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An Analysis of Dependence

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All Things Depend on Each Other

The Buddhist Teaching of the Wheel of Life

 

 

written by

Kedrup Tenpa Dargye (1493-1568)

translated by

Sugeng Shi

with Geshe Michael Roach

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright ©2018 individually by Sugeng Shi and Geshe Michael Roach.

All rights reserved.

 

 

Sections may be reproduced with the author’s permission.  Please contact:

sugengshi@gmail.com

 

 

 

Volume 81 of the Diamond Cutter Classics Series

 

 

Diamond Cutter Press

6490 Arizona Route 179A

Sedona, Arizona 86351

USA


 

 

 

Table of Contents

 

 

An Analysis of How All Things Depend on Each Other:

A Teaching by the Wise and Accomplished One,

that Head Bull among All Teachers,

the Great Gendun Tendarwa……………………………………………………….. 8

 

 

An offering of praise…………………………………………………………………………………. 8

 

The words from which we begin………………………………………………………………. 9

 

The structure of the text…………………………………………………………………………… 11

 

The divisions of dependence…………………………………………………………………… 11

 

Dependence is more than causation………………………………………………………… 12

 

A thing may arise in dependence without

brushing against all its causes…………………………………………………………………. 13

 

 

Details of the divisions of dependence, beginning with—

 

An explanation of the first link: misunderstanding………………. 15

 

Not everything involved with misunderstanding

is the link of misunderstanding……………………………………………………………….. 15

 

It’s possible that a tendency to believe

that things are real could not be the first link…………………………………………… 18

 

Not everything that works against understanding

is the link of misunderstanding……………………………………………………………….. 19

 

Not all forms of misunderstanding have to relate

to the fact that nothing is itself………………………………………………………………… 20

 

A thought can be opposed to understanding

and not be misunderstanding………………………………………………………………….. 22

 

Lower forms of no-self are not suchness………………………………………………….. 24

 

Different kinds of no-self for people on different tracks………………………….. 26

 

The view of destruction must be focused on oneself……………………………….. 29

 

Does misunderstanding focus on me, or mine?……………………………………….. 31

 

Not everyone can be misperceived with the view of destruction…………….. 32

 

Take care when you use the phrase, “in their being”!……………………………… 33

 

Believing that a water pitcher is real is not the root of the cycle of pain….. 36

 

A distinction between the root of pain, and the root of that root……………… 40

 

Not all forms of ignorance are the first link…………………………………………….. 41

 

Breaking out of the eggshell……………………………………………………………………. 44

 

What does “mine” mean?………………………………………………………………………… 45

 

The first link can focus on the truth of suffering……………………………………… 46

 

How the first link is affected by seeing ultimate reality…………………………… 48

 

All causes are also results, and vice versa……………………………………………….. 50

 

Not all misunderstandings which sustain an action are the first link………. 52

 

The first link can be a viewpoint learned in this life………………………………… 54

 

A lower form of misunderstanding which cannot spin the Wheel………….. 56

 

Our own position, on the link of misunderstanding………………………………. 57

 

Refutation of attempted rebuttal

concerning the link of misunderstanding………………………………………. 61

 

Just because no realized being possesses the first link

doesn’t prove that the first link must be learned in this life…………… 61

 

It’s not the case that no learned form of

misunderstanding can fetter us………………………………………………………. 62

 

Stopping the misunderstanding that spins the wheel

doesn’t mean there’s no misunderstanding…………………………………… 64

 

Enlightened beings can be taken as having a self-nature,

without that being the view of destruction…………………………………….. 65

 

Misunderstanding pervades the universe,

but only the universe of pain………………………………………………………….. 67

 

You can see the truth, without seeing the real truth……………………………….. 68

 

Misunderstanding can be involved with negative emotions,

without being a negative emotion………………………………………………….. 70

 

Not all tendencies to believe in a self-nature are the tendency……………….. 72

 

Twisted intelligence ain’t intelligence!……………………………………………………. 73

 

 

      An explanation of the second link: fresh karma…………………… 77

 

           Disproving wrong ideas about fresh karma, beginning with

the idea that all impure karma can act as the second link……………….. 77

 

Not all things that are done are karma……………………………………………………. 78

 

Good karma, even when it is impure, is not something

that we want to stop doing…………………………………………………………….. 80

 

Pure karma cannot be the link of fresh karma………………………………………… 81

 

Karma motivated by misunderstanding need not be fresh karma………….. 83

[Section heading to be determined]………………………………………………………… 84

 

Enlightenment can be the cause of impure forms of good karma…………… 85

 

Not all mental states linked with karma are karma………………………………… 86

 

Can a pure karma be motivated by deep seeds which are impure?………… 88

 

The tenth is also the true source of pain…………………………………………………. 90

 

If you see ultimate reality, you no longer

accumulate karma for a life in pain………………………………………………… 91

 

Someone who has seen ultimate reality

may still accumulate karma which completes a rebirth………………….. 92

 

A realized being can still possess the second link…………………………………… 94

 

Fresh karma need not be definite karma………………………………………………… 94

 

Unshifting karma is also virtuous…………………………………………………………… 97

 

The concept of shortfalls in factors…………………………………………………………. 98

 

What happens when a definite karma meets emptiness,

in the Four Powers…………………………………………………………………………. 99

 

Fresh karma may not be fresh! …………………………………………………………….. 101

 

Not all the mental components involved in a karma

are themselves karma………………………………………………………………….. 103

 

 

 

Appendices………………………………………………………………………….. @

 

Comparative list of the names of divine beings & places………………………….. @

 

Bibliography of works originally written in Sanskrit………………………………… @

 

Bibliography of works originally written in Tibetan…………………………………. @

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

All Things Depend on Each Other

The Buddhist Teaching of the Wheel of Life

 

 

[1]

[folio 1a] *,,MKHAS GRUB SMRA BA’I KHYU MCHOG DGE ‘DUN BSTAN DAR BA CHEN BO’I {%PO’I} GSUNG RTEN ‘BREL GYI MTHA’ DPYOD BZHUGS SO,,

 

An Analysis of How All Things Depend on Each Other: A Teaching by the Wise and Accomplished One, that Head Bull among All Teachers, the Great Gendun Tendarwa[1]

 

 

 

An offering of praise[2]

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[2]

[f. 1b] *,,BLA MA DANG RJE BTZUN ‘JAM PA’I DBYANGS LA GUS PAS PHYAG ‘TSAL ZHING DVANG BAS SKYABS SU MCHI’O, ,BRTZE BA CHEN POS DUS DANG GNAS SKABS THAMS CAD DU RJES SU BZUNG DU GSOL,,

 

I bow down with deep respect

To my Lama, and the holy Gentle Voice.[3]

 

With crystalline faith,

I take my refuge in you.

 

In your great love,

Please keep me with you

For all time, and everywhere I may go.

 

 

 

The words from which we begin

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[3]

RTEN CING ‘BREL ‘BYUNG LUGS MTHUN DANG,,

LUGS MI MTHUN LA RTOGS PAR BYED,

ZHES SOGS KYI SKABS SU,

 

Let us consider the lines that begin with:

 

You must come to grasp

How things happen in dependence,

Both in their forward order,

And also in reverse.[4]

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[4]

BYANG SEMS MTHONG LAM PAS THEG CHEN MTHONG LAM RNAM GROL LAM LAS LANGS RJES SU RTEN ‘BREL LUGS ‘BYUNG LUGS LDOG DU BSGOM PA LA DGOS PA YOD DE,

 

There is a specific reason for a bodhisattva on the path of seeing—once they have come out of the period known as the “path of liberation,” within the path of seeing for the greater way—to meditate upon dependence, in both its forward and reverse orders.[5]

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[5]

RANG RGYUD KYI NYON MONGS DPAL GZHOMS [*GZHOM] PA DANG, GDUL BYA RANG RGYAL GYI RIGS CAN RJES SU ‘DZIN PA DANG, ‘KHOR BA LA YID ‘BYUNG BSKYED PA’I CHED DU YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

And that reason is that they wish to destroy the vitality of the negative thoughts within their own mind; develop the capacity to guide individuals on the track of a self-made buddha;[6] and develop feelings of dismay for the cycle of suffering.

 

 

 

The structure of the text

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[6]

‘DI’I SKABS SU MTHA’ DPYAD PA LA, RTEN ‘BREL GYI DBYE BA BSHAD PA, BSDU BA BSHAD PA, TSE DU LA RDZOGS BSHAD PA, SA MTSUNGS BSHAD PA DANG BZHI,

 

We will analyze this particular citation from the Jewel of Realizations in four steps: explanations of the divisions of dependence; of how these different divisions can be grouped; of how many lives are required for all the divisions to be completed; and of the parity between the different levels at which they are found.

 

 

 

The divisions of dependence

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[7]

DANG PO LA, DBYE BA DNGOS BSHAD PA DANG, PHYE BA SO SO’I DON BSHAD PA GNYIS, DANG PO NI,

 

The first of these we will cover in two parts: our actual explanation of the divisions; and then an explanation of the details of each of these divisions.  Here is the first.

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[8]

KUN NAS NYON MONGS PHYOGS KYI RTEN ‘BREL DE LA DBYE NA RNAM PA BCU GNYIS YOD DE, YAN LAG DANG PO MA RIG PA NAS, RGA SHI’I BAR BCU GNYIS YOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

Dependence, as it relates to the negative side of life, may be divided into twelve parts.  These go from the first link in the chain—known as “misunderstanding”—up to the twelfth, which we call “aging & death.”[7]

 

 

 

Dependence is more than causation

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[9]

KHO NA RE, RANG GI RGYU RKYEN LA LTOS NAS GRUB PA RTEN ‘BREL GYI MTSAN NYID ZER NA,

 

Suppose someone comes and makes the following claim:

 

The definition of “dependence” is “anything that occurs in reliance upon causes and conditions.”

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[10]

NAM MKHA’ CHOS CAN, MTSAN NYID DER THAL, MTSON BYA DE’I PHYIR,

 

Then let’s consider empty space.[8]

 

Are you saying that your definition fits it?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is a form of dependence: the thing we are defining here.

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[11]

DER THAL, RANG GI CHA SHAS LA LTOS NAS GRUB PA’I PHYIR TE, GZHI GRUB PA’I PHYIR,

 

I disagree that empty space represents an example of what we are defining here.

 

And yet it does represent such an example.

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is something which occurs in reliance upon its parts;

and that’s because it’s a part of reality.

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[12]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, ‘DUS MA BYAS YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Then I change my response above: I agree that my definition does fit empty space.

 

But you can’t agree that your definition fits empty space, because empty space is an existing thing which has not been produced by the convening of its causes and conditions.

 

 

 

A thing may arise in dependence

without brushing against all its causes

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[13]

KHA CIG NA RE, RANG GI RGYU RKYEN DANG PHRAD NAS GRUB PA ‘DUS BYAS KYI RTEN ‘BREL GYI MTSAN NYID ZER NA,

 

Suppose someone comes and makes the following claim:

 

The definition of the dependence of produced things is: “Anything which occurs through brushing against its causes and conditions”

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[14]

GZUGS CHOS CAN, MTSAN NYID DER THAL, MTSON BYA DE’I PHYIR TE, ‘DUS BYAS YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

So then let’s consider physical form.

 

Are you saying your definition fits it?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is what you are seeking to define: it is a produced thing.

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[15]

RTZA BAR ‘DOD NA, GZUGS KYI RGYU YIN NA, GZUGS DANG PHRAD PAS KHYAB PAR THAL, ‘DOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then yes, I agree to your original statement: Our definition does fit physical form.

 

Suppose you do agree to our original statement.  Then it must be the case that—if something is the cause of physical form—it must brush against that physical form.

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because you agreed that your definition fits physical form.

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[16]

‘DOD NA, GZUGS KYI RGYUD RGYU CHOS CAN, DER THAL, DE’I PHYIR,

 

Then I do agree: If something is a cause of physical form, then it must brush against physical form.

 

If you do agree, then let’s consider the indirect cause of physical form.[9]

 

Are you saying that it must brush against physical form?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is a cause of physical form.

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[17]

‘DOD MI NUS SO,,

 

And of course you could never agree, that it did brush against that physical form.

 

 

 

Details of the divisions of dependence,

beginning with the first link: misunderstanding

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[18]

GNYIS PA PHYE BA SO SO’I DON BSHAD PA LA RNAM PA GSUM LAS, DANG PO LA,

 

This brings us to second part from above: an explanation of the details of each of these divisions.  We proceed in three sections; here is the first.

 

 

 

Not everything involved with misunderstanding

is the link of misunderstanding

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[19]

KHA CIG NA RE, NYON MONGS CAN MA YIN PA’I MA RIG PA YIN NA, MA RIG PA YIN PAS KHYAB ZER NA,

 

Suppose someone comes and makes the following claim:

 

If something is a form of misunderstanding which is not involved with negative emotions, it must still be misunderstanding [as the first link of dependence].

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[20]

NYAN THOS DGRA BCOM PA’I RGYUD KYI BDEN [f. 2a] ‘DZIN GYI BAG CHAGS CHOS CAN, DER THAL, DE’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, let’s consider the seeds for the tendency to believe that things are real, as they exist in the mind of an enemy destroyer on the listener track.[10]

 

Are they still the link of misunderstanding?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because they are a form of misunderstanding which is not involved with negative emotions.

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[21]

DER THAL, SHES SGRIB YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

I disagree that they are a form of misunderstanding which is not involved with negative emotions.

 

And yet they are such a form of misunderstanding!

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because they are an obstacle to knowledge.[11]

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[22]

‘DOD NA, SHES PA YIN PAR THAL, MA RIG PA YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Then I agree that the seeds for the tendency to believe that things are real, as this exists in the mind of an enemy destroyer on the listener track, are the link of misunderstanding.

 

Well then, I suppose they are a kind of awareness!

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because they are the link of misunderstanding.

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[23]

‘DOD NA, NYAN THOS DGRA BCOM PA’I RGYUD KYI BDEN ‘DZIN CHOS CAN, KHYOD KYI BAG CHAGS SHES PA MA YIN PAR THAL, KHYOD GZHI GRUB PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, I agree that these seeds are a kind of awareness.

 

If you do agree, then let’s consider the tendency to believe things are real, in the mind of an enemy destroyer on the listener track.

 

No, it’s not true that the mental seeds for this could ever be a form of awareness,

 

Because they are a part of reality.[12]

 

 

 

It’s possible that a tendency to believe

that things are real could not be the first link

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[24]

KHA CIG NA RE, NYON MONGS CAN MA YIN PA’I MA RIG PAR GYUR PA’I SEMS BYUNG YIN NA, MA RIG PA YIN PAS KHYAB ZER NA,

 

Suppose someone comes and makes the following claim:

 

If something is a mental function which is a form of misunderstanding which is not involved with negative emotions, then it must be [the link of] misunderstanding.

 

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[25]

BDEN ‘DZIN DU GYUR PA’I SEMS BYUNG CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR TE, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, let’s consider a mental function which is the tendency to believe that things are real.

 

Are you saying that it is the link of misunderstanding?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is a mental function which is a form of misunderstanding which is not involved with negative emotions; because it is in fact the subject we just stated it was!

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[26]

‘DOD NA, NYON MONGS YIN PAR THAL, MA RIG PA YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Then I agree that this particular mental function is in fact the link of misunderstanding.

 

Well suppose you do agree.  Are you saying then that it is a negative emotion?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is the link of misunderstanding.

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[27]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, SHES SGRIB YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, I agree that this mental function is a negative emotion.

 

But you can’t agree to that, because it’s an obstacle to knowledge!

 

 

 

Not everything that works against understanding

is the link of misunderstanding

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[28]

KHA CIG, RANG GI ‘GAL ZLAR GYUR PA’I RIG PA YE SHES KYI ‘GAL ZLA MI MTHUN PHYOGS SU GYUR PA’I SEMS BYUNG MA RIG PA’I MTSAN NYID ZER NA,

 

Someone may claim:

 

The definition of [the first link of] misunderstanding is: “A mental function which works against wisdom—the understanding which is its incompatible opposite—in the sense of being incompatible with it.”

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[29]

BDEN ‘DZIN DU GYUR PA’I SEMS BYUNG CHOS CAN, MTSON BYA DER THAL, MTSAN NYID DE’I PHYIR TE,

 

Well then, let’s consider the mental function which is the tendency to believe that things are real.

 

Are you saying that it is a case of what you are defining here—the link of misunderstanding?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because your definition fits it.

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[30]

RANG GI ‘GAL ZLAR GYUR PA’I RIG PA STONG NYID RTOGS PA’I YE SHES KYI ‘GAL ZLA MI MTHUN PHYOGS SU GYUR PA’I SEMS BYUNG YIN PA’I PHYIR TE, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

And that’s true because it is a mental function which works against the wisdom where we realize emptiness—the knowledge which is its incompatible opposite—in the sense of being incompatible with it.  And that’s true, in turn, because it is in fact the subject we just stated it was!

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[31]

‘DOD NA, GONG DU BKAG ZIN NO,,

 

Then I agree that the mental function which is the tendency to believe that things are real is the link of misunderstanding.

 

You may say you agree to that, but this is an idea which we have already disproved above!

 

 

 

Not all forms of misunderstanding

have to relate to the fact that nothing is itself

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[32]

KHA CIG NA RE, RANG GI ‘GAL ZLAR GYUR PA’I RIG PA BDAG MED RTOGS PA’I YE SHES KYI ‘GAL ZLA MI MTHUN PHYOGS SU GYUR PA’I SEMS BYUNG RMONGS PA MA RIG PA’I MTSAN NYID ZER NA,

 

Suppose another person comes and claims:

 

The definition of [the link of] misunderstanding is: “That ignorance which is a mental function which acts against the wisdom where we realize that nothing is itself—the knowledge which is its incompatible opposite—in the sense of being incompatible with it.”

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[33]

LAS ‘BRAS KYI ‘BREL BA RAGS PA LA RMONGS PA’I MA RIG PA CHOS CAN, MTSAN NYID DER THAL, MTSON BYA DE’I PHYIR TE, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR TE, DE YOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, let’s consider the misunderstanding where we are ignorant of the more obvious connection between actions and their consequences.

 

Are you saying that your definition fits it?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is an example of what you are trying to define: the link of misunderstanding.  And that’s true because it is in fact the subject we just stated it was!  And that’s true because such a thing does in fact exist!

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[34]

KUN LAS BTUS LAS, RMONGS PA NI RNAM PA GNYIS TE, ‘BRAS BU RNAM PAR SMIN PA LA RMONGS PA DANG, DE KHO NA NYID KYI DON LA RMONGS PA’O, ,ZHES GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR,

 

And that’s true because we see, in the Compendium, the statement that:

 

Ignorance comes in two different versions.  One is an ignorance about the results that ripen from specific actions.  And the other is ignorance about the meaning of suchness.[13]

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[35]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, I agree that my definition does fit it.

 

But you can’t agree, given the subject as we stated it.

 

 

 

A thought can be opposed to understanding

and not be misunderstanding

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[36]

KHA CIG NA RE, RANG GI ‘GAL ZLAR GYUR PA’I RIG PA BDAG MED RTOGS PA’I YE SHES KYI ‘GAL ZLA MI MTHUN PHYOGS SU GYUR PA’I SEMS BYUNG RMONGS PA DE, GANG ZAG GI BDAG MED PA’I DE KHO NA NYID LA RMONGS PA’I MA RIG PA’I MTSAN NYID ZER NA,

 

Now suppose somebody comes and makes the following claim:

 

The definition of misunderstanding where we are ignorant about suchness, in the form of the fact that a person is not themselves, is: “That ignorance which is a mental function which acts against the wisdom where we realize that nothing is itself—the knowledge which is its incompatible opposite—in the sense of being incompatible with it.”

 

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[37]

GANG ZAG [f. 2b] GI BDAG ‘DZIN DANG MTSUNGS LDAN DU GYUR PA’I RMUGS PA CHOS CAN, MTSON BYA DER THAL, MTSAN NYID DE’I PHYIR TE, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Let’s consider then that lack of mental clarity which is linked, mentally,[14] with the tendency to believe that a person is themselves.

 

Are you saying that this lack of clarity is a form of misunderstanding where we are ignorant about suchness, in the form of the fact that a person is not themselves?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because your definition fits it!

 

Because that’s the subject we are talking about!

 

 

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[38]

‘DOD NA, MA RIG PA YIN PAR THAL, ‘DOD PA DE’I PHYIR,

 

Well then I agree: that lack of clarity is this kind of misunderstanding.

 

And suppose you do agree.  Are you saying then that this lack of clarity constitutes the link of misunderstanding?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because you just agreed!

 

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[39]

‘DOD NA, RTZA NYON YIN PAR THAL, MA RIG PA YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then yes, I am saying that this lack of clarity constitutes the link of misunderstanding.

 

Suppose you do agree.  Is this lack of clarity then one of the primary negative emotions?[15]

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because, according to you, it is a form of misunderstanding.

 

 

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[40]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, NYE NYON YIN PA’I PHYIR TE, RMUGS PA YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then I agree: a mental lack of clarity is one of the primary negative emotions.

 

But you can’t agree, because it is a secondary negative emotion: it is a lack of clarity!

 

 

 

Lower forms of no-self

are not suchness

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[41]

KHA CIG NA RE, GANG ZAG GI BDAG MED PA’I DE KHO NA NYID LA RMONGS PA’I MA RIG PA YIN NA, DE KHO NA NYID LA RMONGS PA’I MA RIG PA YIN PAS KHYAB ZER NA,

 

Suppose someone comes and makes the following claim:

 

If something is a type of misunderstanding where we are ignorant about suchness, in the form of the fact that a person is not themselves, then it must be a misunderstanding of suchness.

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[42]

GANG ZAG GI BDAG ‘DZIN CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR TE, GANG ZAG GI BDAG ‘DZIN YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, let’s consider the tendency to believe that the person is themselves.

 

Are you saying that it’s a misunderstanding of suchness?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is a type of misunderstanding where we are ignorant about suchness, in the form of the fact that a person is not themselves.  And that’s true because it is an example of the tendency to believe that the person is themselves.

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[43]

‘DOD NA, GANG ZAG GI BDAG MED DE KHO NA NYID YIN PAR THAL, ‘DOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then I agree: That tendency is a misunderstanding of suchness.

 

Suppose you do agree.  Are you saying then that the fact that a person is not themselves is suchness?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because you agreed.

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[44]

‘DOD NA, DE CHOS CAN, DON DAM BDEN PA YIN PAR THAL, DE KHO NA NYID YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Alright then, I agree: The fact that a person is not themselves is suchness.

 

Suppose you do agree.  Consider then that same subject: the fact that the person is not themselves.  Are you saying that it is ultimate reality?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is suchness.

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[45]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, KUN RDZOB BDEN PA YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then yes, I agree: the fact that a person is not themselves is ultimate reality.

 

And yet you can’t agree, because the fact that a person is not themselves belongs to deceptive reality.[16]

 

 

 

Different kinds of no-self

for people on different tracks

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[46]

KHA CIG NA RE, BDAG ‘DZIN LA DBYE NA, CHOS KYI BDAG ‘DZIN DANG, GANG ZAG GI BDAG ‘DZIN GNYIS KYI DBYE BA ‘THAD ZER NA,

 

Suppose someone comes and makes the following claim:

 

It is correct to divide the tendency to believe that something is itself into two types: believing that things are themselves, and believing that the person is themselves.

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[47]

‘O NA, CHOS KYI BDAG ‘DZIN BDAG ‘DZIN PAR THAL, DE BDAG ‘DZIN GYI DBYE BA’I YA GYAL YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, let’s consider the tendency to believe that things are themselves.

 

Are you saying that it is a form of the tendency to believe that something is itself?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because, according to you, it is one of the types that the tendency to believe that something is itself can be divided into.

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[48]

‘DOD NA, CHOS KYI BDAG ‘DZIN CHOS CAN, KHYOD KYI ZHEN YUL MED PAR MNGON SUM DU RTOGS PA’I YE SHES YIN NA, GANG ZAG GI BDAG MED PHRA MO MNGON SUM DU RTOGS PA’I YE SHES YIN DGOS PAR THAL, KHYOD BDAG ‘DZIN YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, I agree: The tendency to believe that things are themselves is a form of the tendency to believe that something is itself.

 

If you do agree, then let’s consider the tendency to believe that things are themselves.

 

It must then be the case that—if something is a form of wisdom which realizes that the object that this tendency believes in doesn’t even exist—then it must be a form of the wisdom which perceives, directly, the subtle form of the fact that the person is not themselves.

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[49]

‘DOD NA, THEG CHEN GYI MTHONG LAM BAR CHAD MED LAM CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR TE, THEG CHEN GYI MTHONG LAM BAR CHAD MED LAM YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well in fact, I would agree that that is the case.

 

Suppose you do agree.  Let’s consider then the “uninterrupted” portion of the path of seeing, for someone on the track of the greater way.[17]

 

Is it then a form of the wisdom which perceives, directly, the subtle form of the fact that the person is not themselves?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is a form of wisdom which realizes that the object that this tendency believes in doesn’t even exist; after all, we are talking about the “uninterrupted” portion of the path of seeing, for someone on the track of the greater way.

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[50]

‘DOD NA, GANG ZAG GI BDAG MED CHOS CAN, KHYOD THEG CHEN MTHONG LAM BAR CHAD MED LAM GYI DNGOS GZHAL YIN PAR THAL, DE KHYOD MNGON SUM DU RTOGS PA’I YE SHES YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

I agree then that this is a form of the wisdom which perceives, directly, the subtle form of the fact that the person is not themselves.

 

Consider then the fact that a person is not themselves.

 

Are you saying that this is the object which the path of seeing in the track of the greater way directly considers?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because this is the wisdom with which we perceive that object directly.

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[51]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, NYAN THOS KYI BAR CHAD MED LAM GYI DNGOS GZHAL YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then yes, I agree that the fact that a person is not themselves is indeed the object which this path of seeing directly considers.

 

But you can’t agree to that, because in fact this is the object which the uninterrupted path of a person on the listener track directly considers.

 

 

 

The view of destruction

must be focused on oneself

 

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[52]

KHA CIG, GANG ZAG GI BDAG ‘DZIN YIN NA, ‘JIG LTA YIN PAS KHYAB ZER NA,

 

Suppose someone comes and makes the following claim:

 

Every form of believing that a person is themselves constitutes the view of destruction.[18]

 

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[53]

LHAS SBYIN GYI RGYUD KYI MCHOD SBYIN RANG RKYA THUB PA’I RDZAS YOD DU ‘DZIN PA’I RTOG PA CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR TE, MCHOD SBYIN LA DMIGS PA’I GANG ZAG GI BDAG ‘DZIN YIN PA’I PHYIR TE,

 

 

Well then, let’s consider the misperception that Joe is substantial, in the sense of being self-standing, as that misperception exists in the mind of John.[19]

 

Are you saying that it constitutes the view of destruction?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is a form of believing that the person is themselves.  Because it is a belief that the person is themselves, focused upon Jane.

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[54]

RTZA BAR ‘DOD NA, RANG RGYUD LA LDAN PA’I GANG ZAG GI RGYUD KYI PHUNG PO ZHIG LA DMIGS PAR THAL, ‘DOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then I agree to your original statement: This misperception does constitute the view of destruction.

 

Suppose you do agree.  Are you saying then that this misperception is one which is focused upon the parts of a person that belong to the person who is having the misperception?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because you agreed that it constitutes the view of destruction!

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[55]

[f. 3a] ‘DOD MI NUS TE, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Alright then, I agree that this misperception is one which is focused upon the parts of a person that belong to the person who is having the misperception.

 

But you can’t agree to that!  Because it’s the very example we’ve taken!

 

 

 

Does misunderstanding focus on me, or mine?

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[56]

KHA CIG NA RE, ‘JIG LTA LHAN SKYES KYI DMIGS YUL YIN NA, CHOS DANG GANG ZAG GNYIS SU PHYE BA’I GANG ZAG YIN PAS KHYAB ZER NA,

 

Suppose someone comes and makes the following claim:

 

If something is the object which the inborn view of destruction focuses upon, then it must always be the person, as one of the two parts of the classical division into people and things.

 

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[57]

KHYI RGAN RGYA BO’I YID KYI RNAM PAR SHES PA CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR TE, KHYI RGAN RGYA BO’I RGYUD KYI ‘JIG LTA LHAN SKYES KYI DMIGS YUL YIN PA’I PHYIR TE, KHYI RGAN RGYA BO’I BDAG YIN PA’I PHYIR TE, DE KHYI RGAN RGYA BO’I NGA YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, let’s consider the consciousness of his thoughts that belongs to a mangy old dog.[20]

 

Are you telling me that it is the person, in that classic division between people and things?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is the object which the inborn view of destruction—within the mind of a mangy old dog—focuses upon.  Because it is what the “self” of a mangy old dog is—because it is the “me” of a mangy old dog.

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[58]

RTOG GE ‘BAR BA LAS, KHO BO CAG KYANG, THA SNYAD DU RNAM PAR SHES PA LA BDAG GI SGRA DNGOS SU ‘DOGS TE, ZHES GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR,

 

And that’s true because the Blaze of Reasoning says,

 

We also say that, nominally speaking, what we directly call “my-self” is my consciousness.[21]

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[59]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, DE GNYIS SU PHYE BA’I CHOS YIN PA’I PHYIR TE, KHYI RGAN RGYA BO’I RNAM SHES KYI PHUNG PO YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, I agree with what you said: What the consciousness of his thoughts that belongs to a mangy old dog is focused upon is the person, in that classic division between people and things.

 

But you can’t agree with that, because that consciousness of his thoughts belongs to the “things” in that classic division.  Because it is consciousness, as one of the five parts to a person.

 

 

Not everyone can be misperceived

with the view of destruction

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[60]

KHO NA RE, GANG ZAG YIN NA, ‘JIG LTA LHAN SKYES KYI DMIGS YUL YIN PAS KHYAB ZER NA,

 

Suppose someone else comes and says:

 

If something is a person, then it can always be the object that the inborn view of destruction focuses upon.

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[61]

SANGS RGYAS ‘PHAGS PA CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, let’s consider a realized being who is enlightened.

 

Are you saying that they can be the object that the inborn view of destruction focuses upon?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because they are a person!

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[62]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, SANGS RGYAS ‘PHAGS PA’I RGYUD LA ‘JIG LTA LHAN SKYES MED PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, I’m going to change my mind.  I agree that this enlightened being can be the object that the inborn view of destruction focuses upon.

 

And yet you can’t agree!  There can be no inborn view of destruction inside the mind of a realized being who’s enlightened!

 

 

 

Take care when you use the phrase,

“in their being”!

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[63]

KHO NA RE, ‘JIG LTA LHAN SKYES YIN NA, RANG RGYUD KYI NGA LA DMIGS PAS KHYAB ZER NA,

 

Someone else might come and claim:

 

If something is the inborn view of destruction, then it must always be focused upon the “me” of its being.

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[64]

‘O NA, KHYI RGAN RGYA BO’I RGYUD KYI ‘JIG LTA LHAN SKYES CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR TE, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, let’s consider the inborn view of destruction in the mind of an old mangy dog.

 

Are you saying that it must always be focused upon the “me” of its being?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it’s what we said it was.

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[65]

‘DOD NA, KHYI RGAN RGYA BO’I RGYUD KYI ‘JIG LTA LHAN SKYES KYI RGYUD KYI NGA YOD PAR THAL, DES RANG RGYUD KYI NGA LA DMIGS PA GANG ZHIG, DE’I DMIGS YUL YOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well yes then, I agree: this view must always be focused on the “me” of its being.

 

If you do agree, then you must be saying that there does exist a “me” of the being of the inborn view of destruction in the being of an old mangy dog.

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because, first of all, this view is focusing on the “me” in its being; and secondly, the object it is focusing on exists!

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[66]

‘DOD NA, DE CHOS CAN, KHYOD KYI RGYUD LA NGA MED PAR THAL, KHYOD SEMS BYUNG YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then yes, I agree—there does exist such a “me” of the being of the inborn view of destruction in the being of an old mangy dog.

 

If you do agree, then consider this same view.

 

It is not the case that there exists a “me” in its being!

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it’s just a mental function![22]

 

 

 

Awareness and the “me”

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[67]

KHA CIG NA RE, KHYOD SHES PA YIN NA, KHYOD KYI RGYUD LA NGA MED PAS KHYAB ZER NA,

 

Suppose someone comes and makes this claim:

 

If something is a state of awareness, then there can never be a “me” in its being.

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[68]

KHYI RGAN RGYA BO’I SHES PA CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, let’s consider the awareness of an old mangy dog.

 

Are you saying that it cannot have a “me” in its being?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is a state of awareness.

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[69]

‘DOD NA, DE YOD PAR THAL, KHYI RGAN RGYA BO’I SHES RGYUD LA NGA YOD PA’I PHYIR TE, KHYI RGAN RGYA BO’I RGYUD KYIS BSDUS PA’I NGA YOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, I agree: the awareness of an old mangy dog cannot have a “me” in its being.

 

You may agree, but the fact is that this awareness does have a “me” in its being!

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because there is a “me” subsumed within the being of an old mangy dog!

 

 

 

Believing that a water pitcher is real

is not the root of the cycle of pain

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[70]

KHA CIG NA RE, BUM PA BDEN PAR ‘DZIN PA’I BDEN ‘DZIN ‘KHOR BA’I RTZA BA YIN ZER NA,

 

Suppose then someone comes and makes the following claim:

 

The tendency to believe that a water pitcher is real is the root of the cycle of pain.

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[71]

‘O NA, ‘KHOR BA’I RTZA BA LA ‘DZIN STANGS MI MTHUN PA GNYIS YOD PAR THAL, BUM PA BDEN PAR ‘DZIN PA’I BDEN ‘DZIN DE YANG ‘KHOR BA’I RTZA BA YIN, GANG ZAG RANG RKYA THUB PA’I RDZAS YOD DU ‘DZIN PA’I RTOG PA DE YANG ‘KHOR BA’I RTZA BA YIN PA GANG ZHIG, DE GNYIS ‘DZIN STANGS MI MTHUN PA’I PHYIR TE,

 

Well then, the thing that acts as the root of the cycle of pain must have two, inconsistent ways of looking at things!

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because, first of all, the tendency to believe that a water pitcher is real is a root of the cycle of pain; and the misperception that the person is substantial, in the sense of being self-standing, is also the root of the cycle of pain.  Moreover, both are a root of the cycle of pain, and they have inconsistent ways of looking at things!

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[72]

DE GNYIS KYI ZHEN YUL GYIS STONG PA’I BDAG MED GNYIS PO DE MI MTHUN [f. 3b] PA’I PHYIR TE, GANG ZAG GI BDAG MED PHRA MO DANG, CHOS KYI BDAG MED PHRA MO GNYIS ‘GAL BA’I PHYIR,

 

And this is because the two absences of a self-nature here—the two ways in which what they think they see was never there—are also inconsistent.  And that’s because the subtle lack of a self-nature of the person, and the subtle lack of a self-nature to things, are contradictory—in the sense that no one thing can be both.

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[73]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, ‘KHOR BA’I RTZA BA LA ‘DZIN STANGS MI MTHUN PA GNYIS MED PAR TSAD LDAN GYI GZHUNG LAS GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, I agree: the thing that acts as the root of the cycle of pain must have two, inconsistent ways of looking at things!

 

But you can’t agree; because there is no authoritative scripture which says that the thing that acts as the root of the cycle can have two, inconsistent ways of looking at things.

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[74]

GZHAN YANG, NYAN THOS DGRA BCOM PAS ‘KHOR BA RTZA BA NAS MA SPANGS PAR THAL, BUM PA BDEN PAR ‘DZIN PA’I BDEN ‘DZIN ‘KHOR BA’I RTZA BA YIN PA GANG ZHIG, DES BUM PA BDEN PAR ‘DZIN PA’I BDEN ‘DZIN MA SPANGS PA’I PHYIR TE, BUM PA BDEN PAR ‘DZIN PA’I BDEN ‘DZIN SHES SGRIB YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

And furthermore: Are you saying that an enemy destroyer on the listener track has failed to eliminate the cycle of pain, from its very root?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because, first of all, the tendency to believe that things are real—in the form of believing that a water pitcher is real—is the root of the cycle of pain.  And secondly, this type of enemy destroyer hasn’t yet eliminated their tendency to believe that things are real, in the form of believing that a water pitcher is real.  And that’s because the tendency to believe that things are real, in this particular form, is an obstacle to knowledge.

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[75]

MA GRUB NA, BUM PA CHOS CAN, KHYOD BDEN PAR ‘DZIN PA’I BDEN ‘DZIN SHES SGRIB YIN PAR THAL, KHYOD GZHI GRUB PA’I PHYIR,

 

I disagree that the tendency to believe that things are real, in the form of believing that a water pitcher is real, is an obstacle to knowledge.

 

If you do disagree, then let’s consider this water pitcher.

 

The tendency to believe that things are real—in the form of believing that the water pitcher is real—is too an obstacle to knowledge!

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because such a tendency is something that we can establish as existing.

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[76]

RTZA BAR ‘DOD MI NUS TE, DES ‘KHOR BA’I RTZA BAR GYUR PA’I BDAG ‘DZIN GYI SA BON SPANGS PA’I PHYIR TE,

 

Well then, I agree with your original statement: an enemy destroyer on the listener track has indeed failed to eliminate the cycle of pain, from its very root.

 

And yet you can’t agree; for this kind of enemy destroyer has eliminated the seeds for the tendency to believe in a self-nature which is the root of the cycle of pain.

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[77]

RNAM ‘GREL LAS,

,BDAG LTA’I SA BON SPANGS PA’I PHYIR,

,SLAR MI GSHEGS PA NYID YIN NO,

,ZHES GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR,

 

And that’s true because A Commentary on Valid Perception says,

 

They are truly a person

Who will never come back,

For they have eliminated

The seeds for seeing a self.[23]

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[78]

GZHAN YANG, DES ‘KHOR BA RTZA BA NAS SPANGS PAR THAL, SANGS RGYAS ‘PHAGS PAS SHES SGRIB RTZA BA NAS SPANGS PA’I PHYIR,

 

Moreover, it must too be the case that this enemy destroyer has eliminated the cycle of pain, from its very root!

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because realized beings who are enlightened have eliminated obstacles to knowledge, from their very root.

 

 

A distinction between the root of pain,

and the root of that root

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[79]

KHA CIG NA RE, KHYI RGAN RGYA BO’I RGYUD KYI KHYI RGAN RGYA BO BDEN PAR ‘DZIN PA’I BDEN ‘DZIN DE KHYI RGAN RGYA BO’I ‘KHOR BA’I GZHI RTZA MTHAR THUG MIN ZER NA,

 

Suppose someone comes and makes this claim:

 

The tendency to think things are real where the tendency to think an old mangy dog is real is in the being of an old mangy dog is not the ultimate foundation of the cycle of pain for an old mangy dog.

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[80]

DE YIN PAR THAL, DE DE’I ‘KHOR BA’I RTZA BAR GYUR PA’I MA RIG PA’I RTZA BA GANG ZHIG, LEGS BSHAD SNYING PO LAS, ‘KHOR BA’I GZHI RTZA MTHAR THUG MA LOG KYANG ‘KHOR BA LOG PA LUGS ‘DI LA MI ‘GAL ZHES GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR,

 

But of course it is!

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because—first of all—that is the very root of the misunderstanding which is the very root of the cycle of pain, for that dog.  And secondly, we see the following in the Essence of Eloquence:

 

It is not a contradiction, in this system, to say that you can stop the cycle of pain, even if you have yet to stop the ultimate foundation of the cycle of pain.[24]

 

 

 

Not all forms of ignorance

are the first link, of misunderstanding

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[81]

KHA CIG NA RE, LAS ‘BRAS KYI ‘BREL BA LA RMONGS PA’I RMONGS PA YIN NA, MA RIG PA YIN PAS KHYAB ZER NA,

 

Suppose someone comes and claims the following:

 

If something is ignorance which is ignorant about the connection between the actions we do and the karmic consequences of those actions, then it must always be misunderstanding [which acts as the first link].

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[82]

NYAN THOS DGRA BCOM PA’I RGYUD KYI LAS ‘BRAS KYI ‘BREL BA PHRA MO LA RANG STOBS KYIS RMONGS PA’I RMONGS PA CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR,

 

Consider then the ignorance, in the mind of an enemy destroyer on the listener track, which is ignorant (of its own accord[25]) about the subtle connection between the actions we do and the karmic consequences of those actions.  Are you saying that it counts as the first link, misunderstanding?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is a form of ignorance which is ignorant about the connection between the actions we do and the karmic consequences of those actions.

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[83]

DE YOD PA’I PHYIR TE, DE’I RGYUD LA RGYU ‘BRAS KYI ‘BREL BA PHRA SHING PHRA BA LA RMONGS PA’I RMONGS PA YOD PA’I PHYIR TE,

 

And that’s true because this kind of ignorance actually exists: because there does exist, in this person’s mind, a kind of ignorance which is ignorant about the very most subtle connection between actions and their consequences.

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[84]

SRAS SGRA GCAN ‘DZIN GYIS ZHUS PA’I MDO LAS,

,RMA BYA’I MDONGS KHRA LA SOGS PA’I,

,RGYU YI DBYE BA JI SNYED PA,

,KUN MKHYEN MIN PA’I RTOGS BYA MIN,

,ZHES GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR,

 

And that’s true because we see, in the Sutra Requested by Rahula, the following lines:

 

The infinite variations

Of causes—such as those

Which create all the different patterns

On the plumage of a peacock—

Are something that cannot be perceived

By any state of mind except omniscience.[26]

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[85]

‘DOD NA, NYAN THOS DGRA BCOM PA CHOS CAN, KHYOD KYI RGYUD KYI RGYU ‘BRAS KYI ‘BREL BA PHRA MO LA RANG STOBS KYIS RMONGS PA’I RMONGS PA DE MA RIG PA MA YIN PAR THAL, KHYOD MA RIG PA SPANGS PA’I GANG ZAG YIN PA’I PHYIR TE, DGRA BCOM [f. 4a] PA YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, I agree with your original statement: the ignorance, in the mind of an enemy destroyer on the listener track, which is ignorant (of its own accord) about the subtle connection between the actions we do and the karmic consequences of those actions, does count as the first link, misunderstanding.

 

Suppose you do agree.  Let’s consider then this enemy destroyer, on the listener track.

 

The ignorance, in their mind, which is ignorant (of its own accord) about the subtle connection between the actions we do and the karmic consequences of those actions, cannot count as the first link, misunderstanding.

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because they are a person who has eliminated misunderstanding.  Because they are an enemy destroyer!

 

 

 

Breaking out of the eggshell

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[86]

KHA CIG NA RE, DGRA BCOM PA YIN NA, NYON SGRIB DU GYUR PA’I MA RIG PA SPANGS PAS KHYAB KYANG, MA RIG PA SPANGS PAS MA KHYAB ZER NA,

 

Suppose someone else comes and says the following:

 

If someone is an enemy destroyer, then they must always have eliminated misunderstanding, in the form of a negative-emotion obstacle.  But it’s not necessarily the case that they have eliminated misunderstanding.

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[87]

DE KHYAB PAR THAL, DGRA BCOM PA MA RIG PA’I SGO NGA’I SBUBS LAS GROL KYANG GZHAN PHAN GYI SNYAN PA SGROG MI NUS PA DANG, BYANG CHUB SEMS DPA’ MA RIG PA’I SGO NGA’I SBUBS LAS MA GROL KYANG GZHAN PHAN GYI SNYAN PA SGROG NUS PA DE DPE DANG BCAS NAS GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR,

 

And yet that is necessarily the case.

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because we see statements in scripture that make the following point, by using a metaphor:

 

There are enemy destroyers who have broken out of the eggshell of misunderstanding, but who are still incapable of spreading the good news, about serving others.

 

There are bodhisattvas who have yet to break out of the eggshell of misunderstanding, but who are capable of spreading the good news, about serving others.[27]

 

 

 

What does “mine” mean?

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[88]

KHA CIG NA RE, NGA YI BA LA DMIGS PA’I ‘JIG LTA LHAN SKYES DES NGA YI BA LA DMIGS NAS RANG RKYA THUB PA’I RDZAS YOD DU ‘DZIN PA YIN ZER NA,

 

Suppose someone comes and makes this claim:

 

The inborn view of destruction that focuses upon “mine” is something that focuses on what is “mine” and holds it to be substantial, in the sense of being self-supporting.

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[89]

‘O NA, NGA YI BA CHOS CAN, KHYOD SKYES BU’I SHES RGYUD KYIS BSDUS PAR THAL, NGA YI BA LA DMIGS PA’I ‘JIG LTA LHAN SKYES KYI DMIGS YUL GYI GTZO BO YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, let’s consider what is “mine.”  Are you saying that it is subsumed within the aware being of an individual?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is the primary object considered by the inborn view of destruction which is focused upon “mine.”

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[90]

RTAGS KHAS,

 

I disagree that “mine” is that kind of object.

 

But you already agreed that it was!

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[91]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, SKYES BU GANG DU GNAS PA’I GNAS DE SKYES BU’I NGA YI BA YIN PA’I PHYIR TE, SKYES BU DE LA ‘DI NI NGA YI GNAS SO SNYAM PA’I BLO LHAN SKYES YOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, I agree that what is “mine” is subsumed within the aware being of an individual.

 

And yet you can’t agree, because the “mine” of any individual refers to the place that they inhabit.  And that’s because individuals have a state of mind that comes up automatically in them from birth, where they say: “This is my place.”

 

 

 

The first link can focus

on the truth of suffering

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[92]

KHA CIG NA RE, ‘JIG LTA LHAN SKYES KYI DMIGS YUL YIN NA, GANG ZAG YIN PAS KHYAB ZER NA,

 

Suppose someone comes and offers the following claim:

 

If something is an object that the inborn view of destruction focuses upon, it must be a person.

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[93]

SDUG BDEN CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR TE, DE LA DMIGS PA’I ‘JIG LTA LHAN SKYES YOD PA’I PHYIR TE, BDEN BZHI LA DMIGS PA’I LTA BA LNGA LTA MIN LNGA YOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, let’s consider the truth of suffering.[28]  Are you saying that it must be a person?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is an object that the inborn view of destruction focuses upon.  And that’s because there are the five mental functions that are viewpoints that focus upon all four of the truths; and there are also five mental functions that are not viewpoints that focus upon them as well. [29]

 

 

 

How the first link is affected

by seeing ultimate reality

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[94]

KHA CIG NA RE, ‘JIG LTA LHAN SKYES YIN NA, YAN LAG BCU GNYIS KYI THOG MAR GYUR PA’I MA RIG PA YIN PAS KHYAB ZER NA,

 

Suppose someone comes and claims the following:

 

If something is the inborn view of destruction, then it must always be misunderstanding which is acting as the first of the twelve links of dependence.

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[95]

RGYUN ZHUGS ‘BRAS GNAS KYI RGYUD KYI ‘JIG LTA LHAN SKYES CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR TE, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR TE, DE YOD PA’I PHYIR, DE’I RGYUD LA NYON MONGS LHAN SKYES YOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, consider the inborn view of destruction in the mind of a person who has reached the level of a stream enterer, and within that the stage called “established in the result.”[30]  Are you saying that this is a form of misunderstanding which is acting as the first of the twelve links of dependence?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is the inborn view of destruction; because it is the example we have given here—and that example really exists.  And that’s because there do exist, in this person’s mind, negative emotions which they were born with.

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[96]

RTZA BAR ‘DOD NA, RGYUN ZHUGS ‘BRAS GNAS DES YANG SRID PHYI MA’I RNAM SMIN GYI PHUNG PO ‘PHEN BYED KYI LAS GSAR DU BSOG PA YOD PAR THAL, ‘DOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, I agree with your original statement: the inborn view of destruction in the mind of this person is acting as the first link.

 

Suppose you do agree.  Are you saying then that a stream-enterer who is already established in this result could ever accumulate fresh karma that is going to project for them another rebirth—another set of the parts to a person, as a karmic consequence?

 

Well why do you say that?

 

Because of what you just agreed to!

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[97]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, RTEN ‘BREL MDO ‘GREL LAS,

,BDEN PA MTHONG LA ‘PHEN PA MED,

,SRID {%SRED} DANG BRAL LA YANG SRID MED,

,ZHES GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then yes, I agree that they could accumulate such karma.

 

But you can’t agree to this, because the Commentary to the Sutra on Dependence says,

 

There is no projection

With those who have seen the truth;

There is no rebirth

With one who is free of craving.[31]

 

 

 

All causes are also results,

and vice versa

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[98]

KHA CIG NA RE, YAN LAG GNYIS PA ‘DU BYED KYI LAS GSAR DU KUN NAS SLONG BYED KYI ‘JIG LTA YAN LAG DANG PO MA RIG PA’I MTSAN NYID ZER NA,

 

Suppose someone comes and claims: The definition of the first link in a chain of dependence, misunderstanding, is: “That view of destruction which functions to trigger, anew, the second link: fresh karma.”

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[99]

YAN LAG GNYIS PA ‘DU BYED KYI LAS KYI ‘BRAS BUR GYUR PA’I YAN LAG DANG PO MA RIG PA [f. 4b] CHOS CAN, MTSAN NYID DER THAL, MTSON BYA DE’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, let’s consider that first link, the misunderstanding, which is the result of the second link, fresh karma.  Are you saying that your definition fits it?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is an example of what you’re trying to define.

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[100]

CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR TE, RTEN ‘BREL YAN LAG BCU GNYIS PO DE SNGA PHYI’I GO RIM MED PAR ‘GAL ME’I ‘KHOR LO BZHIN DU ‘KHOR BA YIN PA’I PHYIR TE,

 

At that’s true because of the example we’ve taken here; and that’s in turn the case because the twelve links of dependence spin like a swirling torch[32]—without regard to any order of one being first, and one being later.

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[101]

RIN CHEN PHRENG BA LAS,

,LAM GSUM THOG MTHA’ DBUS MED PAR,

,’KHOR BA’I DKYIL ‘KHOR ‘GAL ME YI,

,DKYIL ‘KHOR LTA BUR PHAN TSUN DU,

,RGYU RKYEN GYIS NI ‘KHOR BAR ‘GYUR,

,ZHES GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR,

 

As the String of Jewels puts it,

 

These three paths

Of the wheel of the cycle of pain

Spin like the wheel of a torch;

There are no ends, no middle—

For the links act as causes

And factors for each other,

As they circle around.[33]

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[102]

RTZA BAR ‘DOD MI NUS TE, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then I agree to your idea: My definition does fit that first link, the misunderstanding, which is the result of the second link, fresh karma.

 

And yet you cannot agree—think of what we’ve asked you to consider!

 

 

Not all misunderstandings

which sustain an action

are the first link

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[103]

KHA CIG NA RE, YAN LAG GNYIS PA ‘DU BYED KYI LAS KYI [DE’I] DUS KYI KUN SLONG DU GYUR PA’I MA RIG PA YIN NA, YAN LAG BCU GNYIS KYI THOG MAR GYUR PA’I MA RIG PA YIN PAS KHYAB ZER NA,

 

Suppose someone comes and makes the following claim:

 

If something is the misunderstanding which acts as a sustaining motivation[34] for the fresh karma of the second link, then it must always be misunderstanding which is acting as the first of the twelve links of dependence.

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[104]

‘O NA, DE’I DUS KYI KUN SLONG DU GYUR PA’I LAS ‘BRAS KYI ‘BREL BA RAGS PA LA RMONGS PA’I MA RIG PA CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, let’s consider that form of misunderstanding which provides a sustaining motivation for an action, and where we are ignorant of the obvious form of the connection between actions and their consequences.  Are you telling me that it’s misunderstanding which is acting as the first of the twelve links?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is misunderstanding which acts as a sustaining motivation for the fresh karma of the second link.

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[105]

CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR TE, DE YOD PA’I PHYIR TE,

 

And that’s true simply because it is the example we’ve given here.

 

And that’s true because just such an example is one that really exists!

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[106]

KUN LAS BTUS LAS, RMONGS PA NI RNAM PA GNYIS TE, ‘BRAS BU RNAM PAR SMIN PA LA RMONGS PA, ZHES GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR DANG,

 

And that’s true first of all because The Compendium says,

 

Ignorance comes in two different versions.  One is an ignorance about the results that ripen from specific actions.[35]

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[107]

PHYI ROL PA KHA CIG, MTHO RIS KYI PHYIR DU DBANG PHYUG GI MCHOD SBYIN BYED PA YANG YOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

Secondly, there are certain non-Buddhist schools whose followers sacrifice animals to their god, in order to achieve a rebirth in a higher realm.

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[108]

RTZA BAR ‘DOD NA, GANG ZAG GI BDAG MED PA’I DE KHO NA NYID LA RMONGS PA’I MA RIG PA YIN PAR THAL, ‘DOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, I change my mind!  I agree to your original statement: That form of misunderstanding which provides a sustaining motivation for an action, and where we are ignorant of the obvious form of the connection between actions and their consequences, is indeed a kind of misunderstanding which is acting as the first of the twelve links.

 

If you do agree, then you must be saying that this is a kind of misunderstanding about suchness, in the form of the fact that the person is not themselves.

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because you have just agreed to what you have!

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[109]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

And yet you can’t agree, because the example we have given is what it is!

 

 

 

The first link can be a viewpoint

learned in this life

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[110]

KHA CIG NA RE, YAN LAG BCU GNYIS KYI THOG MAR GYUR PA’I MA RIG PA KUN BRTAGS MED ZER NA,

 

Suppose someone comes and makes this claim:

 

There is no form of the misunderstanding that acts as the first of the twelve links of dependence which is learned in this life, as opposed to being something we are born with.

 

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[111]

DE YOD PAR THAL, MA RIG PA KUN BRTAGS KYIS BSAGS PA’I YAN LAG GNYIS PA ‘DU BYED KYI LAS YOD PA’I PHYIR TE,

 

And yet there is such a thing—for there does exist fresh karma, acting as the second link, which we accumulate in our being due to misunderstanding which is learned in this life.

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[112]

NYON MONGS KUN BRTAGS KYIS BSAGS PA’I DGE MI DGE GANG RUNG GI LAS YOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

And that’s because there does exist either good or bad karma which is accumulated in our being through negative emotions which are learned in this life.

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[113]

GZHAN YANG, DE YOD PAR THAL, MTHONG SPANGS SU GYUR PA’I YAN LAG BCU GNYIS KYI THOG MAR GYUR PA’I MA RIG PA YOD PA’I PHYIR TE,

 

Moreover, we can again assert that there is such a kind of misunderstanding, because there does exist a form of ignorance, acting as the first of the twelve links of dependence, which is eliminated during the path of seeing.

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[114]

RGYUN ZHUGS ‘BRAS GNAS KYIS SPANGS PA’I YAN LAG BCU GNYIS KYI THOG MAR GYUR PA’I MA RIG PA YOD PA’I PHYIR TE,

 

And that’s true because there does exist a kind of misunderstanding which acts as the first of the twelve links, and which is eliminated by a person who has reached the level of a stream enterer, and within that the stage called “established in the result.”

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[115]

RNAL ‘BYOR DPYOD {%SPYOD} PA LAS RGYUN ZHUGS ZHUGS PAS YAN LAG DU ZHIG SPANGS ZHE NA THAMS CAD KYI PHYOGS GCIG SPANGS PA YIN GYI, GANG YANG RIL GYIS SPANGS PA NI MA YIN NO ZHES GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR,

 

This in turn is true because the Levels of Deep Practice states:

 

You may ask how many of the links are eliminated by those at the stage of being “established” within the level of entering the stream.  The answer is that they eliminate one part of all there is to eliminate; but it is not the case that they eliminate any amount altogether.[36]

 

 

 

A lower form of misunderstanding

which cannot spin the Wheel

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[116]

KHA CIG NA RE, YAN LAG BCU GNYIS KYI THOG MAR GYUR PA’I MA RIG PA YIN NA, GANG ZAG RTAG GCIG [f. 5a] RANG DBANG CAN DU ‘DZIN PA’I RTOG PA YIN PAS KHYAB ZER NA,

 

Suppose someone comes and makes this claim:

 

If something is the misunderstanding that acts as the first of the twelve links of dependence, then it must be an idea where we believe that the person is unchanging, singular, and independent.

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[117]

GRUB MTHAS BLO MA BSGYUR BA’I GANG ZAG GI RGYUD KYI YAN LAG BCU GNYIS KYI THOG MAR GYUR PA’I MA RIG PA CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Let’s consider that misunderstanding, within the mind of a person whose opinions have not been affected by some school of philosophy, which is acting as the first of the twelve links of dependence.

 

Are you saying that it is a belief that the person is unchanging, singular, and independent?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is a misunderstanding which is acting as the first of the twelve links.

 

And that’s true because it’s exactly the example we have raised!

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[118]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Yes, I agree: it is a belief that the person is unchanging, singular, and independent.

 

And yet you can’t agree—for it is the very example we have raised!

 

 

 

Our own position,

on the link of misunderstanding

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[119]

GNYIS PA RANG LUGS NI,

 

Here secondly is our own school’s position on the link of misunderstanding.

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[120]

RANG GI DMIGS YUL DU GYUR PA’I GANG ZAG DANG LAS ‘BRAS KYIS {%KYI} ‘BREL BA RAGS PA GANG RUNG LA DMIGS NAS RANG STOBS KYIS RANG RKYA THUB PA’I RDZAS YOD DU ‘DZIN PA DANG, RANG STOBS KYIS RMONGS PA’I RMONGS PA GANG RUNG GIS BSDUS PA’I SEMS BYUNG RMONGS PA MA RIG PA’I MTSAN NYID,

 

The definition of misunderstanding is:

 

A mental function which is ignorant, and which focuses either on the person or upon an obvious form of the connection between actions and their consequences, and which is taken in either by the belief which holds, of its own accord, that things are substantial in the sense of being self-standing; or by a state of ignorance which is, or  its own accord, ignorant.

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[121]

DE LA SGRAS BRJOD RIGS KYI SGO NAS DBYE NA, NYON MONGS CAN MA YIN PA’I MA RIG PA DANG, NYON MONGS CAN GYI MA RIG PA GNYIS YOD,

 

Just nominally, this misunderstanding may be divided into two types: misunderstanding which is not involved with negative emotions; and misunderstanding which is involved with negative emotions.

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[122]

DANG PO DANG SHES SGRIB DON GCIG

 

The first of these two is synonymous with the concept of an “obstacle to omniscience.”

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[123]

NYON MONGS CAN GYI MA RIG PA LA DBYE NA, LAS ‘BRAS KYI ‘BREL BA RAGS PA LA RMONGS PA MA RIG PA DANG GANG ZAG GI BDAG ‘DZIN DANG GNYIS,

 

Misunderstanding which is involved with negative emotions can be divided into two further types: misunderstanding where we are ignorant of the obvious form of the connection between actions and their consequences; and the tendency to believe in some self-nature of the person.

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[124]

GANG ZAG GI BDAG ‘DZIN LA YANG, NGA DANG NGA YI BA LA DMIGS PA’I ‘JIG LTA DANG, DE LAS GZHAN PA’I GANG ZAG GI BDAG ‘DZIN DANG GSUM,

 

This tendency to believe in some self-nature of the person can as well be divided, into three different types: the view of destruction which focuses upon either “me” or “mine”; and other forms of the tendency to believe some self-nature of the person.

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[125]

DANG PO NI, RANG RGYUD LA LDAN PA’I GANG ZAG GI RGYUD KYI NGA’AM YID KYI RNAM PAR SHES PA GANG RUNG LA DMIGS NAS GANG ZAG RANG RKYA THUB PA’I RDZAS YOD DU ‘DZIN PA’I RTOG PA LTA BU YIN,

 

An example of the first of these three would be something like the idea where the person who possesses the misunderstanding focuses either on the “me,” or upon the consciousness of the thoughts, within their own being; and then holds the person to be substantial, in the sense of being self-standing.

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[126]

GNYIS PA NI, RANG RGYUD LA LDAN PA’I GANG ZAG GI RGYUD KYI MIG SNA {%RNA?} SOGS LA DMIGS NAS RANG RKYA THUB PA’I NGAR SNANG BA’I NGA DE’I DBANG BSGYUR BYAR ‘DZIN PA’I RTOG PA LTA BU’O,,

 

An example of the second of the three would be something like the idea where the person who possesses the misunderstanding focuses on things like the eye and ear within their own being and holds that they are something which is under the control of the “me” who is appearing to them as though it were a self-standing “me.”

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[127]

GSUM PA NI, LHAS SBYIN GYI RGYUD KYI CHOS SBYIN RANG RKYA THUB PA’I RDZAS YOD DU ‘DZIN PA’I RTOG PA LTA BU YIN,

 

An example of the third of the three would be something like the idea, within the being of John, where he holds that Jane is substantial, in the sense of being self-standing.

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[128]

RANG NYID KYI {%check carving KYIS?} KUN NAS SLANGS BYAR GYUR PA’I YAN LAG GNYIS PA ‘DU BYED KYI LAS GSAR DU KUN NAS SLONG BYED KYI ‘JIG LTA YAN LAG DANG PO MA RIG PA’I MTSAN NYID,

 

Here is the definition of misunderstanding which is acting as the first of the links of dependence:

 

It is that view of destruction which acts to trigger, freshly, that fresh karma which is the second link of dependence, and which is what it acts to trigger.

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[129]

DE LA SGRAS BRJOD RIGS KYI SGO NAS DBYE NA, RGYU’I KUN SLONG GI MA RIG PA DANG, DUS KYI KUN SLONG GI MA RIG PA GNYIS, DANG PO DANG YAN LAG DANG PO GNYIS DON GCIG

 

Just nominally, this type of misunderstanding can be divided into two different types: misunderstanding which is acting as the motivation for the initiation of an action; and misunderstanding which is acting as the motivation for the sustained continuance of an action.  The first of these is synonymous with “the first two links.”

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[130]

,DE’I CHOS KYI KHYAD PAR YOD DE,

 

Here are some of the typical features of misunderstanding which is acting as the first link.

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[131]

DGE SOGS GSUM GYI NANG NAS LUNG MA BSTAN KHO NAS KHYAB,

 

Of the three types of karma[37]—good karma and the rest—this misunderstanding will always be the neutral type.

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[132]

MTHONG SPANGS DANG SGOM SPANGS GNYIS KA’I CHA YOD,

 

This form of misunderstanding includes both parts which are eliminated by the path of seeing, and parts which are eliminated by the path of habituation.[38]

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[133]

SKYE ‘PHAGS GNYIS [f. 5b] KYI NANG NAS SO SKYE KHO NA’I RTEN LA YOD,

 

There are only two types of people in the universe: “normal” people (meaning those who have not yet perceived ultimate reality directly) and “realized” people (those who have).  This type of misunderstanding can only be possessed by the former.

 

 

Refutation of attempted rebuttal

concerning the link of misunderstanding

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[134]

GSUM PA RTZOD PA SPONG BA LA,

 

Here finally we refute attempted rebuttal concerning misunderstanding which serves as the first link of dependence.

 

 

Just because no arya

possesses the first link

doesn’t prove that the first link

must be learned in this life

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[135]

KHO NA RE, YAN LAG BCU GNYIS KYI THOG MAR GYUR PA’I MA RIG PA YIN NA, MA RIG PA KUN BRTAGS YIN DGOS PAR THAL, DE YIN NA MTHONG SPANGS SU GYUR PA’I YAN LAG BCU GNYIS KYI THOG MAR GYUR PA’I MA RIG PA YIN DGOS PA’I PHYIR TE,

 

Suppose someone comes and makes this claim:

 

It is so the case that—if something is that form of misunderstanding which acts as the first of the twelve links of dependence—then it must necessarily be a kind of misunderstanding which is learned in this life.

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because if something is the form of misunderstanding which acts as the first of the twelve links of dependence, then it must be that kind of misunderstanding which acts as the first of the twelve links, and which is eliminated by the path of seeing.

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[136]

YAN LAG BCU GNYIS KYI THOG MAR GYUR PA’I MA RIG PA RGYUD LA LDAN PA’I ‘PHAGS PA MED PA’I PHYIR ZER NA MA KHYAB,

 

And that’s because there is no such thing as a realized being who possesses, within their being, that form of misunderstanding which acts as the first of the twelve links.

 

That’s true, but it doesn’t prove your point!

 

 

 

It’s not the case

that no learned form

of misunderstanding

can fetter us

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[137]

KHA CIG NA RE, YAN LAG BCU GNYIS KYI THOG MAR GYUR PA’I MA RIG PA KUN BRTAGS MED PAR THAL, DE LA LHAN SKYES KYIS KHYAB PA’I PHYIR TE,

 

 

Suppose someone else comes and claims:

 

Well then, there must not be any learned form of misunderstanding which can act as the first of the twelve links.

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because misunderstanding which acts as the first of the twelve links must always be a form of misunderstanding that we are born with.

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[138]

STONGS MTHUN CHEN MO LAS, KUN BRTAGS NI LUS CAN ‘KHOR BAR ‘CHING BYED KYI RTZA BAR MI RUNG, ZHES GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR ZER NA

 

And that’s because the Great Interlude on Emptiness says that “the learned form could never be the root, the thing that fetters living beings to the cycle of pain.”[39]

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[139]

SKYON MED DE, MA RIG PA KUN BRTAGS DE GRUB MTHAS BLO BSGYUR MA BSGYUR GYI LUS CAN KUN ‘KHOR BAR ‘CHING BYED KYI RTZA BAR MI RUNG ZHES PA’I DON YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

And yet there’s no such problem.  Because the intent of that statement was to say, “The learned form of misunderstanding could never be the root, the thing that fetters all living beings to the cycle of pain, whether we are talking about those whose opinions have been influenced by particular schools of thought, or not.”

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[140]

DE YANG YIN TE, DE ‘DRA’I GZHUNG DE GRUB MTHAS BLO BSGYUR MA BSGYUR GYI LUS CAN KUN ‘KHOR BAR ‘CHING BYED KYI MA RIG PA NGOS ‘DZIN PA’I GZHUNG YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

And this certainly is the intent of this citation, because the context in which it appears is a section where the author is identifying the misunderstanding which serves to fetter all living beings to the cycle of pain, whether their opinions have been influenced by particular schools of thought, or not.

 

 

 

Stopping the misunderstanding

that spins the wheel

doesn’t mean there’s no misunderstanding

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[141]

KHO NA RE, ‘KHOR BA’I RTZA BAR GYUR PA’I MA RIG PA YIN NA, KHYOD RGYUD LA LDAN PA’I ‘PHAGS PA MED DGOS PAR THAL, YAN LAG BCU GNYIS KYI THOG MAR GYUR PA’I MA RIG PA YIN NA, KHYOD RGYUD LA LDAN PA’I ‘PHAGS PA MED DGOS PA’I PHYIR,

 

Suppose someone comes and makes the following claim:

 

If something is the misunderstanding which is acting as the root of the cycle of pain, then there cannot be a realized being who possesses it within their being.

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because if something is the misunderstanding which is acting as the first of the twelve links of dependence, then there cannot be a realized being who possesses it within their being.

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[142]

‘DOD NA, MA RIG PA CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR TE, MA RIG PA’I DBANG GIS LAS BSAGS, LAS DE’I DBANG GIS ‘KHOR BAR SKYE BA LEN PA YOD PA’I PHYIR ZER NA MA KHYAB

 

And suppose that you do agree, that if something is the misunderstanding which is acting as the root of the cycle of pain, then there cannot be a realized being who possesses it within their being.

 

Consider then misunderstanding itself.  Are you saying that there cannot be a realized being who possesses it within their being?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because of that same reason: If something is the misunderstanding which is acting as the first of the twelve links of dependence, then there cannot be a realized being who possesses it within their being.

 

And this is true because it is by the power of misunderstanding that we accumulate karma; and because there does exist rebirth into the cycle of pain which is caused, in turn, by its power.

 

In reply we say simply, that the reasons you given don’t necessarily imply what you’re trying to prove.

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[143]

‘DOD MI NUS SO,,

 

And no one could agree that there is no realized being who has any misunderstanding at all in their being.

 

 

 

Enlightened beings

can be taken as having

a self-nature,

without that being

the view of destruction

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[144]

KHA CIG, SANGS RGYAS ‘PHAGS PA LA DMIGS PA’I ‘JIG LTA YOD PAR THAL, SANGS RGYAS ‘PHAGS PA NGAR SNANG NAS DE RANG RKYA THUB PA’I RDZAS YOD DU ‘DZIN PA’I RTOG PA YOD PA’I PHYIR ZER NA MA KHYAB,

 

Suppose someone comes and claims:

 

There must exist a case where the view of destruction can be focused upon a realized being who is, further, an enlightened being.

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because there can exist an idea where a realized being who is enlightened can appear as a “me,” and where they can be taken as existing substantially, in the sense of being self-supporting.

 

And yet it is not the case that—if there can exist an idea where a realized being who is enlightened can appear as a “me,” and where they can be taken as existing substantially, in the sense of being self-supporting—then necessarily we can say that the view of destruction can be focused upon a realized being who is, further, an enlightened being.

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[145]

MA GRUB NA DER THAL, SANGS RGYAS ‘PHAGS PA GANG ZAG TU SNANG NAS, DE RANG RKYA THUB PA’I RDZAS YOD DU ‘DZIN PA’I RTOG PA YOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

And suppose someone were to say that there could not exist an idea where a realized being who is enlightened can appear as a “me,” and where they can be taken as existing substantially, in the sense of being self-supporting.

 

In fact such an idea can exist, because there can exist an idea where a realized being who is enlightened can appear as a person, and where they can be taken as existing substantially, in the sense of being self-supporting.

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[146]

SANGS RGYAS ‘PHAGS PA LA DMIGS PA’I GANG ZAG GI BDAG ‘DZIN YOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

And that’s true because there can exist a form of the tendency to hold that a person has some self-nature, which is focused upon a realized being who is enlightened.

 

 

 

Misunderstanding pervades the universe,

but only the universe of pain

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[147]

KHA CIG NA RE, ‘OG MIN PA’I RTEN LA YAN LAG BCU GNYIS KYI THOG MAR GYUR PA’I MA RIG PA YOD PAR THAL, DE KHAMS GSUM GYI RTEN LA YOD PA’I PHYIR NA MA KHYAB,

 

Now suppose someone comes and makes another claim:

 

It must necessarily be the case that a person in the paradise called “Below No Other” can possess misunderstanding which is acting as the first of the twelve links of dependence.

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because misunderstanding is possessed by people in all three of the realms.[40]

 

Just because misunderstanding is possessed by people in all three of the realms doesn’t mean that a person in that paradise would have to possess misunderstanding acting as the first link.

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[148]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, ‘OG MIN PA YIN NA ‘PHAGS PA YIN PAS KHYAB [f. 6a] PA GANG ZHIG ,’PHAGS PA’I RTEN LA YAN LAG BCU GNYIS KYI THOG MAR GYUR PA’I MA RIG PA MED PA’I PHYIR,

 

Moreover, you could never agree to the idea that people in the paradise known as “Below No Other” possessed misunderstanding which acted as the first of the twelve links.

 

And that’s true first of all because—if a person is residing in this paradise—then they are necessarily a realized being; secondly, there is no case where a person who is a realized being possesses the kind of misunderstanding which serves as the first link of the twelve.

 

 

 

You can see the truth,

without seeing the real truth

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[149]

KHA CIG NA RE, GANG ZAG GI BDAG MED PA’I DE KHO NA NYID LA RMONGS PA’I MA RIG PA YIN NA, DE KHO NA NYID LA RMONGS PA’I MA RIG PA YIN DGOS PAR THAL, DE KHO NA NYID LA RMONGS PA’I MA RIG PA YIN NA, DE KHO NA NYID LA RMONGS PA’I MA RIG PA’I SGRA BSHAD DU YOD PAS MA KHYAB PA’I PHYIR TE,

 

Suppose someone comes and claims:

 

If something is the type of misunderstanding where we are ignorant concerning suchness in the form of there being no self-nature to the person, then it must be a type of misunderstanding which is ignorant concerning suchness.

 

And that’s true because—even if something is a kind of misunderstanding which is ignorant about suchness—it need not exist as misunderstanding which literally fits the description, “ignorant about suchness.”

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[150]

BDEN PA MNGON RTOGS YIN NA, BDEN PA MNGON RTOGS KYI SGRA BSHAD DU YOD PAS MA KHYAB PA’I PHYIR ZER NA MA KHYAB,

 

And that’s true because—even if something is a realization of the truth—it need not literally fit the description, “realization of truth.”[41]

 

In reply, we would say that—although your reasons are true—they do not necessarily imply what you are trying to prove.

 

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[151]

MA GRUB NA, NYAN THOS KYI MTHONG LAM BAR CHAD MED LAM CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR, MTHONG LAM YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

We could not disagree, by the way, that it is correct to say that—even if something is a realization of the truth—it need not literally fit the description, “realization of truth.”  Consider, for example, the “uninterrupted” portion of the path of seeing, as it exists within a person who is a listener.[42]

 

It in fact does not literally fit the description, “realization of the truth.”

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is the realization of truth, but by a listener.[43]

 

And that’s true because it is one example of the path of seeing.

 

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[152]

‘DOD NA, DES BDEN PA MNGON SUM DU RTOGS PAR THAL, ‘DOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

And suppose you agree, that this person’s path of seeing literally fits the description “realization of the truth.”  Are you saying then that this listener sees, directly, the truth?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because of what you just agreed to.

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[153]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then yes, I agree: this listener does see, directly, the truth.

 

And yet you can’t agree, because of the very person we’re talking about.

 

 

 

Misunderstanding can be involved

with negative emotions,

without being a negative emotion

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[154]

KHA CIG NA RE, NYON MONGS YIN NA, NYON MONGS CAN GYI MA RIG PA YIN DGOS PAR THAL, SHES SGRIB YIN NA, NYON MONGS CAN MA YIN PA’I MA RIG PA YIN DGOS PA’I PHYIR NA MA KHYAB,

 

Suppose someone comes and claims:

 

If something is a negative emotion, then it must be a kind of misunderstanding which is involved with the negative emotions.

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because if something is an obstacle to omniscience, then it is necessarily a kind of misunderstanding which is not involved with the negative emotions.

 

To this we would say that—although this last is true—it doesn’t necessarily mean that your first statement is true.

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[155]

‘DOD NA, ZHE SDANG CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR TE, ZHE SDANG YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

And suppose you were to agree, that if something were a negative emotion, then it would have to be a kind of misunderstanding which is involved with the negative emotions.

 

Consider then the emotion of anger.  Are you saying that it is a kind of misunderstanding which is involved with the negative emotions?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is a negative emotion.  After all, it’s anger!

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[156]

‘DOD NA, LUNG MA BSTAN YIN PAR THAL, MA RIG PA YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then yes, we agree.  Anger is a kind of misunderstanding which is involved with the negative emotions.

 

Oh!  You agree?  Well then, the emotion of anger must be karmically neutral.

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because, according to you, it’s a kind of misunderstanding.

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[157]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, MI DGE BA YIN PA’I PHYIR TE, ZHE SDANG YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

And yet you can’t agree that anger is karmically neutral, because it’s a bad karma!

 

And that’s true because…it’s…anger!

 

 

 

Not all tendencies

to believe in a self-nature

are the tendency

 

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[158]

KHA CIG NA RE, CHOS KYI BDAG ‘DZIN BDAG ‘DZIN YIN PAR THAL, BDAG ‘DZIN LA DBYE NA, CHOS KYI BDAG ‘DZIN DANG, GANG ZAG GI BDAG ‘DZIN GNYIS KYI DBYE BA ‘THAD PA’I PHYIR,

 

Suppose someone comes now and makes this claim:

 

The tendency to believe in some self-nature of things must be the tendency to believe in a self-nature.[44]

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because the division of the tendency to believe in some self-nature into two types—the tendency to believe in some self-nature of things, and the tendency to believe in some self-nature of the person—is a valid division.

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[159]

DER THAL, BDAG MED LA DBYE NA CHOS KYI BDAG MED DANG, GANG ZAG GI BDAG MED GNYIS KYI DBYE BA ‘THAD PA’I PHYIR NA MA KHYAB,

 

And that division is a valid division, because the division of a lack of a self-nature into two types—the lack of a self-nature to things, and the lack of a self-nature to the person—is itself a valid division.

 

To this we say: Your last two statements may in fact be true, but they don’t prove your first one!

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[160]

MA GRUB NA DER THAL, CHOS KYI BDAG MED YIN NA, BDAG MED YIN PAS KHYAB, GANG ZAG GI BDAG MED YIN NA, BDAG MED YIN PAS KHYAB PA’I PHYIR,

 

And suppose you disagree to that last statement: suppose you say that the division of a lack of a self-nature into two types is a valid division.

 

Yet it is a valid division, because if something is the lack of a self-nature to things, then it must be one kind of a lack of self-nature.  And if something is the lack of a self-nature to the person, then it must be one kind of a lack of self-nature.

 

 

 

Twisted intelligence

ain’t intelligence!

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[161]

KHA CIG NA RE, ‘JIG LTA LHAN SKYES YIN NA, SEMS BYUNG RMONGS PA YIN PAS KHYAB PAR THAL, DE YIN NA, MA RIG PA YIN PAS KHYAB PA GANG ZHIG, KHYOD KYI MA RIG PA’I MTSAN NYID ‘THAD PA’I PHYIR,

 

Suppose someone comes and makes this new claim:

 

If something is the inborn view of destruction, then it is always the mental function of being ignorant.

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because, first of all, if something is the view of destruction that we’re born with, then it must always be misunderstanding.  Secondly, we can say that your own definition of misunderstanding is a correct one![45]

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[162]

DANG PO DER THAL, MA RIG PA LA DBYE NA ‘JIG LTA LHAN SKYES DANG, GANG ZAG GI BDAG ‘DZIN GNYIS KYI DBYE BA ‘THAD PA’I PHYIR,

 

And the first part of our reason must be correct, for the division of misunderstanding into two—the view of destruction which we are born with, and the tendency to believe in a self-nature of the person—is a valid division.

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[163]

‘DOD NA, KHYI RGAN RGYA BO’I RGYUD KYI ‘JIG LTA LHAN SKYES CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR,

 

And if you agree to that, then let’s consider the inborn view of destruction that we find in the mind of a mangy old dog.  Are you saying that it is misunderstanding?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because, after all, it’s a form of the inborn view of destruction.

 

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[164]

‘DOD NA, SEMS BYUNG RMONGS PA MA YIN PAR THAL, SHES RAB YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then yes, I agree: the inborn view of destruction that we find in the mind of a mangy old dog is a kind of misunderstanding.

 

Well, suppose you do agree.  But we would reply: No it’s not at all a mental function where the dog is ignorant of something.

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it’s a kind of intelligence!

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[165]

DER THAL, [f. 6b] SHES RAB NYON MONGS CAN YIN PA’I PHYIR NA MA KHYAB,

 

We disagree!

 

And yet the view of destruction is a kind of intelligence, because it’s a twisted form of intelligence!

 

Hey, just because it’s a twisted form of intelligence, doesn’t mean it’s a kind of intelligence!

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[166]

MA GRUB NA DER THAL, ‘JUG ‘GREL LAS, DE LTA BU’I RNAM PAR ZHUGS PA’I SHES RAB NYON MONGS CAN, ZHES GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR,

 

By the way, we couldn’t have disagreed that this view of destruction was a twisted form of intelligence, because the explanation of Entering the Middle Way itself says,

 

It is a twisted form of intelligence, which engages in its object in that way…[46]

 

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[167]

GZHAN YANG, SNYOMS ‘JUG NYON MONGS CAN CHOS CAN, SNYOMS ‘JUG YIN PAR THAL, SNYOMS ‘JUG NYON MONGS CAN YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

We can moreover take the case of a twisted form of balanced meditation.  Are you trying to say that it’s a form of balanced meditation?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it’s a twisted form of balanced meditation.

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[168]

KHYAB PA KHAS,

 

Just because something is a twisted form of balanced meditation doesn’t mean it’s a form of balanced meditation!

 

But you just said that it does mean that!

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[169]

‘DOD NA, DGE BA YIN PAR THAL, ‘DOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, I agree: A twisted form of balanced meditation is a form of balanced meditation.

 

Suppose you do agree!  Are you saying then that a twisted form of balanced meditation is a good karma?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because, according to you, it’s a form of balanced meditation!

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[170]

KHYAB STE, MDZOD LAS, SNYOMS ‘JUG DGE BA RTZE GCIG PA ZHES GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR,

 

Just because something is a form of balanced meditation doesn’t mean it has to be a good karma.

 

But it does mean that!  After all, the Treasure House of Higher Knowledge itself says:

 

Balanced meditation

Is a single-pointed state

Which is also good karma.[47]

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[171]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, NYON MONGS CAN YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, I agree: A twisted form of balanced meditation is a good karma.

 

But you can’t agree!  Because this meditation is involved with negative emotions!

 

 

 

An explanation of the second link:

fresh karma

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[172]

YAN LAG GNYIS PA ‘DU BYED KYI LAS BSHAD PA LA, DGAG BZHAG SPANGS GSUM LAS, DANG PO LA,

 

Here begins our explanation of the second of the twelve links of dependence, which is fresh karma.  We will proceed in the three classic divisions of disproving the wrong ideas of other schools about fresh karma; setting forth our own school’s position; and then refuting any rebuttal about this position.

 

 

 

Disproving wrong ideas about fresh karma,

beginning with the idea

that all impure karma can act

as the second link

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[173]

KHA CIG NA RE, ZAG BCAS KYI LAS YIN NA YAN LAG GNYIS PA ‘DU BYED KYI LAS YIN PAS KHYAB ZER NA,

 

Suppose someone comes and starts with the following claim:

 

Anything which is an impure form of karma is also fresh karma, the second of the twelve links of dependence.

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[174]

ZAG BCAS KYI LUNG MA BSTAN GYI LAS CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR TE, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, let’s consider an impure karma which is also neutral.  Are you saying that it’s also fresh karma, the second link?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is an impure form of karma.

 

And that’s true because it is exactly the example it is!

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[175]

DER THAL, DE YOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

To that I disagree!

 

And yet is the example it is, because such a kind of karma really does exist!

 

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[176]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, LUNG MA BSTAN YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, I agree: It is fresh karma, the second link.

 

But you can’t agree!  Because it’s a neutral kind of karma!

 

 

 

Not all things

that are done

are karma

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[177]

KHA CIG NA RE, LAS BYA BYED GNYIS SU PHYE BA’I LAS YIN NA, LAS YIN PAS KHYAB ZER NA,

 

Somebody another person comes and claims:

 

All action can be presented in terms of what is done, and who does it.  Anything which is done, in this sense, is also action in the sense of karma.

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[178]

YUM RGYAS ‘BRING BSDUS GSUM CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR TE, STON PA SH’AKYA THUB PA DE LAS SU BYA BA RGYAS ‘BRING BSDUS GSUM GSUNG BA PO YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, let’s consider the three presentations of the Mother, the Perfection of Wisdom: the more detailed presentation, the medium-length one, and the briefer one.

 

Are you saying that they are action, in the sense of karma?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because the making of these presentations was an action, in the sense of being something which was done.

 

And that’s true because our Teacher, the Able One of the Shakyas, is a person who undertook the action of making these three presentations.

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[179]

‘DOD NA, SEMS BYUNG YIN PAR THAL, ‘DOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then yes, I agree: these presentations were an action, in the sense of karma.

 

Suppose you do agree.  Are you saying then that these three presentations were a function of the mind?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because you just agreed, that they were karma!

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[180]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, BRJOD BYED KYI TSIG YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, I agree to that too: these presentations are a function of the mind.

 

And yet you can’t agree, for they are words that express some kind of content.

 

 

 

Good karma,

even when it is impure,

is not something

that we want to stop doing

 

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[181]

KHA CIG NA RE, RANG RGYU MA RIG PAS KUN NAS SLANGS PA’I ZAG BCAS KYI LAS YIN NA, SPANGS BYA YIN PAS KHYAB ZER NA,

 

Somebody another person comes, and makes this claim:

 

If something is a kind of karma which is impure, and which is motivated by misunderstanding acting as its particular cause, then it must be something that we want to stop doing.

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[182]

SO SO SKYE BO’I RGYUD KYI RANG RGYU MA RIG PAS KUN NAS SLANGS PA’I ZAG BCAS KYI DGE BA’I LAS CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR TE,

 

Well then, let’s consider the impure good karma, in the mind of a normal person,[48] which is motivating by misunderstanding acting as its particular cause.

 

Are you saying that it’s something that they want to stop doing?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it’s a kind of karma which is impure, and which is motivated by misunderstanding acting as its particular cause.

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[183]

CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR TE, DE YOD PA’I PHYIR TE, SO SKYE’I RGYUD LA LAS YOD PA GANG ZHIG, DE’I RGYUD LA ZAG MED KYI LAS MED PA’I PHYIR,

 

And that’s true simply because it’s the example we have said it is.

 

And that’s true because such a thing actually exists.

 

And that’s true because there does exist karma in the mindstream of a normal person—and there is no such thing as pure karma in the mindstream of such a person.

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[184]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, BLANGS BYA YIN PA’I PHYIR TE, DGE BA YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, I agree: this impure good karma is something that this normal person should stop doing.

 

And yet you can’t agree to this; for this is something that they should keep doing.

 

And that’s because it’s good karma!

 

 

 

Pure karma

cannot be the link

of fresh karma

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[185]

KHA CIG NA RE, RANG GI RGYUR GYUR PA’I RTEN ‘BREL YAN LAG BCU GNYIS KYI THOG MAR GYUR PA’I MA RIG PAS BSKYED CING, RANG ‘BRAS RTEN ‘BREL YAN LAG BCU GNYIS KYI NANG MTSAN {%TSAN} DU GYUR PA’I ‘BRAS DUS KYI RNAM SHES BSKYED BYED KYI SEMS PA, YAN LAG GNYIS PA ‘DU BYED KYI LAS KYI MTSAN NYID ZER NA,

 

Suppose someone else comes and claims—

 

The definition of the second link of dependence, fresh karma, is: “Any movement of the mind which is triggered by the misunderstanding which both serves as its own particular cause, and is as well acting as the first of the twelve links of dependence; where this movement of the mind further acts as a trigger for the consciousness which is its own particular result—one which constitutes a component of the twelve links of dependence relating to the period of results.”

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[186]

ZAG MED KYI LAS CHOS CAN, MTSON BYA DER THAL, MTSAN NYID DE’I PHYIR TE, CHOS [f. 7a] CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, let’s consider a pure form of karma.  Are you saying that this is something you’re defining here?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because your definition fits it!

 

And that’s true because it’s the very example we’ve mentioned.

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[187]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then yes, I agree: a pure form of karma would be something I’m defining here.

 

But you can’t agree!  Think again of what our example is!

 

 

 

Karma motivated by misunderstanding

need not be fresh karma

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[188]

KHA CIG RANG RGYU RTEN ‘BREL YAN LAG BCU GNYIS KYI THOG MAR GYUR PA’I MA RIG PAS KUN NAS SLANGS SHING, RANG ‘BRAS RTEN ‘BREL YAN LAG BCU GNYIS KYI NANG TSAN DU GYUR PA’I ‘BRAS DUS KYI RNAM SHES KYI RTEN ‘BREL BSKYED BYED KYI ZAG BCAS KYI SEMS PA, YAN LAG GNYIS PA ‘DU BYED KYI LAS KYI MTSAN NYID ZER NA,

 

Another person comes and claims:

 

The definition of the second link of dependence, fresh karma, is: “Any movement of the mind which is impure, and which is motivated by the misunderstanding which both serves as its own particular cause, and is as well acting as the first of the twelve links of dependence; where this movement of the mind further acts as a trigger for the link of consciousness which is both its particular result and one of the twelve links which relates to the period of results.”

 

 

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[189]

BCU PA SRID LAS CHOS CAN, MTSON BYA DER THAL, MTSAN NYID DE YIN PA’I PHYIR TE, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well, let’s consider the tenth link: ripe karma.  Is it then what you’re defining here?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because your definition fits it!

 

Because it’s the very example we say it is!

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[190]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, yes; it is what we’re defining here.

 

But you can’t say it’s what you’re defining here!  Because it is what we’ve just said it is!

 

 

 

[$$$Header to be determined after

woodblock found]

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[191]

KHA CIG NA RE, DE GANG ZHIG, SRID LAS LAS GZHAN PA DE DE’I MTSAN NYID ZER NA,

 

Now suppose this person comes back with:

 

Let me adjust that definition slightly, and then I’ll keep it.  Just add the words, “…and which is something other than karma in the form of ripe karma.”

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[192]

RTAGS DNGOS {not clear what this chos can is; need a scan} CHOS CAN, RANG RGYU RTEN ‘BREL YAN LAG BCU GNYIS KYI THOG MAR GYUR PA’I MA RIG PAS KUN NAS SLANGS SHING, RANG ‘BRAS RTEN ‘BREL YAN LAG BCU GNYIS KYI NANG TSAN DU GYUR PA’I ‘BRAS DUS KYI RNAM SHES KYI RTEN ‘BREL BSKYED BYED KYI ZAG BCAS KYI SEMS PA GANG ZHIG, SRID LAS LAS GZHAN YIN PA DE MA YIN PAR THAL, YAN LAG GNYIS PA ‘DU BYED KYI LAS MA YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

$$$this cannot be resolved without a scan of an original woodblock

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[193]

KHYAB PA KHAS,

 

But you already agreed that it did mean that.

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[194]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, SRID LAS LAS GZHAN YIN PA’I PHYIR TE, SRID LAS MA YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

And you cannot agree, because it is something other than karma in the form of ripe karma.

 

And that’s true because it isn’t ripe karma.

 

 

 

Enlightenment can be the cause

of impure forms of good karma

 

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[195]

KHA CIG NA RE, RANG RGYU MA RIG PAS KUN NAS SLANGS PA’I SEMS PA, ZAG BCAS KYI LAS KYI MTSAN NYID ZER NA,

 

Somebody comes and makes this claim:

 

The definition of impure karma is: “Any movement of the mind which is motivated misunderstanding which acts as its particular cause.”

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[196]

‘O NA, ZAG BCAS KYI DGE BA’I LAS CHOS CAN, MTSAN NYID DER THAL, MTSON BYA DE’I PHYIR, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, let’s consider an impure form of good karma.

 

Are you saying that your definition fits it?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is an example of what you’re trying to define.

 

And that’s because it’s the very example we’ve mentioned.

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[197]

‘DOD NA, MI ‘THAD PAR THAL, ZAG BCAS KYI DGE BA’I LAS KYI RGYU RGYUD LA LDAN PA’I BYANG SEMS ‘PHAGS PA DANG SANGS RGYAS ‘PHAGS PA YOD PA’I PHYIR TE, RNAM MKHYEN GYI ‘BRAS BUR GYUR PA’I ZAG BCAS KYI DGE BA’I LAS YOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then yes; my definition fits an impure form of good karma.

 

But that would be incorrect; for there does exist—in the minds of both a realized being who is a bodhisattva, and a realized being who is enlightened—the cause for impure forms of good karma.

 

And that’s because there do exist impure forms of good karma which are the result of omniscience.

 

 

 

Not all mental states

linked with karma

are karma

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[198]

KHA CIG NA RE, RANG GI RGYUR GYUR PA’I MA RIG PAS GSAR DU BSKYED PA’I ZAG BCAS KYI RIG PA, ZAG BCAS KYI LAS KYI MTSAN NYID ZER NA,

 

Another person comes and makes this claim:

 

The definition of impure karma is “Any impure state of mind which is triggered, fresh, by the misunderstanding which is acting as its particular cause.”

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[199]

ZAG BCAS KYI LAS DANG MTSUNGS LDAN DU GYUR PA’I RNAM SHES CHOS CAN, MTSON BYA DER THAL, MTSAN NYID DE’I PHYIR, ZAG BCAS KYI LAS DE DE LTAR YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, let’s consider a state of consciousness which is linked mentally with an impure karma.

 

Are you saying that it’s a kind of impure karma—the thing that you’re defining here?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because your definition fits it.  And that’s because the impure karma here is that way.

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[200]

KHYAB STE, DE GNYIS MTSUNGS LDAN RNAM PA LNGA MTSUNGS YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

And this necessarily is the case, because the two are linked in the five different ways.[49]

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[201]

MA GRUB NA, ‘GAL LO,,

 

And if you disagree, then you contradict yourself.

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[202]

‘DOD NA, SEMS BYUNG YIN PAR THAL, ‘DOD PA’I [f. 7b] PHYIR,

 

Well then, I agree: The state of consciousness which is linked mentally with an impure karma is indeed an example of what I am defining here.

 

Suppose you do agree.  Are you saying then that this state of consciousness is a particular function of the mind?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because of what you just agreed to!

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[203]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, GTZO SEMS YIN PA’I PHYIR TE, RNAM PAR SHES PA YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then I do agree: This state of consciousness is a particular function of the mind.

 

And yet you cannot agree to that, for this is consciousness is main mind.  And that’s true because it’s consciousness itself.

 

 

 

Can a pure karma

be motivated

by deep seeds

which are impure?

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[204]

KHA CIG NA RE, RANG RGYU NYON MONGS PAS KUN NAS SLANGS PA’I SEMS PA, ZAG BCAS KYI LAS KYI MTSAN NYID, RANG RGYU NYON MONGS PA’I BAG CHAGS KYIS KUN NAS SLANGS PA’I SEMS PA, ZAG MED KYI LAS KYI MTSAN NYID ZER NA,

 

Now suppose a person comes and claims:

 

The definition of impure karma is: “That movement of the mind which is motivated by something involved with the negative emotions which acts as its particular cause.”  And the definition of pure karma is “That movement of the mind which is motivated by the deep seed for something involved with negative emotions which acts as its particular cause.”

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[205]

ZAG MED KYI LAS CHOS CAN, MTSON BYA DANG PO DER THAL, MTSAN NYID DANG PO DE’I PHYIR TE, RANG RGYU NYON MONGS PA’I BAG CHAGS KYIS KUN NAS SLANGS PA’I SEMS PA GANG ZHIG, NYON MONGS PA’I BAG CHAGS YIN NA, RANG RGYU NYON MONGS PAS KUN NAS SLANGS PAS KHYAB PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, let’s consider a pure form of karma itself.

 

Are you saying that it is what you meant to define with your first definition here?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because your first definition does fit it!

 

And that’s true first of all because it is a movement of the mind which is motivated by the deep seeds of something involved with negative emotions which act as its particular cause; and secondly because—if something is a deep seed for something involved with the negative emotions—then it is necessarily motivated by something involved with the negative emotions which is acting as its particular cause.

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[206]

DANG PO MA GRUB NA ‘KHOR GSUM YOD,

 

I disagree with the first part of your reason: that a pure karma is a movement of the mind which is motivated by the deep seeds of something involved with negative emotions which act as its particular cause.

 

If you do disagree with this first part, then you are simply going back on something you said yourself, before!

 

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[207]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, ZAG MED KYI LAS YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, I agree.

 

But you can’t agree, because what we’re talking about here is pure karma.

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[208]

GZHAN YANG, ZAG BCAS KYI LAS CHOS CAN, MTSON BYA PHYI MA DER THAL, MTSAN NYID PHYI MA DE’I PHYIR TE, RANG RGYU NYON MONGS PAS KUN NAS SLANGS PA GANG ZHIG, NYON MONGS YIN NA RANG GI RGYUR GYUR PA’I NYON MONGS PA’I BAG CHAGS KYI DBANG GIS BZHAG PAS KHYAB PA’I PHYIR,

 

Moreover, let’s consider an example of impure karma.  Is it what you’re trying to define, with your latter definition?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because your latter definition fits it!

 

And that’s true because, first of all, it is motivated by something involved with the negative emotions which is acting as its particular cause; and secondly because—if something is a negative emotion—then it is always established by force of the deep seeds for something involved with the negative emotions which are acting as its particular cause.

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[209]

DANG PO MA GRUB NA ‘GAL LO,,

 

I disagree to the first part of your reason here.

 

If you do disagree to this first part, then you are simply contradicting yourself.

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[210]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, ZAG BCAS KYI LAS YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, I agree!

 

And yet you can’t agree, because what we’re talking about here is an impure karma!

 

 

 

The tenth is also

the true source of pain

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[211]

KHA CIG NA RE, LAS KYI KUN ‘BYUNG YIN NA, YAN LAG GNYIS PA ‘DU BYED KYI LAS YIN PAS KHYAB ZER NA,

 

Now someone comes and claims:

 

If something is the truth of the source of pain, in the form of karma,[50] then it must always be fresh karma: the second of the links of dependence.

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[212]

BCU PA SRID LAS CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR, ‘DOD MI NUS SO,,

 

Well then, let’s consider ripe karma: the tenth of the links.

 

Are you telling me it is the second link?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is the truth of the source of pain, in the form of karma.

 

And that’s true because it is the example it is here.

 

And you could never agree that the tenth link is the second!

 

 

 

If you see ultimate reality,

you no longer accumulate karma

for a life in pain

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[213]

KHA CIG, ‘PHAGS PA’I RTEN LA YANG SRID PHYI MA’I RNAM SMIN GYI PHUNG PO ‘PHEN BYED KYI LAS GSAR DU BSOG PA YOD ZER NA,

 

Now someone comes and makes this claim:

 

There do exist cases where a realized being accumulates, fresh, karma in their mind which is going to project, as a karmic ripening, the parts of a suffering person in a future rebirth.

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[214]

DE MED PAR THAL, RTEN ‘BREL MDO ‘GREL LAS,

,BDEN PA MTHONG LA ‘PHEN PA MED,

,SRID {%SRED} DANG BRAL LA YANG SRID MED,

,ZHES GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR,

 

And yet there is no such thing, for as the Commentary to the Sutra on Dependence puts it,

 

There is no projection

With those who have seen the truth;

There is no rebirth

With one who is free of craving.[51]

 

 

 

Someone who has seen

ultimate reality

may still accumulate karma

which completes a rebirth

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[215]

KHA CIG, ‘PHAGS PA’I RTEN LA YANG SRID PHYI MA’I RNAM SMIN GYI PHUNG PO ‘GRUB BYED KYI LAS GSAR DU BSOG PA MED ZER NA

 

Another person makes this claim:

 

There exist no cases where a realized being accumulates, fresh, karma in their mind which is going to finalize, as a karmic ripening, the parts of a suffering person in a future rebirth.

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[216]

DE YOD PAR THAL, ‘PHAGS PA’I RTEN LA YANG SRID PHYI MA’I RNAM SMIN GYI PHUNG PO ‘GRUB BYED KYI LAS GSAR DU BSOG PA YOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

And yet such cases do exist: there do exist cases where a realized being accumulates, fresh, karma in their mind which is going to finalize, as a karmic ripening, the parts of a suffering person in a future rebirth.

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[217]

DE’I RTEN LA YANG SRID PHYI MA’I RNAM SMIN GYI PHUNG PO ‘PHEN BYED KYI LAS LA SRED LEN GNYIS KYIS GSOS ‘DEBS PA YOD PA’I PHYIR TE,

 

And that’s because there do exist cases where the two links of initial desire and advanced desire enable the karma within this person’s mind which is going to project, as a karmic ripening, the parts of a suffering person in a future rebirth.

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[218]

YANG SRID PHYI MAR SKYE BA LEN PA’I ‘PHAGS PA YOD PA’I PHYIR TE, YANG SRID PHYI MAR SKYE BA LEN PA’I NGES PA’I RGYUN ZHUGS SRID PA LAN BDUN PA BA YOD PA’I PHYIR, NGES PA’I RGYUN ZHUGS SRID PA LAN BDUN PA BA YOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

And that in turn is true because there do exist realized beings who take a future rebirth; for there do, for example, exist stream enterers who are what we call “Seven Timers”: those who are sure to take seven more rebirths before they attain enlightenment.  There do exist these confirmed beings—stream enterers who have seven more times to go.

 

 

 

A realized being

can still possess

the second link

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[219]

KHA [f. 8a] CIG NA RE, YAN LAG GNYIS PA ‘DU BYED KYI LAS RGYUD LA LDAN PA’I ‘PHAGS PA MED ZER NA,

 

Someone else may come and make this claim:

 

There is no case of a realized being who possesses, in their mind, fresh karma: the second link of dependence.

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[220]

DE YOD PAR THAL, YANG SRID PHYI MAR SKYE BA LEN PA’I ‘PHAGS PA YOD PAR SGRUB ZIN PHYIR,

 

And yet there does exist such a person, for we have already proven that there exist realized beings who take a future rebirth.

 

 

 

Fresh karma

need not be

definite karma

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[221]

KHA CIG, YAN LAG GNYIS PA ‘DU BYED KYI LAS YIN NA, NGES PA’I LAS YIN PAS KHYAB ZER NA,

 

Someone may come and claim:

 

If something is fresh karma, the second link of dependence, then it is definite karma.

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[222]

LHAG BCAS MYANG ‘DAS LA GNAS PA’I NYAN THOS DGRA BCOM PA’I RGYUD KYI YAN LAG GNYIS PA ‘DU BYED KYI LAS CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, let’s consider the fresh karma—second link—in the mind of an enemy destroyer who is on the listener track, and who is residing in a nirvana where something is still left over.

 

Are you saying that this is definite karma?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it’s fresh karma, the second link!

 

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[223]

DE YOD PA’I PHYIR TE, MDZOD KYI ‘GREL PA DON GSAL LAS, DGRA BCOM PA DAG LA YANG SNGON SO SO SKYE BO’I GNAS SKABS SU BYAS PA’I LAS DGE BA’AM MI DGE BA MA NGES PA DAG NI MED PA MA YIN MOD KYI PHRA RGYAS MED PA’I PHYIR, DE DAG GIS SRID PA MNGON PAR ‘GRUB MI NUS SO, ,ZHES GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR,

 

For there does exist fresh karma of this type!  As the Clarification commentary to the Treasure House puts it,

 

It is admittedly not the case that enemy destroyers possess no indefinite karma—be it good karma or bad karma—that they have committed previously, during the period when they were normal beings.  And yet because these enemy destroyers possess no negative emotions of the kind we call “widespread,” those indefinite karmas will be unable to bring about any rebirth.[52]

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[224]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, DGRA BCOM PA’I RGYUD KYI YAN LAG GNYIS PA ‘DU BYED KYI LAS YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, I agree that the karma in that enemy destroyer’s mind is definite karma.

 

And yet you can’t agree, for what we’re talking about is fresh karma—second link—as it exists in the mind of an enemy destroyer.

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[225]

KHYAB STE, DGRA BCOM PA YIN NA SRID PA SPANGS PAS KHYAB PA’I PHYIR TE,

 

Well just because we’re talking about fresh karma—second link—as it exists in the mind of this enemy destroyer, doesn’t necessarily mean that this can’t be definite karma.

 

But it does necessarily mean that; for if someone is an enemy destroyer, it is always the case that they have left behind all birth in the world of pain.

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[226]

RNAM ‘GREL LAS,

,SRID PA’I SRED LAS RNAMS {%RNAM} RGYAL BA,

,LAS GZHAN ‘PHEN NUS MA YIN TE,

,LHAN CIG BYED PA ZAD PHYIR RO,,

ZHES GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR,

 

As the Commentary on Valid Perception puts it,

 

They have won the war

Over attachment to the world,

And no more karma

Will be able to do

Its projecting—

For the contributing factors

Have all been put to rest.[53]

 

 

 

Unshifting karma

is also virtuous

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[227]

KHA CIG, YAN LAG GNYIS PA ‘DU BYED KYI LAS SU GYUR PA’I MI G-YO BA’I LAS DANG, BSOD NAMS KYI LAS GNYIS ‘GAL ZER NA,

 

Suppose someone comes and claims:

 

There is no one thing which can be both the “unshifting” form of the second link—fresh karma—and also virtuous karma.[54]

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[228]

YAN LAG GNYIS PA ‘DU BYED KYI LAS SU GYUR PA’I MI G-YO BA’I LAS CHOS CAN, BSOD NAMS KYI LAS {%MA} YIN PAR THAL, YAN LAG GNYIS PA ‘DU BYED KYI LAS SU GYUR PA’I MI G-YO BA’I LAS YIN PA’I PHYIR TE, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, let’s consider an example of the “unshifting” form of the second link, fresh karma.  Are you saying it isn’t virtuous karma?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is the “unshifting” form of the second link, fresh karma.  Simply because it’s what we said it is!

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[229]

‘DOD NA, BSOD NAMS KYI LAS YIN PAR THAL, DGE BA’I LAS YIN PA’I PHYIR TE, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, I agree: that unshifting karma is not virtuous karma.

 

Suppose you do agree.  And yet it is virtuous karma, because it’s good karma.

 

Because it’s what we said it is!

 

 

 

The concept of shortfalls in factors

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[230]

KHA CIG NA RE, KHYI’I RNAM SMIN GYI PHUNG PO ‘PHEN BYED KYI MYONG NGES KYI LAS YIN NA, RANG NYID KYIS ‘PHANGS PA’I KHYI’I RNAM SMIN GYI PHUNG PO YOD PAS KHYAB ZER NA,

 

Someone may then come and claim:

 

If something is an example of karma whose consequences are certain to be experienced, and it is projecting—as its karmic ripening—the mind and body of a dog, then there must always come to exist the mind and body of a dog which are the karmic ripening which this karma projects into the future.

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[231]

DE MI ‘THAD PAR THAL, KHYI’I RNAM SMIN GYI PHUNG PO ‘PHEN BYED KYI LAS DES DUS KYI RKYEN MA TSANG BA’I DBANG GIS DOM GYI RNAM SMIN GYI PHUNG PO ‘PHEN PA YOD PAR MDO LAS GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR,

 

But isn’t that incorrect?  For aren’t there references, in sutra, to cases where the karma which is meant to project, as its karmic ripening, the mind and body of a dog instead projects—as its ripening—the body and mind of a bear, due to a shortfall in the necessary factors for birth as a dog?[55]

 

 

 

What happens

when a definite karma

meets emptiness,

in the Four Powers

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[232]

KHA CIG NA RE, NGAN ‘GRO’I RNAM SMIN GYI PHUNG PO ‘PHEN BYED KYI MYONG NGES KYI LAS YIN NA, RANG NYID KYIS ‘PHANGS PA’I RNAM SMIN GYI PHUNG PO YOD PAS KHYAB ZER NA,

 

Somebody might come and claim:

 

If something is a definite karma which is supposed to project, as a karmic ripening, a body and mind in the lower realms, then there must be a body and mind which, as a karmic ripening, it projects.

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[233]

NGAN ‘GRO’I RNAM SMIN GYI PHUNG PO ‘PHEN BYED KYI MYONG NGES [f. 8b] KYI LAS DANG, GNYEN PO STOBS BZHIS ‘DAGS NGES KYI LAS KYI GZHI MTHUN CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR TE, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR TE,

 

Well let us consider then a single thing which is both (1) a definite karma which is supposed to project, as a karmic ripening, a body and mind in the lower realms; and (2) a karma which is sure to be purified by applying the four antidote powers.[56]

 

Are you telling me that there must be a body and mind which, as a karmic ripening, it projects?

 

Because it is a definite karma which is supposed to project, as a karmic ripening, a body and mind in the lower realms.

 

Because it’s the example we just gave!

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[234]

DE YOD PA’I PHYIR TE, SHER PHYIN LA SPYOD PA’I GNYEN PO KUN TU SPYOD PA’I STOBS KYIS MYONG NGES KYI LAS KYANG ‘DAGS PAR GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR,

 

And that’s because there is such a thing.  Because it is stated that even a definite karma can be purified if we use the power of applying an antidote, in the form of acting on the perfection of wisdom.

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[235]

RTOG GE ‘BAR BA LAS, DMYAL BAR SKYE BA’I LAS RNAMS NI TSE ‘DIR MGO BO TSA BA TZAM DU ‘GYUR RO, ,ZHES GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR,

 

And that’s true because the Blaze of Reasoning states,

 

A karma which was to be experienced as a rebirth in the hells will be experienced, instead, as nothing more than a headache.[57]

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[236]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, I agree to your original statement: There must indeed be a body and mind which, as a karmic ripening, are projected by a single thing which is both (1) a definite karma which is supposed to project, as a karmic ripening, a body and mind in the lower realms; and (2) a karma which is sure to be purified by applying the four antidote powers.

 

And yet you can’t agree, for this example is what it is!

 

 

 

Fresh karma

may not be fresh!

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[237]

KHA CIG NA RE, YAN LAG GNYIS PA ‘DU BYED KYI LAS YIN NA, RANG NYID KUN NAS SLONG BYED MA RIG PAS GSAR DU KUN NAS SLANGS PA’I LAS YIN PAS KHYAB ZER NA,

 

Now someone else may come and make this claim:

 

If something is fresh karma acting as the second link of dependence, then it must always be karma which is motivated, fresh, by the misunderstanding which acted to motivate it.

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[238]

DANG PO MA RIG PAS KUN NAS SLANGS SHING ‘BRAS BU’I BAR DU BSKAL PA BRGYAS BAR DU CHOD PA’I YAN LAG GNYIS PA ‘DU BYED KYI LAS CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR TE,

 

Well then, let’s consider the case of a fresh karma—acting as the second link—which has been motivated by misunderstanding; but where a hundred eons have passed since it was thus motivated.

 

Are you telling me that this is a karma which is motivated, fresh, by the misunderstanding which acted to motivate it?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it’s fresh karma acting as the second link of dependence!

 

And that’s true because it is the very example which we said it was.

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[239]

MDO LAS,

,LUS CAN RNAMS KYI LAS RNAMS NI,

,BSKAL PA BRGYAR YANG CHUD MI ZA,

,TSOGS ZHING DUS LA BABS PA NA,

,’BRAS BU SMIN PA NYID DU ‘GYUR,

,ZHES GSUNGS PA’I PHYIR,

 

After all, we do see the following lines in sutra:

 

The karma of living beings

Will never just go away,

Even after a hundred eons.

 

When the conditions come together—

When the time for it arrives,

It must ripen into its result.[58]

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[240]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then yes, I agree: this particular instance of karma is motivated, fresh, by the misunderstanding which acted to motivate it.

 

But you can’t agree!  Because the example is what it is!

 

 

 

Not all the mental components

involved in a karma

are themselves karma

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[241]

KHA CIG, YAN LAG GNYIS PA ‘DU BYED KYI LAS KYIS BSDUS PA’I ZAG BCAS KYI RIG PA YIN NA, YAN LAG GNYIS PA ‘DU BYED KYI LAS YIN PAS KHYAB ZER NA,

 

Suppose again that somebody comes and claims:

 

If something is an impure state of mind subsumed by fresh karma serving as the second link, then it must be fresh karma serving as the second link.

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[242]

RGYU DUS KYI RNAM SHES KYI RTEN ‘BREL CHOS CAN, DER THAL DE’I PHYIR, CHOS CAN DE YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, let’s consider the link of consciousness, from the causal point of view.  Are you saying that it is fresh karma serving as the second link?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because it is an impure state of mind subsumed by fresh karma serving as the second link.

 

Because it is the example that we’ve said it is.

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[243]

‘DOD NA, SEMS BYUNG YIN PAR THAL, ‘DOD PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, I agree. The link of consciousness, considered from the causal point of view, is fresh karma serving as the second link.

 

Are you saying that this consciousness is a function of the mind?

 

Why do you say that?

 

Because of what you just agreed to!

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[244]

‘DOD MI NUS TE, RNAM PAR SHES PA YIN PA’I PHYIR,

 

Well then, I agree: this consciousness is a function of the mind.

 

But you can’t agree!  Because we’re talking about a consciousness!

 

 

To be continued!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendices

 

 

 

Comparative list of the names

of divine beings & places

 

 

English         Sanskrit        Chinese         Tibetan

 

Able One           Muni                            牟尼                       Thub-pa

 

Gentle Voice              Mañjughoṣa,              妙音菩薩            ‘Jam-dbyangs

Mañjuśrī            文殊師利            ‘Jam-dpal dbyangs

 

Victor                          Jina                     最勝                    rGyal-ba

 

 

 

Bibliography of works

originally written in Sanskrit

 

S1

Maitreya (Tib: Byams-pa), as dictated to Asaṅga (Tib: Thogs-med), c. 350ad.  The Jewel of Realizations, a Book of Advices upon the Perfection of Wisdom (Abhisamayālakāra Nāma Prajñāpāramitopadeśa Śāstra) (Tib: Shes-rab kyi pha-rol tu phyin-pa’i man-ngag gi bstan-bcos mNgon-par rtogs-pa’i rgyan, Tibetan translation at TD03786, ff. 1b-13a of Vol. 1 [Ka] in the Perfection of Wisdom Section [Prajñāpāramitā, Shes-phyin] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

S2

Asaṅga (Tib: Thogs-med), c. 350ad. A Compendium of All the Teachings on Higher Knowledge (Abhidharmasamuccaya) (Tib: Chos mngon-pa kun las btus-pa, Tibetan translation at TD04049, ff. 44a-120a of Vol. 12 [Ri] in the Mind-Only Section [Cittamātra, Sems-tzam] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

S3

Bhavaviveka (Tib: Legs-ldan ‘byed).  The Blaze of Reasoning: A Commentary to “The Heart of the Middle Way” (Madhyāmaka Hdaya Vtti Tarkajvālā) (Tib: dBu-ma’i snying-po’i ‘grel-pa rTog-ge ‘bar-ba, Tibetan translation at TD03856, ff. 40b-329a of Vol. 3 (Dza) in the Middle-Way Section [Madhyāmaka, dBu-ma] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

S4

Dharmakīrti (Tib: Chos kyi grags-pa).  A Detailed Commentary on Valid Perception (Pramāavārtika) (rGyas-pa’i bstan-bcos tsad-ma rnam-‘grel, Tibetan translation at TD04210, Vol. 1 [Ce] of the Valid-Perception Section [Pramāa, Tsad-ma] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

S5

Vasubandhu (Tib: dByigs-gnyen), c. 350bc.  An Explanation of the Divisions to the First Principle: That Things Occur in Interdependence (Pratītya Samutpādādivibhaga Bhāya) (Tib:

rTen cing ‘brel-bar ‘byung-ba dang-po’i rnam-par dbye-ba bshad pa, Tibetan translation at TD03995, ff. 1b-61a of Vol. 3 (Chi) in the Commentaries on Sutras Section [Vtti, mDo-‘grel] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

 

S6

Nāgārjuna (Tib: Klu-sgrub), c. 200ad.  The String of Precious Jewels, Words Offered to the King (Rāja Parikathā Ratna Mālī) (Tib: rGyal-po la gtam-bya-ba Rin-po-che’i phreng-ba, Tibetan translation at TD04158, ff. 107a-126a of Vol. 1 [Ge, part 2] in the Epistles Section [Lekha, sPring-yig] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]). @check the ma#li# or va#li# or ma#la# in other carvings of Tengyur

 

S7

Yaśomitra (Tib: Grags-pa’i bshes-gnyen), @.  A Commentary in Explanation of the “Treasure House of Higher Knowledge” (Abhidharma Koa īka) (Tib: Chos mngon-pa’i mdzod kyi ‘grel-bshad, Tibetan translation at TD04092, in two parts; ff. 1b-330a of Vol. 63 (Gu) and ff. 1b-333a of Vol. 64 (Ngu) of the Higher Knowledge Section [Abhidharma, mNgon-pa] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

S8

Pūrṇavardhana (Tib: Gang-ba spel-ba), @.  A Commentary to the “Treasure House of Knowledge” which Follows the Various Definitions (Abhidharma Koa īka Lakanānusāriī) (Tib: Chos mngon-pa’i mdzod kyi ‘grel-bshad mtsan-nyid kyi rjes su ‘brang-ba, Tibetan translation at TD04093, in two parts; ff. 1b-347a of Vol. 65 (Cu) and ff. 1b-322a of Vol. 66 (Chu) of the Higher Knowledge Section [Abhidharma, mNgon-pa] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

S9

Śākyamuni Buddha (Tib: Sh’akya thub-pa), 500bc.  An Exalted Sutra of the Greater Way entitled “The Account of Kashyapa” (Ārya Kāśyapa Parivarta Nāma Mahāyāna Sūtra) (Tib: ‘Phags-pa ‘Od-srung gi le’u zhes-bya-ba Theg-pa chen-po’i mdo, Tibetan translation at KL00087, ff. 211a-260b of Vol. 6 (Cha) in the Pile of Jewels Section [Ratnakūa, dKon-brtzegs] of the bKa’-‘gyur [lHa-sa edition]).

 

S10

Vasubandhu (Tib: dByigs-gnyen), c. 350bc.  An Expanded Explanation of the Presentation of the First Principle and Divisions of How Things Occur in Interdependence (Pratītya Samutpādādivibhagha Nirdeśasya īkā) (Tib: rTen cing ‘brel-bar ‘byung-ba dang-po dang rnam-par dbye-ba bstan-pa’i rgya-cher bshad-pa, Tibetan translation at TD03996, ff. 61b-234a of Vol. 3 (Chi) in the Commentaries on Sutras Section [Vtti, mDo-‘grel] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

S11

Asaṅga (Tib: Thogs-med), c. 350ad.  The Levels of Practice (Yogacaryābhūmi) (Tib: rNal-‘byor spyod-pa’i sa, Tibetan translation at TD04035, in Vol. 51 (Tsi) in the Mind-Only Section [Cittamātra, Sems-tzam] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

S12

Candrakīrti (Tib: Zla-ba grags-pa), c. 650 ad.  The Autocommentary to “Entering the Middle Way” (Madhyāmaka Avatāra Bhāa) (Tib: dBu-ma la ‘jug-pa’i bshad-pa, Tibetan translation at TD03862, ff. 220b–348a of Vol. 23 [‘A] in the Middle-Way Section [Madhyāmaka, dBu-ma] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

S13

Śākyamuni Buddha (Tib: Sh’akya thub-pa), 500bc.  The Hundred Kinds of Karma, Part 1 (Karma Śataka, Part 1) (Tib: Las brgya tham-pa, bam-po dang-po, Tibetan translation at ACIP KL00340A, ff. 1b-470a of Vol. 27 [Sha] in the Collection of Sutras [mDo-mang] of the bKa’-‘gyur [lHa-sa edition]).

 

S14

Arya Avalokiteśvara (Tib: ‘Phags-pa sPyan-ras-gzigs dbang-phyug), c. @.  Immaculate Light: An Explanation of the Abbreviated King of the Secret Teachings—The Wheel of Time (Kalachakra)—which Follows the Root Secret Text and Contains 12,000 Lines (Vimalaprabhā Nāma Mūlatantrānusārii Dvādaśasāhasrikā Laghukālacakra Tantrarāja īkā) (Tib: bsDus-pa’i rgyud kyi rgyal-po Dus kyi ‘khor-lo’i ‘grel-bshad rTza-ba’i rgyud kyi rjes-su ‘jug-pa stong-phrag bcu-gnyis-pa Dri-ma med-pa’i ‘od, Tibetan translation at TD01347, ff. 107b-277a of Vol. 10 (Tha) in the “Secret Teachings” Section [Tantra, rGyud] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

S15

Vasubandhu (Tib: dByig-gnyen), c. 350ad.  The Treasure House of Higher Knowledge, Set in Verse (Abhidharmakoakārikā) (Tib: Chos mngon-pa’i mdzod kyi tsig-le’ur byas-pa, Tibetan translation at TD04089, ff. 1b-25a of Vol. 2 [Ku] in the Higher Knowledge Section [Abhidharma, mNgon-pa] of the bsTan-‘gyur [sDe-dge edition]).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography of works

originally written in Tibetan

 

B1

mKhas-grub bstan-pa dar-rgyas (1493-1568).  An Analysis of How All Things Depend on Each Other: A Teaching by the Wise and Accomplished One, that Head Bull among All Teachers, the Great Gendun Tendarwa (mKhas-grub smra-ba’i khyu-mchog dGe-‘dun bstan-dar-ba chen-po’i gsung rTen-‘brel gyi mtha’-dpyod, ACIP S00015), 25ff.

 

B2

dNgul-chu Dharma bhadra (1772-1851).  The Essence of Entering Bliss: An Outline to the Ritual for the Medicine Buddha (Bhaiśajyaguru) (sMan-bla’i mdo-chog Nyams-len bde-‘jug snying-po’i sa-bcad, ACIP S06369-50), 3ff.

 

B3

dNgul-chu Dharma bhadra (1772-1851).  The Quick Path to the Great Secret: Notes on the Method for Travelling along the Path of the Two Stages in the Practice of the Glorious Diamond Frightener (Vajra Bhairava) (dPal rDo-rje ‘jigs-byed kyi rim-pa gnyis-pa’i lam la ji-ltar bgrod-pa’i tsul gyi zin-bris gSang-chen myur-lam, ACIP S06415), 26ff.

 

B4

rJe Tzong-kha-pa Blo-bzang grags-pa (1357-1419).  The Essence of Eloquence, on the Art of Interpretation (Drang-nges legs-bshad snying-po, ACIP S05396), 35ff.

 

B5

‘Jam-dbyangs bzhad-pa’i rdo-rje (1648-1721).  An Entry Point for Those of Great Virtue: A Detailed Analysis of “Entering the Middle Way” which is a Veritable Treasure Trove of Scriptural Reference and Reasoning that Clarifies Every Profound Point of the Work (Grub-mtha’i rnam-bshad rang-gzhan grub-mtha’ kun dang zab-don mchog tu gsal-ba Kun-bzang zhing gi nyi-ma lung-rigs rgya-mtso skye-dgu’i re-ba kun-skong, ACIP S19028-1), 23ff.

 

B6

‘Jam-dbyangs bzhad-pa’i rdo-rje (1648-1721).  A Clarification of All the Positions Accepted by the Victorious Ones of the Past, Present, and Future; A Goldmine of the Jewels of the Teachings of the Able Ones: A Classical Commentary which Explains the True Intent of that Holy Writing, the “Treasure House of Higher Knowledge” (Dam-pa’i Chos mngon-pa mdzod kyi dgongs-‘grel gyi bstan-bcos Thub-bstan nor-bu’i gter-mdzod Dus gsum rGyal-ba’i bzhad-don kun-gsal, ACIP S19100), in eight volumes corresponding to the eight chapters, with the following pagination: Vol. 1, 107ff; Vol. 2, 102ff; Vol. 3, 131ff; Vol. 4, 127ff; Vol. 5, 61ff; Vol. 6, 61ff; Vol. 7, 42ff; Vol. 8, 45ff.

 

B7

lNga-pa chen-po Ngag-dbang blo-bzang rgya-mtso (1642-1682).  A Wagon for Transporting the Precious Jewels of Higher Knowledge: An Explication of the “Treasure House of Higher Knowledge” (Chos mngon-pa mdzod kyi rnam-bshad Chos-mngon rin-chen ‘dren-pa’i shing-rta,  ACIP S05650, 83ff.

 

B8

Paṇ-chen Blo-gros legs-bzang (fl. 1550).  A Jewel to Embellish the True Thought of the String of Jewels in the Great Commentary, an Overview of that Classic, the Root Summary of Vowed Morality (bsTan-bcos ‘Dul-ba mdo rtza-ba’i spyi-don T’ik-chen rin-chen phreng-ba’i dgongs-rgyan, ACIP S00059), in two volumes: Vol. 1, 217ff; Vol. 2, 128ff.

 

B9

Various authors (modern).  The Great Dictionary of the Tibetan and Chinese Languages (Bod-rgya tsig-mdzod chen-mo) (Beijing: Mi-rigs dpe-skrun khang, 1985, ACIP R00002), 3 vols.

 

B10

(Co-ne Bla-ma) Grags-pa bshad-sgrub (1675-1748).  The Sun Which Illuminates the True Thought of the Throng of the Realized, All the Able Ones and their Children: A Commentary upon the “Treasure House of Higher Knowledge” (Chos-mngon mdzod kyi t’ikka rGyal-ba sras bcas ‘phags-tsogs thams-cad kyi dgongs-don gsal-bar byed-pa’i nyi-ma, ACIP S00027), 211ff.

 

B11

mKhas-grub rje (dGe-legs dpal bzang-po) (1385–1438).  Opening the Eyes of the Fortunate: A Classical Commentary which Illuminates the Real Nature of Profound Emptiness (Zab-mo stong-pa-nyid kyi de-kho-na-nyid rab tu gsal-bar byed-pa’i bstan-bcos sKal-bzang mig-‘byed, ACIP S05459), 179ff.  Commonly known by the name of The Great Interlude on Emptiness (sTong-thun chen-mo).

 

B12

(rGyal-ba) dGe-‘dun grub (1391-1474).  Illumination of the Path to Freedom: An Explanation of the Holy “Treasure House of Higher Knowledge” (Dam-pa’i Chos-mngon-pa mdzod kyi rnam-par bshad-pa Thar-lam gsal-byed, ACIP SE05525), 205ff.

 

B13

Pha-bong kha-pa bDe-chen snying-po (1878-1941).  “A Gift of Liberation, Thrust into the Palm of Your Hand; the Heart of the Nectar of Holy Advices; the Very Essence of All the Highest of Spoken Words, representing Profound, Complete, and Unerring Instruction taken down as Notes during a Teaching, of the Kind Based on Personal Experience, on the Steps of the Path to Enlightenment, the Heart-Essence of the Incomparable King of the Dharma (rNam-grol lagbcangs su gtod-pa’i man-ngag zab-mo tsang la ma-nor-ba mtsungs-med chos kyi rgyal-po’i thugs-bcud byang-chub lam gyi rim-pa’i nyams-khrid kyi zin-bris gsung-rab kun gyi bcud-bsdus gdams-ngag bdud-rtzi’i snying-po Lam-rim rnam-grol lag-bcangs, ACIP S00004), 392ff.

 

 

[1] Gendun Tendarwa: In keeping with a Tibetan tradition, our author’s long name—Kedrup Gendun Tenpa Dargye—is woven into the title, as “wise and accomplished” is the translation of Kedrup; while “Tendarwa” is a typical combined form of “Tenpa Dargye.”

[2] Offering of praise: A traditional Tibetan text includes subject headings which are sometimes indicated, and sometimes only assumed; we will be including here headings in bold to make it easier for our readers to follow the flow.

[3] Gentle Voice: Literal meaning of the name of the enlightened being who embodies all wisdom—Manjughosha, also known as Manjushri.  A chart of these and other names of holy beings found in the text is included in the appendices, along with the corresponding Sanskrit, Chinese, and Tibetan equivalents.

[4] You must come to grasp: Famous lines that introduce the crucial Buddhist concept of dependence, from Lord Maitreya’s Jewel of Realizations, as dictated to Arya Asanga around 350ad.  See f. 10a of bibliography entry %S1, ACIP digital text TD03786.

[5] The path of seeing: Our author is assuming that many technical terms will be familiar to his monastic readers; we will clarify these terms in a basic way for the modern reader, upon their first occurrence.

A “bodhisattva” is a person who wishes to reach enlightenment in order to help all living beings.  The “path of seeing” is one of five milestones in our spiritual evolution: the one where we first see ultimate reality—emptiness—directly.  The “path of liberation” here is a name for the period within the path of seeing when we have freed ourselves of the negativities which this path puts an end to.  The “greater way” is a body of teachings followed by those who have the motivation of a bodhisattva.

There are 12 links in the chain reaction known as the Wheel of Life: the circle of suffering that all of us live in.  The way in which the first link triggers the second; the second the third; and so on up to the twelfth, is known as the “forward order.”  The way in which we stop the first link to stop the second; and the second to stop the third; and so on up to the twelfth, is known as the “reverse order.”

[6] The track of a self-made buddha: The classical school of Buddhism in which this text is written—known as the Svatantrika or “Independent” branch of the Middle-Way School—places much emphasis upon moving up through the five stages of our spiritual evolution along three different tracks.  The highest track is that of the bodhisattva; and the lowest track is that of the “listeners,” who can listen to the bodhisattva teachings—and even pass them on to others—but are unable to practice those teachings themselves.

The middle track is that of the self-made buddhas.  These are individuals who have studied with countless teachers in their past lives, and who can thus attain certain realizations in their present life without relying directly upon a teacher.  In this way they can go as far as nirvana—which is not enlightenment, but only the permanent ending of all of our negative emotions; these practitioners are thus referred to as “buddhas” with a lower-case b, since they cannot on that track attain full Buddhahood.

People on this second track are typically attracted by the teaching on the twelve links of dependence in the Wheel of Life—which explains the second element of the reason presented here.

[7] Aging & death: Our author will now begin to present his points in the form of logical debate—an ancient Buddhist custom, dating from the time of Lord Buddha himself.  In traditional presentations, it is assumed that the reader will be very familiar with the standard attacks and responses, and so some are even left out in the text as written.  We will fill all of these in, and also reserve italics for the respondent’s position, to make life easier for our modern readers.

[8] Empty space: In the present context, the word (which is akasha in Sanskrit and namka in Tibetan) refers not to the vault of the blue sky, or even to outer space, but rather to the place occupied by an object.  It is the unchanging space which remains there even if the object is removed, or destroyed.

[9] Indirect cause of physical form: To appreciate this argument, we need to understand the Buddhist idea of an indirect cause.  An example would be an apple that had inside of it a seed which was later used to produce a new apple tree.  The seed is the direct cause of the tree; the apple that it came from is the tree’s indirect cause (and never “brushes against” the tree).

[10] Enemy destroyer on the listener track: The first and lowest of the three tracks, as described above.  An “enemy destroyer” (Skt: arhat) is a person who has reached the state of nirvana—meaning the permanent ending of negative emotions; and this can only be achieved through understanding that nothing is “real,” in the sense of having any nature of its own.

[11] Obstacle to knowledge: Two classic spiritual obstacles are described in Buddhism.  The first, called a negative-emotion obstacle, stops us from reaching nirvana—the permanent ending of such emotions.  The second, called an obstacle to knowledge, prevents us from reaching the state of omniscience, or enlightenment.

[12] Because they are a part of reality: This is a rather standard catch-all response, which we’ve already seen above; it just means: “If something exists at all, then the mental seeds for it cannot be a kind of awareness”—which is simply to say that mental seeds in general cannot be a kind of awareness.  They live in the mind, but they are not knowing itself.  The way the subject is worded in this last logical statement is a little bit touchy!

[13] Ignorance comes in two versions: See f. 86a of Arya Asanga’s summary of different viewpoints on higher knowledge (abhidharma) at %S2, ACIP digital text TD04049.

[14] Linked, mentally: This typically refers to how a particular function of the mind is linked to the main mind itself.  The link is expressed in five different ways of being “the same”: the mental function and the mind (1) have the same inner support, or sense organ; (2) they focus upon the same object; (3) they have the same “aspect,” or sense about the object (for example, being “bluish” when we are looking at something blue); (4) they share the same duration in time; and (5) they are made of the same stuff: awareness.  See for example the mini-list at f. 31a of Lama Quicksilver’s Outline to the Practice of the Medicine Buddha (%B2, S06369-50).

[15] Primary negative emotion: Buddhist psychology distinguishes between six primary negative emotions and 20 secondary ones.  Misunderstanding is one of the six; and a lack of mental clarity is one of the 20.

[16] Deceptive reality: According to Buddhism, the entire universe is composed of two different realities: ultimate and deceptive.  Ultimate reality consists of emptiness: the general lack of things that are self-existent.  Deceptive reality consists of everything else, which in this school (the Svatantrika, or Independent branch of the Middle-Way School) includes the lack of a self-nature to the person, as opposed to things—or their parts.  Like many of the positions on no-self-nature that the Independent branch accepts (and which we will see in this text), this particular idea is not accepted by the higher part of the Middle-Way School: the Consequence branch (Skt: Prasangika).

[17] “Uninterrupted” portion of the path of seeing: The first period within the path of seeing—in general terms, the period of the actual direct perception of emptiness—is technically referred to itself as the “uninterrupted path.”  Quicksilver Lama explains the name as meaning that our peace of mind is no longer interrupted by the negative emotions which are eliminated by this experience.  See f. 22b of his Quick Path to the Great Secret (%B3, S06415).

[18] View of destruction: This is a Buddhist technical term referring to forms of misunderstanding which can act as the first link of a dependence chain-reaction.  The full form of the term is “view of the destructible collection” (Skt: satkaya dirshti; Tib: ‘jig-tsogs la lta-ba).  This is traditionally explained from two angles: we tend to look at or view the collection of the five impure parts of our body & mind (which under normal conditions will inevitably be destroyed at death) as being real, and that causes us all of our trouble in life—but with practice, we can destroy this viewpoint.  See for example Jamyang Shepa’s explanation in his treatment of higher knowledge at f. 11a, %B6, S19100, Volume 5.

[19] Joe & John: The corresponding, original Sanskrit names used here are “Yajna [Yajña]” and “Devadatta”; but the point is that we are to use generic names in our own culture (as when we say “John Doe”).

 

[20] Old mangy dog: This is a traditional Tibetan logician’s expression for an extreme and humorous example; it literally means “an old mutt with mangy whiskers.”  But it does help throughout this section if our reader remembers that—in ancient India and Tibet—an animal was also considered a “person.”

[21] What we call “my-self”: See f. 80b (%S3, TD03856) of Master Bhavaviveka’s famed commentary to his own Heart of the Middle Way.

[22] Just a mental function: Meaning, it would have to be a person—or at the very least the consciousness of the thought—to qualify as having a “being.”

[23] A person who will never come back: Famous lines from the famous book on logic, A Commentary on Valid Perception, written by Master Dharmakirti.  See f. 112b of bibliography entry %S4, ACIP digital text TD04210.

 

[24] It is not a contradiction: Our author, Kedrup Tenpa Dargye, appears to be paraphrasing; here is the context of the citation, from Tsongkapa’s Essence (f. 35a, %B4, S05396):

DE LTAR NA CHOS RNAMS LA NGO BO DANG KHYAD PAR DU BTAGS PA RANG GI MTSAN NYID KYIS GRUB PAR ‘DZIN PA’I CHOS KYI BDAG ‘DZIN GYIS ‘JIG LTA’I RTZA BA BYED PAR BZHED LA,

As such, the position here is that the tendency to believe that things are themselves—in the sense of believing that the essential nature, and particular features, of all things exist by definition—provides the very root for the view of destruction.

CHOS KYI BDAG ‘DZIN GYIS GANG ZAG GI BDAG ‘DZIN GYI GZHI BYED PA NI NYAN RANG LA CHOS KYI BDAG MED RTOGS PA MED PAR BZHED PA’I DBU MA PA RNAMS KYIS KYANG BZHED DO,,

Even the followers of the Middle-Way School who say that listeners and self-made buddhas cannot perceive the lack of a self-nature to things still say the tendency to hold that things are real provides the foundation for the tendency to hold that the person is real.

DE LA NI CHOS KYI BDAG ‘DZIN ZAD NA GANG ZAG GI BDAG ‘DZIN LDOG KYANG CHOS KYI BDAG ‘DZIN MA ZAD NA GANG ZAG GI BDAG ‘DZIN MI LDOG PA MIN PAS ‘KHOR BA’I GZHI MTHAR GTUGS PA MA LOG KYANG ‘KHOR BA LAS GROL BA MI ‘GAL LO,,

And on this point, they say that—if you have finished off the tendency to believe that things have a self-nature—then you have also finished off the tendency to believe that the person has a self-nature.  But they also say that—if you have yet to finish off the tendency to believe that things have a self-nature—it is not the case that you cannot have stopped the tendency to believe in a self-nature to the person.  Thus, they say, it is no contradiction to say that someone may have escaped the cycle of pain, but not yet put a stop to the ultimate foundation of this cycle.

[25] On its own accord: This phrase is typically added to definitions to indicate that the mental function being discussed does not need to rely upon other mental functions to do what it does.

[26] Infinite variations of causes: We have not found the versed version here in either the Kangyur or the Tengyur collections of ancient Indian works in Tibetan translation.  It seems to have been created based on a prose mention of the fact that only an enlightened being can see causes as subtle as these, which cause the pattern of a peacock’s feather; and an attribution to Rahula, the son of the Buddha.  This citation is repeated in two commentaries to Master Vasubandhu’s Treasure House of Higher Knowledge; see the works of Master Yashomitra (ff. 326b-327a, %S7, TD04092), and of Master Purnavardhana (f. 314b, %S8, TD04093).

[27] Yet to break out: This lovely image is indeed expanded upon eloquently in a number of sutras; one particularly beautiful presentation may be found on ff. 236b-237a of the sutra of the greater way entitled The Account of Kashyapa (%S9, KL00087).

[28] The truth of suffering: The first of the four realities that were the subject of Lord Buddha’s first teaching in this world.  They are sometimes called “the four truths of realized beings” (Skt: catur ārya satyāni; Tib: ‘phags-pa’i bden-pa bzhi) since they are first directly understood by a person who has just seen emptiness directly (a “realized being,” or arya in Sanskrit).  The word “arya” here has been mangled by early translators as “noble” (i.e., “Four Noble Truths”).

It’s important to note that “truth” here (Skt: satya, Tib: bden-pa) not refers not only to the principle (“this life is suffering”) but to the thing itself: that is, the actual life which is suffering.  In this sense, everybody is perceiving the truth of suffering all the time; but only a realized being (one who has just seen emptiness directly) truly sees it for what it is.

The four truths, put simply, are: (1) this kind of life is suffering; (2) this suffering has an indentifiable cause; (3) the suffering can be stopped, if its cause is stopped; and (4) there is a path or method to stop the cause.  Now the patient reader has enough information to unravel the argument here.

[29] Five are viewpoints and five are not: A famous group of ten “widespread” negative emotions; one group of them applies to each of the four truths.  The five which are viewpoints are (1) the view of destruction; (2) the view that extremes such as existing (as things seem) or not existing (at all) are correct; (3) the view that mistaken codes of morality or spiritual practices which hurt us (for example whipping the body) could bring us our spiritual goals; (4) the view that our mistaken views are perfect; and (5) mistaken views, such as those which deny the law that what we do to others, good or bad, comes back to us; or which deny that spiritual perfection is possible, or that others have reached it; or which deny the existence of past and future lives.

The five negative emotions in this list which are not viewpoints are: (1) ignorant desire; (2) anger; (3) pride; (4) general ignorance; and (5) unreasonable doubt.  See Jamyang Shepay Dorje’s work on higher knowledge, ff. 7a-7b (%B6, S19100, Volume 5).

[30] A stream enterer established in the result: An allusion first to a group of what are known as the “four results of spiritual practice”: (1) entering the stream, which refers to our first perception of ultimate reality—after which we stream unstoppably towards nirvana and enlightenment; (2) returning but once, meaning that we have eliminated so many negative emotions that we need return to the desire realm only once more; (3) never returning, to the desire realm; and then (4) destroying the enemy, of the negative emotions, forever—which is equivalent to nirvana.

Each of these four attainments is divided into two stages called “having entered” and “established in the result”; that is, either we have just entered the stage; or we are established in it, in the sense of having eliminated some of the negativities that are keeping us from the next of the four results.  See again, for example, Jamyang Shepay Dorje’s work on higher knowledge, f. 38a of %B6, S19100, Volume 6.

[31] One who has seen the truth: See f. 52a of Master Vasubandhu’s work (%S5, TD03995).  The word “craving” here—as will be seen from the context in his text, and from his more detailed autocommentary (see f. 213b, %S10, TD03996)—refers to a craving for believing that things are themselves.  The word here has been read as “potential” (srid-pa, very close to the sred-pa we see in the Tengyur) by many Tibetan authors, including Kedrup Tenpa Dargye himself.  This can also be the tenth of the links (as sred-pa can be the eighth), which then refers to karmic seeds which have been ripened by this craving—so both terms serve the same purpose.

[32] Like a swirling torch: A famed example in Buddhist literature.  The image is of a person standing in the dark of night with a blazing torch in their hand, and spinning their arm in a wide circle up and down.  From a distance, we seem to see a solid circle of light.

[33] Causes and factors for each other: See f. 108a of this famed epistle to a king, by Arya Nagarjuna (@S6, TD04158).

[34] Sustaining motivation: This is a reference to a concept in the teachings on higher knowledge (abhidharma), where two kinds of motivation are described.  One is the motivation that we feel which first inspires us to undertake an action, good or bad (this is called rgyu-dus kyi kun-slong in Tibetan).  The other is the continued motivation which—after we begin the action—inspires us to sustain the action over a length of time (called de-dus kyi kun-slong, or de’i-dus kyi kun slong, in Tibetan).  These two are described in detail, for example, in their commentaries upon higher knowledge written by the “Great Fifth” Dalai Lama, Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso (1642-1682, see f. 83a, %B8, S05650) and by Panchen Lodru Leksang (c. 1500ad, see f. 85b, %B9, SL00059-1).

[35] Ignorant of consequences: Again, see f. 86a of Arya Asanga’s summary of positions on higher knowledge (abhidharma) (%S2, TD04049).  As mentioned above, the second kind of ignorance listed there is “ignorance about the meaning of suchness.”

[36] They eliminate one part: See f. 177b of Arya Asanga’s famous work (%S11, TD04035).

[37] Three types of karma: That is, good karma; bad karma; and neutral karma.

[38] Path of habituation: We have already described the path of seeing as the third of the five milestones in our spiritual evolution; it is where we first see ultimate reality—emptiness—directly.  This is followed by the fourth milestone, where we habituate ourselves to what we saw directly, until at the fifth milestone (the “path of no more learning”) we are able to permanently end all of our negative emotions.

[39] The learned form cannot be the root: See f. 45b of Kedrup Je’s classic explanation of emptiness (%B@, S05459).

[40] All three realms: The Buddha saw that the entire suffering universe can be divided into three different realms, or locations.  The lowest of these is known as the “desire realm,” so called because the primary interests of the beings who live there are food and sex.  (We inhabit this realm.)  The next realm up is the “realm of form,” which actually means “the realm of incredible beauty”—so called because the beings here are possessed of incredibly beautiful and powerful forms, much like the superheroes in modern films.  The third and highest realm is known as the “formless realm,” because those who live there possess no gross physical bodies: they live only in the mind.

[41] Realization of truth: A not uncommon epithet for the path of seeing: the direct perception of ultimate reality.

[42] “Uninterrupted” portion of the path of seeing: See footnote %17.

[43] Realization of the truth by a listener: The point is that, in this school (the lower group within the Middle-Way School), a person on a lower track (a listener track) cannot perceive the highest form of no-self-nature—which they would call, The Truth.

[44] The tendency to believe in a self-nature: As can be surmised from the debate, the reader should be aware that—in this school—this more general wording refers specifically to the tendency to believe in a self-nature of the person.

[45] Your own definition of misunderstanding: Which we ourselves presented in section #119% above.

[46] It is a twisted form of intelligence: See ff. 292a-292b of Master Chandrakirti’s autocommentary (%S12, TD03862).

 

[47] Also a good karma: See f. 23b of Master Vasubandhu’s classic (%S15, TD04089).

[48] A normal person: Remember, this is a technical term denoting a person who has not yet perceived ultimate reality directly: someone who is not what we have been calling a “realized being.”

[49] Linked in the five ways: These have been discussed in footnote #14% above.

[50] Truth of the source of pain, in the form of karma: A reference to the second of the four truths realized directly by someone who has seen emptiness directly; these four are (1) the truth of pain; (2) the truth of the source of pain; (3) the truth of the end of pain; and (4) the truth of the path to the end of pain.  The second of these is traditionally divided into negative emotions and karma.

[51] Free of craving: Refer to footnote %31 above.

 

[52] Unable to bring about a rebirth: See ff. 87b-88a of the second volume of Master Yashomitra’s explanation; the wording in the edition available to us is somewhat different, but the point exactly the same (%S7, TD04092).

[53] They have won the war: See f. 115a of Master Dharmakirti’s classic (%S4, TD04210).  The version available to us reads rnam-brgal-ba’i for the rnam-rgyal-ba here, which would alter the reading (but not the meaning) to “For those who’ve crossed over / The ocean of attachment…”

[54] Unshifting karma: This is a reference to a classic division of karma, found in the literature on higher knowledge, into the three of “virtuous,” “non-virtuous,” and “unshifting.”  The first two refer to good and bad karma which will lead to pleasurable, or painful, consequences in the desire realm.  The third refers to good karma which will lead to pleasurable consequences in the form or formless realms, without ever being re-directed to (“shifting” to) the desire realm.  Our author is playing on the ambiguity of the term “virtuous,” which of course can also be applied more generally to all kindly action.  For a nice discussion of the three divisions, see ff. 57a-57b of the fourth volume of Jamyang Shepa’s treatment of the Treasure House of Higher Knowledge (%B6, S19100).

[55] Shortfall of factors: A classic example here (which can be debated) would be a case where the person is taking rebirth in a season of the year when dogs aren’t mating.  See for example f. 80a of the commentary to the Treasure House by Gyalwa Gendun Drup (1391-1474), His Holiness the First Dalai Lama (%B12, S05525).

[56] Four antidote powers: These are four steps to purifying a negative karmic seed, by forcing it to open prematurely.  The first is the “power of the foundation,” which means that we review our understanding of the principles of where things really come from, and what can protect us from the problems of life.  The second is the “power of total destruction”: a feeling of intelligent regret for the trouble that a negative seed will cause us.  The third is the “power of avoiding the deed,” which is a commitment not to repeat our mistake (this is said to be the principal cause of the purification).  Fourth is the “power of an antidote action,” which refers to undertaking a commensurate good deed to “balance out” the negative one.  See the discussion beginning at f. 111b of A Gift of Liberation, Thrust into the Palms of Our Hands, the incomparable explanation of the steps of the path by Pabongka Rinpoche Dechen Nyingpo (1878-1941) (%B13, S00004).

[57] Nothing more than a headache: See ff. 185a-185b of Master Bhavaviveka’s text (%S3, TD03856)

[58] It must ripen: The lines appear, for example, several times in the sutra known as The Hundred Kinds of Karma.  See f. 15b and f. 24a of Part One (%S13, KL00340A).

Source: http://texts.10000booksofwisdom.com/an-analysis-of-dependence/