271 0 [127]

1272 Leave a comment on paragraph 1272 0 DER THAL, RANG BZHIN GYIS GRUB NA, GRUB PA’I DUS THAMS CAD RTEN BRTEN PAR YOD DGOS SHING, DE MED NA RANG BZHIN GYIS GRUB PA’I DON MA TSANG BAS THA SNYAD DU YOD PAR ‘GYUR BA’I PHYIR,

1273 Leave a comment on paragraph 1273 0  

1274 Leave a comment on paragraph 1274 0 I disagree that that is the case.

1275 Leave a comment on paragraph 1275 0  

1276 Leave a comment on paragraph 1276 0 And yet it is so the case, because—if these things existed through some nature of their own—then for all the time that they did exist they would have to exist as a basis and what rests upon that basis.  And if they did not exist in this way, then some part of what it means to “exist through some nature of their own” would be missing; and in that case, they would have to exist only nominally.

1277 Leave a comment on paragraph 1277 0  

1278 Leave a comment on paragraph 1278 0  

1279 Leave a comment on paragraph 1279 0 [128]

1280 Leave a comment on paragraph 1280 0 DE YANG MYU GU SKYE BA’I BYA BA NI RTEN DANG MYU GU NI BRTEN PA’AM BYED PA POR ‘JOG PA YIN LA, RANG BZHIN GYIS GRUB PA LAN CIG RTEN BRTEN PAR SONG NA DUS THAMS CAD DU DER ‘GRO DGOS SO,,

1281 Leave a comment on paragraph 1281 0  

1282 Leave a comment on paragraph 1282 0 In this argument, we are referring to the event of the sprout’s growing as the “basis”; in which case we identify the sprout as what rests upon this basis—or the thing which in this case is acting.  And if these things were to exist through some nature of their own, then if they acted even once as the basis and as what rests upon this basis, then they would have to do so at every other point in time as well.

1283 Leave a comment on paragraph 1283 0  

1284 Leave a comment on paragraph 1284 0  

1285 Leave a comment on paragraph 1285 0 [129]

1286 Leave a comment on paragraph 1286 0 MYU GU RANG GI SA BON LAS SKYE ZHES BRJOD PA’I TSE SKYES PA’I MYU GU DE SA BON GYI DUS SU MED CING, SA BON GYI DUS SU YOD PA’I MYU GU ZHIG SKYE BAR MIN MOD,

1287 Leave a comment on paragraph 1287 0  

1288 Leave a comment on paragraph 1288 0 Now when we say that “a sprout has grown from a seed,” it’s admittedly the case that the sprout does not exist at the time of the seed; and not the case that a sprout which did exist at the time of the seed then grew.

1289 Leave a comment on paragraph 1289 0  

1290 Leave a comment on paragraph 1290 0  

1291 Leave a comment on paragraph 1291 0 [130]

1292 Leave a comment on paragraph 1292 0 THA SNYAD DU SKYE ‘GYUR LA LTOS NAS MYU GU SA BON LAS SKYE ZHES BRDZOD {%BRJOD} PA NI ‘THAD PAS SKYE BZHIN PA’I BYA BA BYED PA PO’I MYU GU YOD LA,

1293 Leave a comment on paragraph 1293 0  

1294 Leave a comment on paragraph 1294 0 Relative though to something which, nominally, is going to grow, it is alright to say that “the sprout grows from the seed”—and that there does exist a sprout which performs the act of being in the process of growing.

1295 Leave a comment on paragraph 1295 0  

1296 Leave a comment on paragraph 1296 0  

1297 Leave a comment on paragraph 1297 0 [131]

1298 Leave a comment on paragraph 1298 0 RANG BZHIN GYIS SKYE NA MYU GU RANG GI SA BON LAS SKYE ZHES BRJOD PA LTAR MYU GU DE RANG GI SA BON GYI DUS SU YOD BZHIN DU SKYE DGOS KYI, MED NA SKYE BA MI ‘THAD PAS BDAG SKYE YOD PAR ‘GYUR RO,,

1299 Leave a comment on paragraph 1299 0  

1300 Leave a comment on paragraph 1300 0 If though things grew through some nature of their own, then as we word it when we say “a sprout is growing from its seed,” then the sprout would have to be growing in a way where it also existed at the time of its seed.  If on the other hand it did not, it would be incorrect to say it was growing—and thus, things growing from themselves would have to be something that did exist.

1301 Leave a comment on paragraph 1301 0  

1302 Leave a comment on paragraph 1302 0  

1303 Leave a comment on paragraph 1303 0 [132]

1304 Leave a comment on paragraph 1304 0 RANG LUGS NI, MYU GU RANG GI SA BON GYI DUS SU MED KYANG DE LAS SKYE BAR ‘DOD CING DE NI BRDZUN PA’I TSUL LA MI ‘GAL YANG BDEN PAR GRUB PA LA ‘GAL LO,,

1305 Leave a comment on paragraph 1305 0  

1306 Leave a comment on paragraph 1306 0 Here is our own position on this issue.  It is not the case that the sprout does exist at the time of its seed; nonetheless, we can agree that it does grow from that seed.  This kind of thing is no contradiction in a world where things exist in a deceptive way; but it would be a contradiction in a world where things existed as something real.

1307 Leave a comment on paragraph 1307 0  

1308 Leave a comment on paragraph 1308 0  

1309 Leave a comment on paragraph 1309 0 [133]

1310 Leave a comment on paragraph 1310 0 GZHAN LAS SKYE NA’ANG ‘BRAS BU NI SA BON LA LTOS MED YAN GAR DU SKYE BAR ‘DOD DGOS PAS

1311 Leave a comment on paragraph 1311 0  

1312 Leave a comment on paragraph 1312 0 And even where a person agrees that things could grow from something other than themselves, you would have then to agree that they grew in such a way that they were discrete, separate entities from their seeds—and no longer relied upon them.

1313 Leave a comment on paragraph 1313 0  

1314 Leave a comment on paragraph 1314 0  

1315 Leave a comment on paragraph 1315 0 [134]

1316 Leave a comment on paragraph 1316 0 RGYU ‘BRAS DUS MNYAM PAR ‘GYUR BA SOGS SHES PAR BYA STE, RIGS PA’I [f. 9a] GNAD ‘DI MGON {%MA GO NA} ‘OG TU DGAG SGRUB MDZAD PA’I DON LEGS PAR MI GO BAS

1317 Leave a comment on paragraph 1317 0  

1318 Leave a comment on paragraph 1318 0 Try to understand that, in this case, there would arise certain problems; such as the cause and its result having to be simultaneous.  If you fail to comprehend this crucial point in the reasoning process here, then later on in the text you will fail to grasp, perfectly, points that are made in the process of denying certain ideas and asserting others.

1319 Leave a comment on paragraph 1319 0  

1320 Leave a comment on paragraph 1320 0  

1321 Leave a comment on paragraph 1321 0 [135]

1322 Leave a comment on paragraph 1322 0 SHES PAR BYA’O,,

1323 Leave a comment on paragraph 1323 0  

1324 Leave a comment on paragraph 1324 0 Do make an effort, then, to absorb these ideas, here at this point.

1325 Leave a comment on paragraph 1325 0  

1326 Leave a comment on paragraph 1326 0  

1327 Leave a comment on paragraph 1327 0  

1328 Leave a comment on paragraph 1328 0 A response denying something else by nature

1329 Leave a comment on paragraph 1329 0  

1330 Leave a comment on paragraph 1330 0 [136]

1331 Leave a comment on paragraph 1331 0 GNYIS PA NI, GZHUNG SNGA MA’I MIN NA ZHES PA’I NA ZHES GNAS GZHI DANG SBYAR LA, ‘DIR NA ZHES DUS KYI BDUN PA DANG SBYARO {%SBYAR RO},,

1332 Leave a comment on paragraph 1332 0  

1333 Leave a comment on paragraph 1333 0 Here is that second step: a denial that things could even be something else, through any nature of their own.  Let’s look at the particle “if” in the verse of the root text covered earlier in this section.  It’s parallel to the particle “in” that came just before it, which is a locative: where something is happening.  The “if” though should be understood as a locative (seventh of the classical declensions) in the sense of time: when something is happening.[30]

1334 Leave a comment on paragraph 1334 0  

1335 Leave a comment on paragraph 1335 0  

1336 Leave a comment on paragraph 1336 0 [137]

1337 Leave a comment on paragraph 1337 0 ‘BRAS BU’I DNGOS PO RNAMS KYI RANG BZHIN NAM NGO BO CHOS CAN, SA BON SOGS RKYEN TSOGS PA DANG KHA YAR GANG YANG RNAM PAR MA ‘GYUR PA’I {%BA’I} DUS NA YOD PA MA YIN TE, DE LTAR YOD PA MA MTHONG BA’I PHYIR DANG YOD NA RGYU MED DU ‘GYUR BA’I PHYIR RO,,

1338 Leave a comment on paragraph 1338 0  

1339 Leave a comment on paragraph 1339 0 Let’s consider then the nature, or essence, of things which are results.

1340 Leave a comment on paragraph 1340 0  

1341 Leave a comment on paragraph 1341 0 They are not something which can exist at a point in time where their

1342 Leave a comment on paragraph 1342 0 conditions—seeds or whatever, considered either once they

1343 Leave a comment on paragraph 1343 0 have convened, or as separate entities—have not yet

1344 Leave a comment on paragraph 1344 0 undergone some transformation;

1345 Leave a comment on paragraph 1345 0  

1346 Leave a comment on paragraph 1346 0 For we never observe the existence of any such result; and even if

1347 Leave a comment on paragraph 1347 0 we did, it would then occur without a cause.

1348 Leave a comment on paragraph 1348 0  

1349 Leave a comment on paragraph 1349 0  

1350 Leave a comment on paragraph 1350 0 [138]

1351 Leave a comment on paragraph 1351 0 YANG ‘BRAS BU BDAG GI DNGOS PO MYU GU CHOS CAN, RANG RGYU SA BON LAS NGO BO NYID KYIS GZHAN GYI DNGOS PO NYID DU YOD PA MA YIN PAS GZHAN LAS SKYE BA MED DE, RANG RGYU SA BON RNAM PAR MA ‘GYUR PA’I {%BA’I} DUS NA YOD PA MA YIN PA’I PHYIR ZHES KHYAB PA NYID BSGRUB PO,,

1352 Leave a comment on paragraph 1352 0  

1353 Leave a comment on paragraph 1353 0 Again let us consider this thing—the sprout—which is itself a result.

1354 Leave a comment on paragraph 1354 0  

1355 Leave a comment on paragraph 1355 0 It does not exist as this sheer thing which is—in and by itself—something else than its cause, the seed; and thus there is no such thing as something which could grow from something other than it.

1356 Leave a comment on paragraph 1356 0  

1357 Leave a comment on paragraph 1357 0 Because it is not something which can be present in the time that its cause—the seed—has yet to undergo any transformation.  Which is to say, the necessary relationship between the result and the quality to be proven in our argument does hold true.

1358 Leave a comment on paragraph 1358 0  

1359 Leave a comment on paragraph 1359 0  

1360 Leave a comment on paragraph 1360 0 [139]

1361 Leave a comment on paragraph 1361 0 DE LTAR NA BCOM LDAN ‘DAS KYIS RKYEN BZHI GSUNGS PA LTAR ‘DOD KYANG, GZHAN SKYE YOD MI DGOS TE, ‘BRAS BU RANG DANG ‘BREL MED DON GZHAN PA’I RGYU LAS NGO BO NYID KYIS SKYE BA KHEGS PA’I PHYIR,

1362 Leave a comment on paragraph 1362 0  

1363 Leave a comment on paragraph 1363 0 And so even if we accept the four conditions, as they were described by the Conqueror, it’s not the case that things can grow from something other than themselves.  And that’s because we deny that a result can grow, in and by itself, from a cause which is a discrete entity from it, and with which it shares no relationship.

1364 Leave a comment on paragraph 1364 0  

1365 Leave a comment on paragraph 1365 0  

1366 Leave a comment on paragraph 1366 0 [140]

1367 Leave a comment on paragraph 1367 0 DER THAL, GZHAN SKYE ‘DOD PA DAG GIS ‘BRAS BU RNAMS RANG GI MTSAN NYID KYIS GRUB PA’I RGYU GZHAN LAS SKYE BAR ‘DOD PAS DE LTAR NA RGYU ‘BRAS GNYIS SO SOR ‘BREL MED DU ‘DOD DGOS NA’ANG DE ‘DRA MI ‘THAD PA’I PHYIR,

1368 Leave a comment on paragraph 1368 0  

1369 Leave a comment on paragraph 1369 0 And that in turn is the case because those who assert that things do grow from something other than themselves assert that results grow from causes which exist by definition, and thus must in turn assert that the cause and its result are individual entities which share no relationship—and even just accepting this is incorrect.

1370 Leave a comment on paragraph 1370 0  

1371 Leave a comment on paragraph 1371 0  

1372 Leave a comment on paragraph 1372 0 [141]

1373 Leave a comment on paragraph 1373 0 ‘DI DAG GIS RIGS PA GSUM BSTAN TE, GZHAN DANG SKYE BA’I GZHI MTHUN DANG SKYE BA DANG RGYU ‘BRAS GNYIS NGO BO NYID KYIS GZHAN YIN PA LA GNOD BYED BSTAN NAS ‘GOG PA’O,,

1374 Leave a comment on paragraph 1374 0  

1375 Leave a comment on paragraph 1375 0 These sections are presenting three different reasonings, denying what they do by presenting problems with accepting (1) any one thing that could be both a growing and a case where cause and its result are different from one another; (2) the fact of the growing itself; and (3) a cause and its result where the two could be different from each other, in and by themselves.

1376 Leave a comment on paragraph 1376 0  

1377 Leave a comment on paragraph 1377 0  

1378 Leave a comment on paragraph 1378 0 [142]

1379 Leave a comment on paragraph 1379 0 DGAG BYA YANG SPYIR NI RANG BZHIN GYIS GRUB PA CES ‘BYUNG BA DE YIN LA, DE NI GSAR DU BCOS PA MA YIN PA DANG, RANG GI NGO BO GZHAN LA [f. 9b] BLTOS NAS BCOS PA MIN PA DANG, PHYIN CHAD GZHAN DU MI ‘GYUR BA’I KHYAD CHOS GSUM TSANG DGOS TE,

1380 Leave a comment on paragraph 1380 0  

1381 Leave a comment on paragraph 1381 0 What we are denying, stated in general terms, is the very fact that anything could occur in a way where it existed through some nature of its own.  If such a thing could ever be, it would have to possess, complete, three different characteristics: (1) it could never be something which was a fresh creation; (2) its essential nature could never be something which was created fresh, through reliance upon something other than itself; and (3) it could never, in all time subsequent to the present, transform in any way.

1382 Leave a comment on paragraph 1382 0  

1383 Leave a comment on paragraph 1383 0  

1384 Leave a comment on paragraph 1384 0 [143]

1385 Leave a comment on paragraph 1385 0 RAB BYED BCO LNGA PAR,

1386 Leave a comment on paragraph 1386 0 ,RANG BZHIN DAG NI BCOS MIN DANG,

1387 Leave a comment on paragraph 1387 0 ,GZHAN LA BLTOS PA MED PA YIN,

1388 Leave a comment on paragraph 1388 0 ,ZHES ,DANG,

1389 Leave a comment on paragraph 1389 0  

1390 Leave a comment on paragraph 1390 0 As the 15th chapter of Wisdom itself puts it,

1391 Leave a comment on paragraph 1391 0  

1392 Leave a comment on paragraph 1392 0 These natures would have to be things

1393 Leave a comment on paragraph 1393 0 That could never be created,

1394 Leave a comment on paragraph 1394 0 And never relied upon something else.

1395 Leave a comment on paragraph 1395 0  

1396 Leave a comment on paragraph 1396 0  

1397 Leave a comment on paragraph 1397 0 [144]

1398 Leave a comment on paragraph 1398 0 ,RANG BZHIN GZHAN DU ‘GYUR BA NI,

1399 Leave a comment on paragraph 1399 0 ,NAM YANG ‘THAD PA MA YIN NO,,

1400 Leave a comment on paragraph 1400 0 ZHES GSUNGS PA LTAR RO,,

1401 Leave a comment on paragraph 1401 0  

1402 Leave a comment on paragraph 1402 0 And from the same chapter:

1403 Leave a comment on paragraph 1403 0  

1404 Leave a comment on paragraph 1404 0 The transformation of a nature

1405 Leave a comment on paragraph 1405 0 Into something else

1406 Leave a comment on paragraph 1406 0 Could never be correct.

1407 Leave a comment on paragraph 1407 0  

1408 Leave a comment on paragraph 1408 0  

1409 Leave a comment on paragraph 1409 0 [145]

1410 Leave a comment on paragraph 1410 0 KHYAD CHOS DE GSUM TSANG BA TZAM GYIS RANG BZHIN GYIS GRUB MI DGOS KYANG, RANG BZHIN GYIS GRUB NA KHYAD CHOS DE GSUM PO TSANG DGOS TE,

1411 Leave a comment on paragraph 1411 0  

1412 Leave a comment on paragraph 1412 0 Now it’s not the case that—just because these three different characteristics all apply—then the object in question must exist through some nature of its own; but if something did exist through a nature of its own, then it would have to possess all three, complete.

1413 Leave a comment on paragraph 1413 0  

1414 Leave a comment on paragraph 1414 0  

1415 Leave a comment on paragraph 1415 0 [146]

1416 Leave a comment on paragraph 1416 0 RANG BZHIN GYIS GRUB NA DUS THAMS CAD DU DE LTAR GRUB PA DANG, GZHAN LA MA LTOS PAR DE LTAR GRUB PA DANG, DANG PO NAS DE LTAR GRUB DGOS PAS ‘GOG PA’I TSE GNAD DE LTAR DU BSAMS NAS ‘GOG DGOS KYI, THA SNYAD DU GNAS PA’I DON NI MI ‘GOG GO

1417 Leave a comment on paragraph 1417 0  

1418 Leave a comment on paragraph 1418 0 This is true because—if something did exist by nature—it would have to exist that way in all the time that it existed; and it would have to exist that way without ever relying on something other than itself; and it would, from the very beginning, have to exist that way.  And when we deny that something could exist by nature, we need to make our denial with these descriptions in mind.  It is not though the case that we are denying an object which could exist in names alone.

1419 Leave a comment on paragraph 1419 0  

1420 Leave a comment on paragraph 1420 0  

1421 Leave a comment on paragraph 1421 0 [147]

1422 Leave a comment on paragraph 1422 0 ,BUM PA LTA BU RANG BZHIN GYIS GCIG TU GRUB NA BUM PA GRUB TZAM NYID NAS CHA THAMS CAD NAS GCIG TU GRUB DGOS PAS BUM PA’I STENG NA THA DAD PA’I CHA YIN PA MI SRID DGOS PA DANG,

1423 Leave a comment on paragraph 1423 0  

1424 Leave a comment on paragraph 1424 0 If we were to take the example of something like a water pitcher, we can say that—if it existed as a single object, through some nature of its own—then in the moment that the water pitcher came into existence, each and every one of its constituent parts would have to exist as that one single object.  Which means that it would have to be impossible for there to be any discrete parts of the pitcher.

1425 Leave a comment on paragraph 1425 0  

1426 Leave a comment on paragraph 1426 0  

1427 Leave a comment on paragraph 1427 0 [148]

1428 Leave a comment on paragraph 1428 0 SA MYUG GNYIS RANG BZHIN GYIS THA DAD NA DE SO SO’I STENG DU GCIG YIN PA MI SRID PA SOGS SU ‘GYUR TE, DE DAG LA GCIG DANG THA DAD YIN PA’I CHA MI ‘DRA BA SRID NA NI BDEN PAR GRUB PA’AM RANG BZHIN GYIS GRUB PA’I DON MA TSANG NGO,,

1429 Leave a comment on paragraph 1429 0  

1430 Leave a comment on paragraph 1430 0 And if these two—the seed and the sprout—were distinct from each other through any nature of their own, then with respect to each one individually it would be impossible for either to be a single thing—and there would be other such problems.  If either one of the seed or sprout could possess discrete aspects of being either or of being separate, then the requirements for it to exist in truth, or to exist through some nature of its own, would no longer be complete.

1431 Leave a comment on paragraph 1431 0  

1432 Leave a comment on paragraph 1432 0  

1433 Leave a comment on paragraph 1433 0 [149]

1434 Leave a comment on paragraph 1434 0 TSUL ‘DI NI GNAD DU CHE STE, ‘OG NAS ‘CHAD PA’I LAM GSUM LA BA GOM {%BGOM} PA RANG BZHIN GYIS GRUB PA ‘GOG PA SOGS LA NUS PA CHE’O,,

1435 Leave a comment on paragraph 1435 0  

1436 Leave a comment on paragraph 1436 0 It’s crucial to understand how all this works; these ideas are very powerful at points covered later on in the presentation—such as where we deny that stepping on any of the three parts of a path could exist through any nature of its own.[31]

1437 Leave a comment on paragraph 1437 0  

1438 Leave a comment on paragraph 1438 0  

1439 Leave a comment on paragraph 1439 0 [150]

1440 Leave a comment on paragraph 1440 0 MDOR NA RIGS PA’I ‘PHUL MTSAMS PHRA BA RNAMS LA SNGAR BSHAD PA’I KHYAD CHOS GSUM MAM GANG RUNG GI SPYI SHAR BAR BYAS NA NGES PA CHEN PO STER BAR ‘GYUR GYI, GZHAN DU TSIG TZAM ZHIG TU ‘GRO’O,,

1441 Leave a comment on paragraph 1441 0  

1442 Leave a comment on paragraph 1442 0 In sum, it imparts to us a firm grasp of these topics if—at delicate points in the flow of the logic—we can recall the three characteristics just presented; or even just the general import of any one or two.  Otherwise it will all be just words to us.

1443 Leave a comment on paragraph 1443 0  

1444 Leave a comment on paragraph 1444 0  

1445 Leave a comment on paragraph 1445 0  

1446 Leave a comment on paragraph 1446 0 Nothing is a condition

1447 Leave a comment on paragraph 1447 0 simply because

1448 Leave a comment on paragraph 1448 0 it causes things to grow

1449 Leave a comment on paragraph 1449 0  

1450 Leave a comment on paragraph 1450 0 [151]

1451 Leave a comment on paragraph 1451 0 GNYIS PA LA GSUM, RKYEN GYI RANG BZHIN THUN MONG DU DGAG PA, SO SOR DGAG [f. 10a] DGAG {%only one DGAG} PA, ‘GOG TSUL GZHAN BSTAN PA’O,,

1452 Leave a comment on paragraph 1452 0  

1453 Leave a comment on paragraph 1453 0 Having denied that results could possess any nature of growing, we now move on to denying that what makes these results grow could possess any nature of being a condition.  For this, we proceed in three steps: (1) denying that, as a group, the four conditions could possess any nature of being conditions; (2) denying that, individually, they could possess any such nature; and (3) a presentation of other, relevant denials.

1454 Leave a comment on paragraph 1454 0  

1455 Leave a comment on paragraph 1455 0  

1456 Leave a comment on paragraph 1456 0 [152]

1457 Leave a comment on paragraph 1457 0 DANG PO LA GNYIS, BYED PA’I SGO NAS RKYEN DU RTOG PA DGAG ,LAS KYI SGO NAS DER RTOG PA DGAG PA’O,,

1458 Leave a comment on paragraph 1458 0  

1459 Leave a comment on paragraph 1459 0 The first we discuss in two parts of its own: denying the idea that something could be a condition from the point of view of its doing anything; and then denying the idea that something could be a condition from the point of view of the associated action.

1460 Leave a comment on paragraph 1460 0  

1461 Leave a comment on paragraph 1461 0  

1462 Leave a comment on paragraph 1462 0 [153]

1463 Leave a comment on paragraph 1463 0 DANG PO LA GNYIS, SKYE BA’I BYA BA SGRUB PA’I SGO NAS RKYEN RTOG PA DGAG ,’BRAS BU SKYE BA’I SGO NAS RKYEN DU RTOG PA DGAG PA’O,,

1464 Leave a comment on paragraph 1464 0  

1465 Leave a comment on paragraph 1465 0 The first of these has two parts of its own: denying the idea that something is a condition because it accomplishes the act of growing; and denying the idea that something is a condition because a result does grow.

1466 Leave a comment on paragraph 1466 0  

1467 Leave a comment on paragraph 1467 0  

1468 Leave a comment on paragraph 1468 0 [154]

1469 Leave a comment on paragraph 1469 0 DANG PO NI,

1470 Leave a comment on paragraph 1470 0  

1471 Leave a comment on paragraph 1471 0 The first of these two is expressed in following lines of the root text:

1472 Leave a comment on paragraph 1472 0  

1473 Leave a comment on paragraph 1473 0  

1474 Leave a comment on paragraph 1474 0 [155]

1475 Leave a comment on paragraph 1475 0             (I.6-7)

1476 Leave a comment on paragraph 1476 0  

1477 Leave a comment on paragraph 1477 0             Kriyā na pratyayavatī nāpratyayavatī kriya,

1478 Leave a comment on paragraph 1478 0 Pratyayā nākriyāvanta kriyāvantaś ca santyuta.

1479 Leave a comment on paragraph 1479 0 Utpadyate pratītyemān itīme pratyayā kila,

1480 Leave a comment on paragraph 1480 0 Yāvan notpadyata ime tāvan nāpratyayā katham.

1481 Leave a comment on paragraph 1481 0  

1482 Leave a comment on paragraph 1482 0 Kriya na pratyayavati napratyayavati kriya,

1483 Leave a comment on paragraph 1483 0 Pratyaya nakriyavantah kriyavantash cha santyuta.

1484 Leave a comment on paragraph 1484 0 Utpadyate pratityeman itime pratyayah kila,

1485 Leave a comment on paragraph 1485 0 Yavan notpadyata ime tavan napratyayah katham.

1486 Leave a comment on paragraph 1486 0  

1487 Leave a comment on paragraph 1487 0  

1488 Leave a comment on paragraph 1488 0 ,BYA BA RKYEN DANG LDAN PA MED,[32]

1489 Leave a comment on paragraph 1489 0 ,RKYEN DANG MI LDAN BYA BA MED,

1490 Leave a comment on paragraph 1490 0 ,BYA BA RKYEN DANG MI LDAN MIN,

1491 Leave a comment on paragraph 1491 0 ,BYA BA LDAN TE ‘ON TE NA,

1492 Leave a comment on paragraph 1492 0 ,’DI DAG LA BRTEN SKYE BAS NA,

1493 Leave a comment on paragraph 1493 0 ,DE PHYIR ‘DI DAG RKYEN ZHES GRAG

1494 Leave a comment on paragraph 1494 0 ,CI SRID MA SKYE DE SRID DU,

1495 Leave a comment on paragraph 1495 0 ,’DI DAG RKYEN MIN JI LTAR MIN,

1496 Leave a comment on paragraph 1496 0 ,ZHES SO,,

1497 Leave a comment on paragraph 1497 0  

1498 Leave a comment on paragraph 1498 0 There is no act

1499 Leave a comment on paragraph 1499 0 Which has a condition;

1500 Leave a comment on paragraph 1500 0 And there is no act

1501 Leave a comment on paragraph 1501 0 Which has no condition.

1502 Leave a comment on paragraph 1502 0  

1503 Leave a comment on paragraph 1503 0 If the act did have it,

1504 Leave a comment on paragraph 1504 0 And in that case

1505 Leave a comment on paragraph 1505 0 Conditions were called

1506 Leave a comment on paragraph 1506 0 What they are because

1507 Leave a comment on paragraph 1507 0 It had grown depending upon them,

1508 Leave a comment on paragraph 1508 0  

1509 Leave a comment on paragraph 1509 0 Then until such time

1510 Leave a comment on paragraph 1510 0 As it had grown,

1511 Leave a comment on paragraph 1511 0 How could it be that they were not

1512 Leave a comment on paragraph 1512 0 Something that wasn’t a condition?

1513 Leave a comment on paragraph 1513 0  

1514 Leave a comment on paragraph 1514 0  

1515 Leave a comment on paragraph 1515 0 [156]

1516 Leave a comment on paragraph 1516 0 DE YANG SPYIR MTHO GANG TZAM GYI DU SKYE BA’I MYU GU YOD LA, DES RANG GI SKYE BA’I BYA BA BRTZAMS NAS MTHO GANG TSAD DU MA SKYES KYI BAR RANG NYID SKYE BA’I BYA BA BYED BZHIN PAR BZHAG DGOS KYANG,

1517 Leave a comment on paragraph 1517 0  

1518 Leave a comment on paragraph 1518 0 Now generally speaking, there does exist such a thing as a sprout which grows to a height of a single handlength.[33]  And we would have to say that—from the time that the act of growing is initiated, and on up to the point where the sprout is a handlength long—it is in the act of growing.

1519 Leave a comment on paragraph 1519 0  

1520 Leave a comment on paragraph 1520 0  

1521 Leave a comment on paragraph 1521 0 [157]

1522 Leave a comment on paragraph 1522 0 SKYE BZHIN PA’I DUS SU NI, BYED PA PO MYU GU MED CING, SKYES PA’I TSE SKYE BA’I BYA BA ‘GAGS PAS SKYE BZHIN PA YANG MED DE,

1523 Leave a comment on paragraph 1523 0  

1524 Leave a comment on paragraph 1524 0 During this time though—in which the sprout is in the act of growing—there is no finished sprout which can be the agent of the action.  But by the time the sprout has finished growing, then the act of growing has ended; as such, there can be no such thing as “the sprout being in the act of growing.”

1525 Leave a comment on paragraph 1525 0  

1526 Leave a comment on paragraph 1526 0  

1527 Leave a comment on paragraph 1527 0 [158]

1528 Leave a comment on paragraph 1528 0 ‘BRAS BU SKYE BA LA MNGON DU PHYOGS PA DANG RGYU ‘GAGS PA LA MNGON DU PHYOGS PA GNYIS DUS MNYAM, ‘BRAS BU SKYES ZIN PA DANG RGYU ‘GAGS ZIN PA’I BYA BA GNYIS KYANG DUS MNYAM PA’I PHYIR RO,,

1529 Leave a comment on paragraph 1529 0  

1530 Leave a comment on paragraph 1530 0 This is because the point at which the result is approaching having grown, and the point at which the cause is approaching having ended, are simultaneous.  And the point at which the result has finished growing, and the point at which the cause has finished ending, are also simultaneous.

1531 Leave a comment on paragraph 1531 0  

1532 Leave a comment on paragraph 1532 0  

1533 Leave a comment on paragraph 1533 0 [159]

1534 Leave a comment on paragraph 1534 0 DE’I TSE MYU GU LTA BU RANG GI BYA BA SKYE BZHIN PA DANG ‘GAG BZHIN PA GNYIS LA THUN MONG DU BRTEN PA YIN GYI BYA BA GNYIS SO SO LA THUN MONG MA YIN PA’I MYU GU RE RE BRTEN PA MA YIN TE,

1535 Leave a comment on paragraph 1535 0  

1536 Leave a comment on paragraph 1536 0 During this process, something like a sprout depends, mutually, upon these two acts: of one ongoing process of growth, and of another ongoing process of ending.  But it’s not as if there are two separate sprouts where each depends upon its own isolated act, from among the two.

1537 Leave a comment on paragraph 1537 0  

1538 Leave a comment on paragraph 1538 0  

1539 Leave a comment on paragraph 1539 0 [160]

1540 Leave a comment on paragraph 1540 0 YIN NA MYU GU SKYE BZHIN PA’I DUS NA’ANG MYU GU YOD DGOS PAS MYU GU’I CHA THAMS CAD NAS SKYE BZHIN PAR ‘GYUR BA’I PHYIR MYU GU SKYES MA ZIN PAR ‘GYUR LA,

1541 Leave a comment on paragraph 1541 0  

1542 Leave a comment on paragraph 1542 0 This is because, if that were the case, then—since the finished sprout would have to be present even during the period in which it was in the act of growing—then each and every component part of the sprout would have still to be in the act of growing; in which case the sprout itself could not have finished growing.

1543 Leave a comment on paragraph 1543 0  

1544 Leave a comment on paragraph 1544 0  

1545 Leave a comment on paragraph 1545 0 [161]

1546 Leave a comment on paragraph 1546 0 MYU GU LTA BU RANG GI SKYES ZIN GYI BYA BA KHO NA LA BRTEN NA MYU GU SKYE BA’I BYA BA BYED PA PO’I MYU GU MED PAR [f. 10b] ‘GYUR BA SOGS YIN PA’I PHYIR,

1547 Leave a comment on paragraph 1547 0  

1548 Leave a comment on paragraph 1548 0 And if something like a sprout depended only upon its having finished growing, then for example there could be no sprout which was the agent in the growing of a sprout.

1549 Leave a comment on paragraph 1549 0  

1550 Leave a comment on paragraph 1550 0  

1551 Leave a comment on paragraph 1551 0 [162]

1552 Leave a comment on paragraph 1552 0 DE BZHIN DU MIG GI RNAM SHES SOGS LA’ANG SBYAR RGYU YIN NO,,

1553 Leave a comment on paragraph 1553 0  

1554 Leave a comment on paragraph 1554 0 This same reasoning can be applied to something like visual consciousness.

1555 Leave a comment on paragraph 1555 0  

1556 Leave a comment on paragraph 1556 0  

1557 Leave a comment on paragraph 1557 0 [163]

1558 Leave a comment on paragraph 1558 0 DE LTAR GO BAR BYAS NAS GZHUNG GI DON NI, MIG GI RNAM SHES CHOS CAN, KHYOD SKYE BA’I BYA BA RANG GI NGO BOS GRUB PA’I MI {%MIG?} SOGS LA RKYEN DANG LDAN PA‘I SGO NAS SGRUB PA MED DE, KHYOD MA SKYES PA SKYED PA’I BYA BA DON DAM PAR MED CING, SKYES ZIN SLAR SKYE BA’I BYA BA YANG MED PA’I PHYIR,

1559 Leave a comment on paragraph 1559 0  

1560 Leave a comment on paragraph 1560 0 Once we have understood these points, we can turn to the import of the verse here:

1561 Leave a comment on paragraph 1561 0  

1562 Leave a comment on paragraph 1562 0 Consider visual consciousness.

1563 Leave a comment on paragraph 1563 0  

1564 Leave a comment on paragraph 1564 0 There is no act of its growing which is accomplished through its

1565 Leave a comment on paragraph 1565 0 having a condition—such as the eye, for example—which exists

1566 Leave a comment on paragraph 1566 0 in and of itself;

1567 Leave a comment on paragraph 1567 0  

1568 Leave a comment on paragraph 1568 0 Because there is no act of its growing where a version of itself

1569 Leave a comment on paragraph 1569 0 which is yet to grow is made to grow, in any ultimate sense;

1570 Leave a comment on paragraph 1570 0 and yet neither is there any act where a version of itself

1571 Leave a comment on paragraph 1571 0 which has already finished growing grows once again.

1572 Leave a comment on paragraph 1572 0  

1573 Leave a comment on paragraph 1573 0  

1574 Leave a comment on paragraph 1574 0 [164]

1575 Leave a comment on paragraph 1575 0 DE CHOS CAN, KHYOD SKYE BA’I BYA BA RKYEN DANG MI LDAN PA’I SGO NAS BSGRUB PA YANG MED DE, DE LTAR ‘BYUNG BA MI SRID PA’I PHYIR,

1576 Leave a comment on paragraph 1576 0  

1577 Leave a comment on paragraph 1577 0 Consider this same consciousness.

1578 Leave a comment on paragraph 1578 0  

1579 Leave a comment on paragraph 1579 0 Neither is there an act of its growing which is accomplished through

1580 Leave a comment on paragraph 1580 0 its not having a condition;

1581 Leave a comment on paragraph 1581 0  

1582 Leave a comment on paragraph 1582 0 Because it’s impossible for that to happen.

1583 Leave a comment on paragraph 1583 0  

1584 Leave a comment on paragraph 1584 0  

1585 Leave a comment on paragraph 1585 0 [165]

1586 Leave a comment on paragraph 1586 0 DE CHOS CAN, MIG SOGS SKYE BA’I BYA BA DON DAM PAR MI LDAN PAR KHYOD KYI RKYEN DU RANG BZHIN GYIS MED DE, DE’I TSE MIG SOGS THA SNYAD DU KHYOD KYI RKYEN YIN YANG DON DAM PA’I RKYEN MA YIN PA’I PHYIR,

1587 Leave a comment on paragraph 1587 0  

1588 Leave a comment on paragraph 1588 0 Consider this consciousness once again.

1589 Leave a comment on paragraph 1589 0  

1590 Leave a comment on paragraph 1590 0 The eye and such could never serve as its conditions, through any

1591 Leave a comment on paragraph 1591 0 nature of their own, if they involved no act of growing, in

1592 Leave a comment on paragraph 1592 0 an ultimate sense;

1593 Leave a comment on paragraph 1593 0  

1594 Leave a comment on paragraph 1594 0 Because in that case the eye and so forth—even though they were

1595 Leave a comment on paragraph 1595 0 serving as its conditions in a nominal sense—would not be

1596 Leave a comment on paragraph 1596 0 conditions in any ultimate sense.

1597 Leave a comment on paragraph 1597 0  

1598 Leave a comment on paragraph 1598 0  

1599 Leave a comment on paragraph 1599 0 [166]

1600 Leave a comment on paragraph 1600 0 DE CHOS CAN, MIG SOGS RKYEN GYIS BYA BA SGRUB PA’I SGO NAS KYANG DON DAM PAR MI SKYE STE, KHYOD SKYED BYED KYI BYA BA RANG NGOS NAS LDAN PAR YOD PA NI MA YIN PA ‘ON TE KHON {%KHO NA} MA YIN PA’I PHYIR,

1601 Leave a comment on paragraph 1601 0  

1602 Leave a comment on paragraph 1602 0 Once more consider the consciousness.

1603 Leave a comment on paragraph 1603 0  

1604 Leave a comment on paragraph 1604 0 Neither is it something which could ever grow, in any ultimate sense,

1605 Leave a comment on paragraph 1605 0 through the conditions of the eye and so forth accomplishing

1606 Leave a comment on paragraph 1606 0 this act;

1607 Leave a comment on paragraph 1607 0  

1608 Leave a comment on paragraph 1608 0 Because the act that they cause to grow is not something that could ever

1609 Leave a comment on paragraph 1609 0 exist in a way where these conditions had it from their own side;

1610 Leave a comment on paragraph 1610 0 that is, this could never be the case.

1611 Leave a comment on paragraph 1611 0  

1612 Leave a comment on paragraph 1612 0  

1613 Leave a comment on paragraph 1613 0 [167]

1614 Leave a comment on paragraph 1614 0 RANG LUGS NI BRGYUD RGYU DANG DNGOS RGYU GNYIS KAS ‘BRAS BU SKYE BA’I BYA BA SGRUB PAR BYED PAS BYA BA RKYEN LDAN YIN YANG, ‘DIR BYA BA RKYEN LDAN LA RANG BZHIN ‘GOG PA’O,,

1615 Leave a comment on paragraph 1615 0  

1616 Leave a comment on paragraph 1616 0 Our own position is that—because both indirect causes and direct causes function to accomplish the act of a result growing—then we can say that acts have their conditions.  The purpose of these lines of Wisdom though is to deny that an act which is involved with conditions could ever have any nature of its own.

1617 Leave a comment on paragraph 1617 0  

1618 Leave a comment on paragraph 1618 0  

1619 Leave a comment on paragraph 1619 0 [168]

1620 Leave a comment on paragraph 1620 0 DE YANG MIG SOGS RNAMS ‘BRAS BU RNAM SHES SOGS SKYE BA’I BYA BA SGRUB PA’I RKYEN TE, MTHAR DES BSGRUBS PA’I BYA BA’I KHYAD PAR CIG LAS ‘BRAS BU SKYE BAR ‘DOD DGOS SO,,

1621 Leave a comment on paragraph 1621 0  

1622 Leave a comment on paragraph 1622 0 And the eye and so forth are conditions which accomplish the act of the growing of their results—things like the visual consciousness.  This is because, in the end, we would have to agree that the results had grown through some aspect of an act that these conditions had accomplished.

1623 Leave a comment on paragraph 1623 0  

1624 Leave a comment on paragraph 1624 0  

1625 Leave a comment on paragraph 1625 0  

1626 Leave a comment on paragraph 1626 0 Nothing is a condition

1627 Leave a comment on paragraph 1627 0 just because a result does grow

1628 Leave a comment on paragraph 1628 0  

1629 Leave a comment on paragraph 1629 0 [169]

1630 Leave a comment on paragraph 1630 0 GNYIS PA NI,

1631 Leave a comment on paragraph 1631 0  

1632 Leave a comment on paragraph 1632 0 Here next is the second part of our denial that something could be a condition from the point of view of its doing anything; that is, denying the idea that something is a condition because a result does grow.

1633 Leave a comment on paragraph 1633 0  

1634 Leave a comment on paragraph 1634 0  

1635 Leave a comment on paragraph 1635 0 [170]

1636 Leave a comment on paragraph 1636 0 MDO SDE PA SOGS NA RE, BYA BA RKYEN DANG LDAN MI LDAN GYI DPYOD PA ‘DIS CI BYA, MIG SOGS RKYEN ‘DI DAG LA BRTEN NAS MIG GI RNAM SHES SOGS SKYE BAR MTHONG BAS NA, RGYU MTSAN DE’I PHYIR MIG SOGS ‘DI DAG RANG DBANG GIS RNAM SHES KYI RKYEN DU ‘JOG [f. 11a] GO ZHES GRAG PA STE ZER RO,,

1637 Leave a comment on paragraph 1637 0  

1638 Leave a comment on paragraph 1638 0 Now groups like the Sutrists make the following claim:

1639 Leave a comment on paragraph 1639 0  

1640 Leave a comment on paragraph 1640 0 What’s the use of examining here whether or not acts involve conditions?  We can see with our own eyes that things like visual consciousness grow, through a process where they depend upon these conditions; upon the eye and so forth.  And it’s because of this—for this very reason—that the eye and such are called what they are: are established, all of their own accord, as being the conditions of consciousness.

1641 Leave a comment on paragraph 1641 0  

1642 Leave a comment on paragraph 1642 0  

1643 Leave a comment on paragraph 1643 0 [171]

1644 Leave a comment on paragraph 1644 0 DE LTAR SMRA BAR MI RIGS TE, SA BON LAS JI SRID DU ‘BRAS BU MI SKYE BA STE SKYE BA’I BYA BA DNGOS SU MA MTHONG BA DE SRID DU SA BON ‘DI DAG ‘BRAS BU’I RKYEN MIN PA JI LTAR MIN TE RKYEN MIN PA KHO NA YIN PA’I PHYIR TE,

1645 Leave a comment on paragraph 1645 0  

1646 Leave a comment on paragraph 1646 0 And yet it’s a mistake to make this kind of statement.  Until such time as the result has grown from the seed—that is, until such time as we have seen, directly, the act of growing; then how could it be that they—the seeds—would not be things that weren’t conditions?  That is, they could never be conditions.

1647 Leave a comment on paragraph 1647 0  

1648 Leave a comment on paragraph 1648 0  

1649 Leave a comment on paragraph 1649 0 [172]

1650 Leave a comment on paragraph 1650 0 ‘BRAS BU SKYE BA LA MNGON DU PHYOGS PA’I DUS SU RKYEN RNAMS BYA BA DANG LDAN GYI, DE’I SNGON DU MI LDAN PAR KHYOD KYIS KHAS BLANGS PA LTAR ‘THAD PA’I PHYIR,

1651 Leave a comment on paragraph 1651 0  

1652 Leave a comment on paragraph 1652 0 And that’s because you yourself have accepted the idea that—during the time that the result is approaching having grown—the conditions involve an act; but before that, do not.  And of course, that idea must be correct!

1653 Leave a comment on paragraph 1653 0  

1654 Leave a comment on paragraph 1654 0  

1655 Leave a comment on paragraph 1655 0 [173]

1656 Leave a comment on paragraph 1656 0 DER THAL, BRGYUD RGYU’I DUS SU ‘BRAS BU DE SKYE BA’I BYA BA SGRUB KYANG DE DA DUNG MA SKYES SHING, BYA BA DE DNGOS RGYU’I DUS KHO NAR YOD PA’I PHYIR,

1657 Leave a comment on paragraph 1657 0  

1658 Leave a comment on paragraph 1658 0 And that is the case, because—when we’re considering an indirect cause—then during the time of the cause the act of the result growing is being accomplished; but the result has not yet grown; and that same act can only exist in the time of the direct cause.

1659 Leave a comment on paragraph 1659 0  

1660 Leave a comment on paragraph 1660 0  

1661 Leave a comment on paragraph 1661 0 [174]

1662 Leave a comment on paragraph 1662 0 DES NA RKYEN YIN NA RANG DUS SU ‘BRAS BU DE SKYE BA’I BYA BA DNGOS SU YOD MI DGOS SO,,

1663 Leave a comment on paragraph 1663 0  

1664 Leave a comment on paragraph 1664 0 As such, it is not the case that—just because something is a condition for a certain result—the act of the result growing must actually be present within its own time.    

1665 Leave a comment on paragraph 1665 0  

1666 Leave a comment on paragraph 1666 0  

1667 Leave a comment on paragraph 1667 0  

1668 Leave a comment on paragraph 1668 0 Conditions for what?

1669 Leave a comment on paragraph 1669 0  

1670 Leave a comment on paragraph 1670 0 [175]

1671 Leave a comment on paragraph 1671 0 GNYIS PA NI,

1672 Leave a comment on paragraph 1672 0  

1673 Leave a comment on paragraph 1673 0 This brings us to the second part of our denial that the four conditions could possess any nature of being conditions: denying the idea that something could be a condition from the point of view of the associated action.

1674 Leave a comment on paragraph 1674 0  

1675 Leave a comment on paragraph 1675 0  

1676 Leave a comment on paragraph 1676 0 [176]

1677 Leave a comment on paragraph 1677 0 (I.8)

1678 Leave a comment on paragraph 1678 0  

1679 Leave a comment on paragraph 1679 0 Naivāsato naiva sata pratyayo ‘rthasya yujyate,

1680 Leave a comment on paragraph 1680 0 Asata pratyaya kasya sataś ca pratyayena kim.

1681 Leave a comment on paragraph 1681 0  

1682 Leave a comment on paragraph 1682 0 Naivasato naiva satah pratyayorthasya yujyate,

1683 Leave a comment on paragraph 1683 0 Asatah pratyayah kasya satash cha pratyayena kim.

1684 Leave a comment on paragraph 1684 0  

1685 Leave a comment on paragraph 1685 0  

1686 Leave a comment on paragraph 1686 0 ,YOD DAM MED PA’I DON LA YANG,[34]

1687 Leave a comment on paragraph 1687 0 ,RKYEN NI RUNG BA MA YIN TE,

1688 Leave a comment on paragraph 1688 0 ,MED NA GANG GI RKYEN DU ‘GYUR,

1689 Leave a comment on paragraph 1689 0 ,YOD NA RKYEN GYIS CI ZHIG BYA,

1690 Leave a comment on paragraph 1690 0 ,ZHES SO,,

1691 Leave a comment on paragraph 1691 0  

1692 Leave a comment on paragraph 1692 0 How could a thing ever be

1693 Leave a comment on paragraph 1693 0 A condition for something,

1694 Leave a comment on paragraph 1694 0 Whether that thing existed or not?

1695 Leave a comment on paragraph 1695 0  

1696 Leave a comment on paragraph 1696 0 For if it didn’t exist,

1697 Leave a comment on paragraph 1697 0 What would the condition

1698 Leave a comment on paragraph 1698 0 Be a condition for?

1699 Leave a comment on paragraph 1699 0  

1700 Leave a comment on paragraph 1700 0 And if it did exist,

1701 Leave a comment on paragraph 1701 0 What would be

1702 Leave a comment on paragraph 1702 0 The use of the condition?

1703 Leave a comment on paragraph 1703 0  

1704 Leave a comment on paragraph 1704 0  

1705 Leave a comment on paragraph 1705 0 [177]

1706 Leave a comment on paragraph 1706 0 ‘DI LA BRTEN NAS ‘DI SKYE’O ZHES PA’I ‘BREL PA ‘DI YOD PAS ‘DI ‘DI’I RKYEN DU ‘JOG GO ZHE NA,

1707 Leave a comment on paragraph 1707 0  

1708 Leave a comment on paragraph 1708 0 Now someone might say the following:

1709 Leave a comment on paragraph 1709 0  

1710 Leave a comment on paragraph 1710 0 When there is a relationship between two things—and we can say that one of them has grown, based on the other—then that suffices to say that one is a condition for the other.

1711 Leave a comment on paragraph 1711 0  

1712 Leave a comment on paragraph 1712 0  

1713 Leave a comment on paragraph 1713 0 [178]

1714 Leave a comment on paragraph 1714 0 DE YANG MI ‘THAD DE, SA BON LA BRTEN NAS SKYE’O ZHES PA’I ‘BREL PA YOD PAS RKYEN LAS RANG BZHIN GYIS SKYE BA MI ‘GRUB PA’I PHYIR TE, SA BON GYI DUS SU YOD PA DANG MED PA’I DON GANG LA YANG DON DAM PAR RKYEN DU NI RUNG BA MIN PA’I PHYIR,

1715 Leave a comment on paragraph 1715 0  

1716 Leave a comment on paragraph 1716 0 And yet that cannot be correct; for there can be a relationship between two things—“this thing has grown, depending upon that condition”; but that doesn’t prove that something has grown, through some nature of its own, from a condition.  For how could a thing ever be, in any ultimate sense, a condition for something, whether or not that thing already existed at the time of its seed?

1717 Leave a comment on paragraph 1717 0  

1718 Leave a comment on paragraph 1718 0  

1719 Leave a comment on paragraph 1719 0 [179]

1720 Leave a comment on paragraph 1720 0 DAM ZHES PAS RKYEN DU YOD NA DE GNYIS GANG RUNG DU YOD DGOS PA DANG, TE ZHES PA LHAG MA ‘DREN PA’O,,

1721 Leave a comment on paragraph 1721 0  

1722 Leave a comment on paragraph 1722 0 The expression “whether or not” in the verse here is meant to indicate that—if something is a condition for something else, then that other thing must either be something which exists, or something which doesn’t exist.  And the word “for” in these lines is meant to indicate that more information is coming.

1723 Leave a comment on paragraph 1723 0  

1724 Leave a comment on paragraph 1724 0  

1725 Leave a comment on paragraph 1725 0 [180]

1726 Leave a comment on paragraph 1726 0 RTAGS SGRUB PA NI, RANG RGYU SA BON GYI DUS SU ‘BRAS BU YOD PAR RANG BZHIN GYIS MED CING, MED PAR YANG RANG BZHIN GYIS MED DE,

1727 Leave a comment on paragraph 1727 0  

1728 Leave a comment on paragraph 1728 0 Here is how we prove the reason given here.  We say first that a result could never exist, through some nature of its own, within the time of its cause—the seed; and secondly, that it could never not exist, through any nature of its own, within this same time period.

1729 Leave a comment on paragraph 1729 0  

1730 Leave a comment on paragraph 1730 0  

1731 Leave a comment on paragraph 1731 0 [181]

1732 Leave a comment on paragraph 1732 0 SA BON NI ‘BRAS BU SKYES PA’I SNGA ROL NA MED PAR RANG BZHIN GYIS GRUB NA SA BON DE ‘BRAS BU GANG GI RKYEN DU ‘GYUR BAR MED PA’I PHYIR,

1733 Leave a comment on paragraph 1733 0  

1734 Leave a comment on paragraph 1734 0 If the result were something that didn’t exist before it had grown—and if its seed were something that existed through some nature of its own—then what would the condition be a condition for?  There wouldn’t be any result for it to be a seed for.

1735 Leave a comment on paragraph 1735 0  

1736 Leave a comment on paragraph 1736 0  

1737 Leave a comment on paragraph 1737 0 [182]

1738 Leave a comment on paragraph 1738 0 [f. 11b] GAL TE SA BON GYI DUS SU YOD NA‘ANG DE LA ‘BRAS BU’I RKYEN MI ‘GRUB STE, GRUB ZIN PA LA SLAR ‘GRUB BYED KYI RKYEN GYIS CI ZHIG BYA STE MI DGOS PA’I PHYIR RO,,

1739 Leave a comment on paragraph 1739 0  

1740 Leave a comment on paragraph 1740 0 And even if the result did exist in the time of its seed, the seed could never be the condition for the result—for what would be the use of the condition, if all it had to do was help something that had already come out come out?  There’d be no need for it.

1741 Leave a comment on paragraph 1741 0  

1742 Leave a comment on paragraph 1742 0  

1743 Leave a comment on paragraph 1743 0  

1744 Leave a comment on paragraph 1744 0 Denying that a causal condition

1745 Leave a comment on paragraph 1745 0 has any qualities of its own

1746 Leave a comment on paragraph 1746 0  

1747 Leave a comment on paragraph 1747 0 [183]

1748 Leave a comment on paragraph 1748 0 GNYIS PA SO SOR DGAG PA LA BZHI, RGYU RKYEN GYI MTSAN NYID DGAG PA DANG, DE BZHIN DU DMIGS RKYEN DANG, DE MA THAG RKYEN DANG, BDAG RKYEN GYI MTSAN NYID DGAG PA’O,,

1749 Leave a comment on paragraph 1749 0  

1750 Leave a comment on paragraph 1750 0 Which brings us to the second step from above: denying that, individually, the four conditions could possess any nature of being conditions.  We proceed through four sections: denying the defining characteristics of a causal condition; the same for an object condition; for the condition for what comes immediately after; and for the dominant condition.

1751 Leave a comment on paragraph 1751 0  

1752 Leave a comment on paragraph 1752 0  

1753 Leave a comment on paragraph 1753 0 [184]

1754 Leave a comment on paragraph 1754 0 DANG PO NI,

1755 Leave a comment on paragraph 1755 0  

1756 Leave a comment on paragraph 1756 0 The first of these is expressed in the following lines of the root text:

1757 Leave a comment on paragraph 1757 0  

1758 Leave a comment on paragraph 1758 0  

1759 Leave a comment on paragraph 1759 0 [185]

1760 Leave a comment on paragraph 1760 0 (I.9)

1761 Leave a comment on paragraph 1761 0  

1762 Leave a comment on paragraph 1762 0 Na san nāsan na sad asan dharmo nirvartate yadā,

1763 Leave a comment on paragraph 1763 0 Katha nirvartako hetur eva sati hi yujyate.

1764 Leave a comment on paragraph 1764 0  

1765 Leave a comment on paragraph 1765 0 Na san nasan na sad asan dharmo nirvartate yada,

1766 Leave a comment on paragraph 1766 0 Katham nirvartako hetur evan sati hi yujyate.

1767 Leave a comment on paragraph 1767 0  

1768 Leave a comment on paragraph 1768 0  

1769 Leave a comment on paragraph 1769 0 ,GANG TSE CHOS NI YOD PA DANG,

1770 Leave a comment on paragraph 1770 0 ,MED DANG YOD MED MI ‘GRUB PAS,

1771 Leave a comment on paragraph 1771 0 ,CI LTAR SGRUB BYED RGYU ZHES BYA,

1772 Leave a comment on paragraph 1772 0 ,DE LTAR YIN NA MI RIGS SO,,

1773 Leave a comment on paragraph 1773 0 ZHES SO,,

1774 Leave a comment on paragraph 1774 0  

1775 Leave a comment on paragraph 1775 0 Where something that neither exists,

1776 Leave a comment on paragraph 1776 0 Nor doesn’t exist,

1777 Leave a comment on paragraph 1777 0 Nor both does and doesn’t exist

1778 Leave a comment on paragraph 1778 0 Cannot be produced,

1779 Leave a comment on paragraph 1779 0 How can you call something a cause

1780 Leave a comment on paragraph 1780 0 That worked to produce it?

1781 Leave a comment on paragraph 1781 0 It would be wrong,

1782 Leave a comment on paragraph 1782 0 If that’s the way it is.

1783 Leave a comment on paragraph 1783 0  

1784 Leave a comment on paragraph 1784 0  

1785 Leave a comment on paragraph 1785 0 [186]

1786 Leave a comment on paragraph 1786 0 GAL TE RGYU RKYEN GYI MTSAN NYID YOD PAS RGYU RKYEN DON DAM PAR YOD DO ZHE NA,

1787 Leave a comment on paragraph 1787 0  

1788 Leave a comment on paragraph 1788 0 Someone may come now and assert the following:

1789 Leave a comment on paragraph 1789 0  

1790 Leave a comment on paragraph 1790 0 Causal factors do exist in an ultimate way, because they do possess certain defining characteristics.

1791 Leave a comment on paragraph 1791 0  

1792 Leave a comment on paragraph 1792 0  

1793 Leave a comment on paragraph 1793 0 [187]

1794 Leave a comment on paragraph 1794 0 DE NI MI RIGS TE, GANG GI TSE ‘BRAS BU’I CHOS NI RANG GI RGYU RU YOD PA DANG MED PA DANG YOD MED GNYIS KAR DPYAD NA DON DAM PAR RGYUS MI ‘GRUB PAS DE’I PHYIR TE,

1795 Leave a comment on paragraph 1795 0  

1796 Leave a comment on paragraph 1796 0 And yet that’s wrong.  Where we check to see whether something—the result—does exist in its cause; or doesn’t; or both does and doesn’t; we find that it cannot be produced, in any ultimate sense, by a cause.

1797 Leave a comment on paragraph 1797 0  

1798 Leave a comment on paragraph 1798 0  

1799 Leave a comment on paragraph 1799 0 [188]

1800 Leave a comment on paragraph 1800 0 RTAGS DE LTAR NA JI LTAR SGRUB PAR BYED PA’I RGYU‘I MTSAN NYID RANG GI NGOS {%NGO BOS} YOD PA YIN ZHES BYA BAR MI RUNG BA’I PHYIR,

1801 Leave a comment on paragraph 1801 0  

1802 Leave a comment on paragraph 1802 0 As such, it would be a mistake to call—how could you call—something a cause that worked to produce this result; that is, a cause in the sense of its possessing the defining characteristics of a cause, in and by itself.

1803 Leave a comment on paragraph 1803 0  

1804 Leave a comment on paragraph 1804 0  

1805 Leave a comment on paragraph 1805 0 [189]

1806 Leave a comment on paragraph 1806 0 RGYU MTSAN DE LTAR YIN NA STE YIN PA DE’I TSE RGYU RKYEN DON DAM PAR YOD CES SMRA BA DE MI RIGS SO,,

1807 Leave a comment on paragraph 1807 0  

1808 Leave a comment on paragraph 1808 0 If that’s the way it is—meaning, for this reason, since that is the way it is—it would be wrong, in this circumstance, to say that the causal condition existed, in any ultimate way.

1809 Leave a comment on paragraph 1809 0  

1810 Leave a comment on paragraph 1810 0  

1811 Leave a comment on paragraph 1811 0 [190]

1812 Leave a comment on paragraph 1812 0 DE YANG RGYU DUS SU YOD PA RGYUS SGRUB NA NI SKYE BA DON MED THUG MED DU ‘GYUR LA,

1813 Leave a comment on paragraph 1813 0  

1814 Leave a comment on paragraph 1814 0 If the result were something that existed within the time of the cause, and were still brought about by the cause, then its growing would be pointless; and also repeated endlessly.

1815 Leave a comment on paragraph 1815 0  

1816 Leave a comment on paragraph 1816 0  

1817 Leave a comment on paragraph 1817 0 [191]

1818 Leave a comment on paragraph 1818 0 RGYU DUS SU MED PA’I DNGOS MED RGYUS SGRUB MI NUS KYANG, DE’I TSE ‘BYUNG ‘GYUR TZAM ZHIG RGYUS SGRUB PAR BYED DO,,

1819 Leave a comment on paragraph 1819 0  

1820 Leave a comment on paragraph 1820 0 On the other hand, a completely non-existent entity—a result that was not present within the time of its cause—is not something that a cause could ever bring about.  Note though that we can say that, at this point in time, a result which is going to come into being is being brought about by its cause.

1821 Leave a comment on paragraph 1821 0  

1822 Leave a comment on paragraph 1822 0  

1823 Leave a comment on paragraph 1823 0  

1824 Leave a comment on paragraph 1824 0 Denying that an object condition

1825 Leave a comment on paragraph 1825 0 has any qualities of its own

1826 Leave a comment on paragraph 1826 0  

1827 Leave a comment on paragraph 1827 0 [192]

1828 Leave a comment on paragraph 1828 0 GNYIS PA NI,

1829 Leave a comment on paragraph 1829 0 The second section here, denying defining characteristics for a causal condition, is presented in the next verse of the root text:

1830 Leave a comment on paragraph 1830 0  

1831 Leave a comment on paragraph 1831 0  

1832 Leave a comment on paragraph 1832 0 [193]

1833 Leave a comment on paragraph 1833 0 (I.10)

1834 Leave a comment on paragraph 1834 0  

1835 Leave a comment on paragraph 1835 0 Anārambaa evāya san dharma upadiśyate,

1836 Leave a comment on paragraph 1836 0 Athānārambae dharme kuta ārambaa punaḥ.

1837 Leave a comment on paragraph 1837 0  

1838 Leave a comment on paragraph 1838 0 Anarambana evayan san dharma upadishyate,

1839 Leave a comment on paragraph 1839 0 Athanarambane dharme kuta arambanam punah.

1840 Leave a comment on paragraph 1840 0  

1841 Leave a comment on paragraph 1841 0  

1842 Leave a comment on paragraph 1842 0 ,YOD PA’I CHOS ‘DI DMIGS PA NI,

1843 Leave a comment on paragraph 1843 0 ,MED PA KHO NA NYE BAR BSTAN,

1844 Leave a comment on paragraph 1844 0 ,CI STE CHOS NI MED DMIGS NA,

1845 Leave a comment on paragraph 1845 0 ,DMIGS PA YOD PA GA LA ‘GYUR,

1846 Leave a comment on paragraph 1846 0 ,ZHES SO,,

1847 Leave a comment on paragraph 1847 0  

1848 Leave a comment on paragraph 1848 0 You take something which already exists

1849 Leave a comment on paragraph 1849 0 And invariably refer to it

1850 Leave a comment on paragraph 1850 0 As not yet having an object.

1851 Leave a comment on paragraph 1851 0 And if you say, “Well then,

1852 Leave a comment on paragraph 1852 0 It does not exist,” then how